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Tma edition of the Manual of Modem Geography has been 
tborooghly revised throughout, and in numerous sections 
entirely rewritten. The Manual was the Author's literary 
firstborn, and on it were fondly lavished all the privileges 
and affections inseparable from primogeniture. Many long 
years were cheerfully devoted to ita first production, when 
the Author bad to labour single-banded, in a remote cornel 
of the land, with few hooks and still fewer friends to con- 
sult. He had hia reward, however, in the emphatic ver- 
dict of the public prese, and the unqualified approbation 
of eminent educationists from all parte of the Dritish 

As the First Edition, however, consisted of a very laige 
impression, wellnigh a decade of years has elapsed since 
ita preparation, and in that decade numerous changes have 
taken place in all departments of Geography, as also in all 
the sciences with which it stands most closely connected. 
In order, therefore, to place the work a second time wholly 
abreast of the progress of events, no less than an entire 
interrupted labour has been devoted to this 

A large portion of the Political Geography had to be 
recast, especially the sections relating to the British Isles, 
North Germany, France, Italy, Russia, India, the United 
States, and the Eritiah Colonies ; while those bearing on 
Astronomy, Geology, Meteorology, Commerce, Manufac- 
tures, and Inland Communication, had to be rewritten. 



In this Edition, a brief Historical Sketcli has been added 
to the Political Geography of all European countries, as 
also several new Diagrams illustrative of the Seasons, the 
Tides, and the Succession of Life in the pre- Adamite ages 
of our Planet's history. It is hoped that the work will be 
found increasingly useful to Teachers, Advanced Classes, 
Candidates for the Civil Service (Home and Foreign), and 
especially as a work of reference. 

Edinburgh, 15ih May 1870. 


In preparing this edition for press, the entire work has 
been subjected to another thorough revision. All political 
changes are represented; the social, commercial, and in- 
dustrial statistics of all countries are brought down to the 
latest dates ; the rapid progress of geographical discovery, 
especi^y in Africa and the Polar regions, is duly notified ; 
while the splendid contributions made to the Physical 
Greography of the Sea by the Challenger and other expedi- 
tions have been carefully epitomised. 


In this edition, besides very many corrections through- 
out the work, effect has been given to the numerous poli- 
tical changes caused by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), in 
South Eastern Europe and Armenia; while the articles 
Australia, New Zealand, and indeed all Oceania, have 
been extensively corrected. 

A. M. 
Peospeot House, Ventnor, I. W., 
March 1881. 


CoKBroEBisQ the improred methods now gtmeranj Hdoptad in 
teaching Qeogrojihy, the ever-ezpandiiig dimensioiiB of our ovra 
eigandc cmpirti, tlie uameTons additiuns recent!; made to dui 
cnowledge m foreign countrieH, and, oe a caneegnence of tiiesfe, 
the innreaaing intereHt fdt ty Educated poTBons in every de- 
portment of the science, the Author deems i1 saperflDouB to offur 
any apology for iraidng the preBent Manual- Am it differa, how- 
ever, somewhat widely, lioth in matter and armnpement, from 
ail il« predecflBHora, it may he neteaBBry here to describe its 
more prominent cluiracteriatics. 

The work commencea with a hnef acconnt of the relatjon of 
the Earth U< the Solar Byatem, and of tlie latter to the other 
worlds which people space. 

The form and matenals of the glohe, the conflguration of its 
HUT&ce, its dimaie, mineralogy, geology, liotuiy, zoology, and 
ethnograjihy, are next diECUBeed ; and thue a foimdation is laid 
for the Bubfleuuent details in Physical and Political Geograjiliy. 

"" " liTidus' -"■ '-■'■■ ■-■■... - ., 

The individual continents and minor diviGiona of the earth's 
anrface then pane socoeaBively under review. Each of these i» 
viewed from many mdefi, and the refulte presented to the learner 
in u cDrre!i]ioudinf; seriea of lirief hut pmntad aectiaiiB. 

The preciae order m wldch the different sections should stand 
was a subject of maoh careful reflection. While in moat other 
works on geography the phyBtcul and political etand 'widely 
apart, they are here intentionally combined, and bo made, not 
only to reflect mutual light on each othtir, but also to correspond 
more cLosely with the manner in which the realities lo wiiich 
tfaer refer interpenetrate one another in nature. 

Without adverting to the contenta of each of the sections indi- 
vidually, the Author can here only notice tiose of them in whieli 
he ha£ departed most widelT from the usual routine. The first 
departure occura under the heading PoBmoN and Eocs'DABnsB. 
It IS aingulor what confused notdons prevail, even among otlier- 
wise accurate geogia^ers, regarding the relative position of llie 
beat-known places. Tor example, how few ordinary students of 
geography could eay, without consulting globe or map, what 
other impm-tant places have tlie same latitude and longitude as 
London, Edinburgh, or Madrid ! To remedy this, a single sen- 
bmoe is oniformly added to this paxagmpk, mentjoning aU the 
most imi'ortant places on the globe lying on the some parallel 
uid mendion with the capital of the oountry under review, or 
witb tlie central point of the latter, should the capital happen to 
be sitoated at some dietauce torn it« centre. In addition to the 
Y ffeatei fiuniliority with the relative positian of places whicli ie 


thus commtmicated, these brief notices, it is hoped, will be found 
serviceable to the student when comparing the cliinates, botany, 
and zoology of different countries. 

Under the Area of each country, in addition to the informa- 
tion usuaUy given, its magnitude is invariably compared with 
that of the British Isles collectively, or with one or other of the 
kingdoms composing them ; and a similar comparison is drawn 
regarding its roPULATiON, which in every instance embodies 
the resuUs of the most recent census or estimate. 

The artiicles entitled " Political Divisions " have been 
thoroughly elaborated, in accordance with the best maps, and a 
liew prmciple of arrangement adopted. Instead of adhering to 
the prevaihng custom of giving under each province or county 
a dry list of cities and towns wholly unconnected by any system 
of arrangement, the writer had no nesitation in availing himself 
of a principle egnally simple and beautiful with which nature 
supplied hmL He refers to that great axiom in geography, that 
all the cities and towns on the eartKs surface, whMer ancient 
or modern^ stand on the banks of rivers, or on the sea-coast. 
This principle is universally vaHd, notwithstanding a few ap- 
parent instances to the contrary. 

Till very recently, when the canal and the railroad have 
to some extent supplied their place, rivers have in all ages 
formed the great mghways of commerce. In every land the 
banks of rivers present the most fertile portions of tne country, 
as the valleys of the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Nile, and the 
Jordan ; and have formea the earliest seats of civilisation — as, 
for example, Nineveh, Babylon, HeliopoHs, Damascus — the 
origin of which dates back to the dawn of history. So close, in 
short, is the connection between the rivers of a country and its 
towns, that there is no exaggeration in saying that the rivers have 
created the towns ; or that, without the rivers, the towns would 
have had no existence. In no system of geography founded on 
natural principles can this connection oe overlooked. The 
political Doundaries of a country will vary from time to time 
with the varying fortunes of its rulers, but its rivers will con- 
tinue to flow in their wonted channels, and the cities that grace 
their banks will continue to pay them their wonted homage. 
Eivers are majestic trees that have their roots fixed in the ocean, 
and their tops reaching the clouds ; the great cities of the world 
hang around their stems ; while the towns and villages cluster 
like fruit on their branches. 

Hence, though the Manual embraces some other original 
features, it was the intimate connection subsisting between 
rivers and towns that led to its production, and that forms the 
principal basis on which it rests. While the influence of this 



connection can be traced in almost every page, tluee of the 
twenty-four Heetiona usually duvoted to eooii country nre eu- 
tirelr occupied with its elucidation — viz., those entitled " Prin- 
eipel BJTer-Basins," " Political Divisions," and " Table of Rivera 
and Towns." The first of theae shows the dimensions of all the 
laiger river-basins, and indicates at a glance how niaiiy provinces 
or counties theymnbtace either wholly orinpart. In the second 
it necessarily occupies a somewhat snbordinate place ; for not 
only must the towns with their population be placed in the 
foreground — the name of the river being placed after them 
witEn parentheses — but the boundaries of the provinces con- 
tinualiy iutemipt tie continuity of tho rivers. The capital of ft 
province is, moreover, placed iii'st, even though itahould not stand 
nearest to the river's mouth ; and, finally, only the larger towns 
ia each province have the rivers on which they stand indicated 
lest the learner should be overburdened with their multiplicity. 
AH the towns, however, whose population ranges between 50W>. 
and 10,000 are immediately subjomed, hut in a snialler type, to 
indicate that they may be omitted in a firatpernsal. The only 
departure from this ia in the cose of the United Kingdom, in 
treating of which it was considered necessary to embrace towns 
of a much smaller population. 

But the third ot these pan^^phs, or those denominated 
" Tables of Eivers and Towns," are those to which the Author 
would direct most special attention, as presenting at once the 
most original portion of his Manual, and the fullest exhibition 
of his peculiar method. Animmeuse amount of time and labour 
has been expended on these tables ; but, judging from experience, 
the Author is convinced that their importance to the student, 
and the labour and time they will save to the teacher, fully 
justified the sacrifice ; for he is aware that many of the most 
successful teachers of geography ore in thedaily habit of drilling 
their classes more or less in accordance with the method here so 
fully developed, but having no reliable guide to direct them, 
each of them is obliged to draw out a scheme for himself, from 
euch materials as he may have at command. 

Having said so much on the " River System," properly no 
called, space will not allow an eqnally minute description of tho 
other paragraphs. Sul£ce it to say, that similar care and patience 
hare been bestowed on all of them. Thc Modhtais-K4Kge3 
and the Lakes are more systematically arranged, and their 
connection with the river-basiQfl more closely eihibited, than in 
any other existing Geography. 

llie sections describmg the Cliuate, Geologt, Mihgsal!*, 
Botany, and Zooloot of the different countries, have been 
drawn up with the greatest core, and from the most recent and 

* 1 

iiz'.v*.'!: I** ~j 

'aurr-iiuni^.L ii'-a i:.\'> i—zi •ii-:i:ir«u i.v "lir-tii. tav. ?w^'n.Ti« 
laniinui uiiiniius:. i-itii ■: jn^-mn.-iiT. .ill -imsciiii if "ais 

.L "jiWH ^ 117 wi" ue«.r:i»r*.u ji.l ts- y^((nv7i rjitr" nrnpuoftn 

-Jiii ■iii:r* I m.urw j^nrtti "aul ;vi.«m Ub iii-inniOT if p»i^ 

i'*!»T'."^niim» if "Hilt JLm" uiu y.;'*^ 7iiniL. lif^^^utfriaa 
Zlr^itinL^ir-?. r.iramisr:!*. IViOiun.i.r.xr'-s iizTt^'xr^ nm. Zbrriara, 
T'.LTti ,.:nn]'in.i:'tdiii> miL Jir^,»iri 7'i>«.-T^uns- "f bit ifiM 
Tirj:«T» iiLL::i& n tut ^rtiiiimtiini a y-ul:i iiu mrec tsssbe: «■»- 

IiTUL-iiiA. trt iwoiRiairuii:'" iiur* iimu'rm:& iiu*i » ansr-inttzy an 
VTTiif :i lit Zcjiuio. Iziji^ Li»L 1*1 ;iu«tr "jilt^ if "sxii 

*ic ?2 : yrmi-T: : y :•: ^^vittimiu-. il«ji»4* j* a.'T2aE-:'-y a 

i:iiw*cT :- IttiT Ii:.iriiSL 1 tt i.. :.::u::Iii« unTirru^ 


The Author ciimDi c.;i.:l~ir ilt«- i-risitrrijr::^.* '^rfiihiat ei- 
prensin^ Ms deep ob!irai:;r^ i: iij."e»r vilzei frl=£Di5 who sO 
j^enerously assist^ him in his s>elf-ii::Ti.i=eI i&si. His lies: ihanks 
are due to the Rev. M. M&:kar. Foriv;?*. f;r iis &id in connec- 
tion Tilth the tojio^naphical sc-crlcna. tie minuieneas and accu- 
racy of which are in a gircat measure tLr rerft of his unwearied 
labours : and to A. Keith Johnston. Esq.. LL.D.. Her Majesty's 
(geographer for Scotland, for the many valuaLle items of recent 
information with which he favoured the Author during the com- 
l)08iti()n of his l^lanual, and for his great kindness in volunteer- 
ing the final revision of the proof-sheets. Above all, I have the 
Jiiost unfeigned pleasure in expressing my deepest obligations 
to another (who for the present must be nameless), without 
whoso constant companionship and unwearied assistance this 
^f anual could never have attained that degree of minute accu- 
racy which, I believe, every page will be found to exhibit. 


DETINITIOXa, . . i . 

Mathematical GEoaRAPHT, 
Physical Geoorapht, . 

Materials, Density, and Attractive Power 
Earth, .... 

Configuration op the Surface, . 

The Ocean, .... 

The Atmosphere, . 

v^LIMATE, • . ■ • 

Mineralogy, .... 
Geology, .... 
Botany, .... 

Zoology, .... 
Political Geography, . . ♦ 

OF the 






The British Empire, 
General View of the British Isles, 
England and Wales, . 
Ireland, .... 



<!»■<>«< » tmvMt^ 

-. uk A':iaMMi-IKu,W4i«:iL> Eani?. 

tUIWHa 'Ik 'SUIUtll'i,. 

>tN)U4 ■^^tl^J^^HI'^»«>^^^. 

libit.. |I|II>1>UI 








AFRICA, .... 


TriE Egyptian Empire, 




Barbart States, 


Sahara, or Great Desert, 


Senegambia, . 






Country op the Hottentots, 


South Africa, 


South Central Africa, . 


East Africa, 


Region op the Great Lakks, 





British North America, . 


Dominion of Canada, 


Eastern Provinces, . 


British Columbia and Vancouver Island. 


North- West Territory, 

• • • • 


Manitoba and Labrador, 

• « • • 


Greenland, or Danish America, 


The United States, 

• • • • 



• • • • 


Central America, . 

• ' • • » 


West Indies and Bermudas, 

• • • 



• • • • 


Colombia (U.S. of Colombia, 




• • ■ • 



• • • m 


X ERU, . • • • 

• • • • 



Bolivia, ....... 


\^nIL£^ ■•••*« 


Patagoma and Tierra del Fuego, 


Argentine Confederation, or La Plata, 


Paraguay and Uruguay, .... 




Australasia, ..... 


Australia, ...... 


Tasbcania, ...... 


New Zealand, ...... 


Papua, or New Guinea, etc.. 


Malaysia, ....... 


Micronesia, ....... 


Polynesia, or South Sea Islands, 




Index, ••.••••, 



The Circle and Sphere, 

Parallels and Meridians, 

Zones and Circles, 

The Tides, 

Attractive Energy op the Earth, 

Geological Succession of Life, 


Geogkapht ls that science whick has for its object the descrip- 
tion of the surface of the Earth, or of that member of the Sokr 
Systeitt which forma the abode of Jlan. 

Though in regard to practical importance it occupies thefore- 
moBt place amoog the physical HcienceH, it has been the lost to 
receive the attention which is due to it. It consists of two 
principal blanches — viz., Ancient Get^raphy, which embraces 
the lengthened period intervening between tie earliest dawn of 
history and the fall of the Roman Empire ; and Modem Geo- 
^aphy, which extends from that event to the present time. 
The latter is subdivided into four departments — viz., Mathe- 
matical, Physical, Political, and Historical. 

Mi^himaiieaZ Geo^raphi/ tnati of the Earth in its relations to other 
cdostial bodies ; of its motiooa, form, and magnitude ; and of the 
troB position pf piaces oa its surface. 

Phytiixil Orography treats of the configuration of tba Earth's crust ; 
the materials of which it is composed ; 3ia soil and climate that pre- 
vail at different parts of the surface ; and the effect of the latter on 
ita living inhabitonts — plants, animals, and man. 

FoUtKol Oeography — the only branch of the science which re. 
reived adequate attention in the schools of this conntry till of late 
years — treats of the artificial or political divisions of the sarface into 
empires and states ; their extent, population, and material icsoarcea ; 
their government, people, religion, language, and eiviUsation. 

Historical Oeography endeavours to establish when and by whom 
the different countries were first peopled ; the political changes whicli 
they have snhseqnently undet^ona; and especially the progress of 
geographical discovery in modem times. 

Vba first and second of these branches require separate considera- 
tion ; the third and fourth will be treated of in connection with the 
individual ct 



.1. Position op the Earth and its Relation to other 
Worlds. — The earth on which we live is not to be regarded as 
an isolated, independent body, having no relations to other 
worlds ; but as one of the members of a large family of similar 
bodies collectively called the Solar System, all the parts of 
which are united in one beautiful and harmonious whole by 
the mysterious power of gravitation. 

The Solar System. — This system is so named from the fact that 
the sun (Lat. sol) is by far the largest body belonging to it — that he 
is placed in the centre, all the other members of the system revolving 
around him, either directly or indirectly — and especially to distin- 
guish it from the numberless other systems that are located around 
it in universal space, each of which has probably its own sun or star 
as the immediate centre of its light, heat, and gravitating power. So 
far as presently known, the solar system consists of 174 distinct 
bodies — viz., the sun ; 9 large planets revolving around him in nearly 
circular orbits ; 147 planetoids, or smaller planets, between the 
orbits of Mars and Jupiter, supposed by some to be the fragments 
of a large disrupted planet ; 18 satellites or moons, one of which 
belongs to the earth, and aXL the others to the four most distant 
planets ; besides a host of comets, which move in extremely elliptical 
orbits, and myriads of meteorites. Only a very few of this large 
number were known to the ancients — viz., the Sun, Earth, Moon, 
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Satmii, and a few of the more 
remarkable comets. All the remainder have been discovered since 
the invention of the telescope by Gkdileo in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. The centre of this wonderful piece of mechan- 
ism is occupied by the sun, a huge mass of opaque matter, 1,245,000 
times the size of the earth, but surrounded by aluminous atmosphere. 
Though stationary in relation to the other members of the sjrstem, 
he is m reality advancing through space — carrying in his titdn his 
numerous retinue of phmets, sateUites, comets — ^with a velocity of 
17,680 miles per hour. This velocity, however inconceivable, is 
exceeded nearly fourfold by that of the earth in her annual circuit 
round the sun. The planets move around the sun in elliptical, but 
nearly circular, orbits, and in the same general direction, though at 
various distances, veloeities, and periods of revolution, as shown in 
the following tables (p. 6, 7). The satellites perform similar elliptic 


cal otbita round th«ir primariPS ; while the paths <j! the tomcts are 
highly ocoentric, eouaistrng fur tlie moat part of extremely elongnteil 

OftMM oT EllipUciI UoUon. — This cHiptical motion is the result 
of the compositiun of two forces acting on the planet simultaneously, 
but ia difTeient ilirections. The first of these is called the etntri/ugal 
or iangerUial force, and is that which the planet received troia the 
hand of the Creator when originallj lauuched into space. TMb 
force, ^ anrestraiiifd by any opposing one, would carry lie planet 
I whoDy away from the eun, and project it into the depths of inJinite 
L OTafiH. But it is opposed or counteracted by the ixatriptUd force, a 
B^rce always acting at right angles to it, and directed towu'ds the 
I anil, or rather towards the centre of gravity of the entire system — a 
} point situated within that body, though at a great distance from it£ 
centre. Thn latter force, again, if acting alone, would oause tlie 
planet to move towards the sun in a straight line, and with continu- 
tdly accelerated speciL But as both forces are incessantly operating, 
the plaaet must, in giving obedience to each of them, describe & 
cnrviliiiear path. The cuiTe so described will, in every case, he one 
of the conic secliona — that is to say, it will be one or other of the 
various curves obtained by cutting a cone in all the possible direc- 
tions. It will depend, however, on the rarticnlat circumstaaces of 
the case — viz., direction, distance, and velocity- — which of the curves 
■hall be described — i.e., whether a circle, an ellipse, a parabola, or 
an hyperbola. Thus, Uie orbit will lie a circle, when the square ol' 
the tangential velocity is equal to the diameter of the circle multiplied 
by the centripetal velocity ; it will be an ell^iae when the former 
product is greater than the latter; aparaiola, when the former pro- 
duct is eiactly twice as great as the latter ; an hyperbola, when more 
than twice as great ; and, in every case, the angiilar velocity of the 
raditw-oerfor mast be inversely proportional to the square of the 
mutoal itotance of the two bodies. 

The "Cause of Elliptical Motion," aa above desuribeil, cannot be easily 
cOQtprehsDded without some inquiry into the cauae of all motion, or, In 
oCbto' words, without an inquiry into the relation subsisting between the 
Creator and the material univerae. That relation, though no doubt pro- 
foundly mystaiioue, is not one regarding which wo are left wholly in the 
(lark ; for what human pbiloaophy, left ti> its own unaided resources, 
roiriit never succeed in diiamenag, the-Creator has been plesiad to n- 
veal. Since the auuouucement of the law of universal gravitation, 
physical science has made unparaUeleil progress in all directiooa, yet to 
this day the most incoherent theories regiuding the cause of motion, 
and the ulticaate source of the mighty energies everywhere observable in 
IhB material world, have been propounded. Many pbilOHopliara appear 
to i«gard the attractive power of gravitation as a mere propeiiy of mat- 
tar. It is either, they maintain, a property e^entlal to the verii scij/enee 
of natter, or which, thoi^li not originally belonging to matter, has been 
Dammnnicated to it by the Ci«ator, and which isnow bo indelibly stamped 
thereon that it may be said to be inherent in it, so as to form part and 
parcel of Its being. And not only, it la argued, does thia bold good of 
gravitation itself (as eiiatiug betveen the orbs of space), but atsg of &U 


its varieties and modifications, as magnetic attraction, chemical affinity, 
electric attraction, cohesion, and adhesion — all are mere properties of 
matter, a conclusion beyond which it would be in vain to push our re- 
searches. Now, if this result is to be accepted, all the so-called laws of 
nature are merely the necessary and inevitaole consequences of these un- 
changing and unchangeable properties of matter. According to this view it 
follows, that the physical universe, though abandoned by its Maker — ^whose 
sustaining hand, indeed, is no longer required — will not only continue in 
existence, but will for ever carry on, without interruption or dmiinution, its 
present multiform activities. In our opinion, no view could possibly be 
more perverse, however eminent in science some of its propounders. It 
wholly fails in satisfying the cravings of every earnest inquirer who searches 
for truth as for hidden treasure. We cannot suppose it possible that the 
Creator should abandon the universe to the play of its own activities. 
He cannot take up the position of a mere spectator, and contemplate 
from a distance the mighty machine He has set in motion. To do this 
would be to insure its instant destruction. For He not only created the 
worlds by His fiat, but " in Him all thmgs consist," and He "upholdeth 
all things by the word of His power." According to these divine utter- 
ances, the forces that are at work in nature are not inherent in matter, but 
in that Almighty Being who not only summoned matter into existence, 
but who continues to sustain it in being and in the possession of aU its 
properties. In short, we arrive at the grand and fundamental principle, 
tfuit material objects can never become the uUimaie fountains of any species of 
potoer, and that miiid is the true source of all power and of all motion. 

It will greatly aid us in forming a right conception of the relation 
subsisting between the Divine Mind and the universe, if we carefully 
consider the relation that subsists between the human mind and body. 
This relation is easily discovered, and is profoundly instructive. It 
differs greatly from the relation in which the mind stands to objects 
external to the body. Over these the mind has no immediate control : 
they cannot hear any voice nor obey any command. Even the members 
of our own bodies give no obedience to commands audibly expressed, 
unless such commands are accompanied by acts of volition; but no sooner 
does the mind toill that the hana or the foot shall perform any motion, 
than it is responded to by an act of ii^stant obedience. So brief, indeed. 
Is the interval between the mental volition and the resulting motion, that 
human science cannot measure it. The will, however, has no such con- 
trol over objects foreign to the body — acts of volition have no effect upon 
these. The direct power of the mind is limited, in every case, to the or- 
ganised body which it animates. Now, there must be a close analogy 
between this relation of the mind and body of man and the relation sub- 
sisting between the Divine Mind and the physical universe, for *' God 
created man in His own image, after His likeness." This inspired utter- 
ance, like a pure and perfect crystal, has many sides ; and the side 
nearest our present point of view undoubtedly teaches, that the Almighty 
exercises over the material universe a control closely analogous to that 
which the human mind exercises over its own corporeal organism. Anal- 
ogy, however, is not identity, and the material universe is not an 
organised body which the Divine Mind animates. He is not ''the soul 
of the universe," and still less is He that impersonal abstraction about 
which the Pantheist dreams, but a gracious and loving Father, who ever 
feels the deepest interest in the wellbeing of His children. Analogy is 
not identity, but even analogy is of importance where the aids are so 
£bw, and where the lights bum so dimly. And that there is an analogy 


li lieyond all doubt ; for, on tho one liand, tlie iiiiiid of man eiereises it 
snpremB control over the membara of hia own body; while on the other, 
the Divine Being boa ever contmned from the morning of creation to 
maint^n, br the allent fortb^iuttiTigs of His will, the most absolute con- 
trol over all Hid creatures. Sun and moon and stars, tbeniuds and 
WBTo and raging stonoa — all are Hia Eervants, and aU are obedient to 
' Hii wilL The laws of nature— general) jregardEd as so mysterions, and 
R to wbich aome would assign a position due to the Lavgirer alone — find 
V hen tbeic true explanation : they are simply a conveaient name for the 
p inoBBsant volitioua of an nncbangeablB God. He can suspend these laws 
I st pleasure, and He has, in fact, suspended tbeni once and asntin. But 
from the point of \iew from which we are conleinplatinK the Creator and 
fTis works, there is no mora of mystery in tbe SD-caUad miraclB than in 
the T^ular course of nature. 

ProgreBi oT DlBCorery. — The trne ajstem of the naiverse was not 
nnilerstood till near the middle of the eisteenth centnry, when the 
in Prussia, 1473) began the 
g that the sun is the centre 
ofonr system; thai the planets moTearoand him in circular orbits; 
and that tbe dailj motion of the heavenly bodies is only apparent, 
and canaed by tbe rotatioo of tbe earth on its axis. Several pheno- 
mena, however, icmaiueil inexplicable ander this theory, such as the 
chiULge of planetary velocity in different parte of their orbits, and 
the coDBaiiueQt alteration of their apparent magnitudes. — appear- 
aneea inconsistent with tbe assumMion of tbeir moving in perfectly 
circular orbits. A century after Copernioaa, the immortal Kepler 
appeared (born at Weil, in Wurtembeig, in 1571), and devoted his 
life to the Hiplicntioa of these difficulties. The result was tbe three 
fiunooa "laws" which will ever retnin his name, and which may bo 
ranked among the most brilliant discoveries ever made in science. 
They are as follow:— 

1. The orbits of the planets are fllipm, which have all a common 
focos, and in this focua the sun is situated. 

2. If aline be drawn connecting any planet with the centre of the sun. 
that line — called the radiiu-vtelar — will describe equal areas in equ^l 
times, in whatever port of the orbit the planet may be moving. 

3. Tbe ai^narcs of the times of revolution of acy two planefs are to 
each other m tbe same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances 
fram lite sun. 

Finally, the owned Uewton (bom at "Woidstlioriie iu 
Lincolnshire, in 1613) placed the keystone in the might}' arch ei-ected 
by Ms predecessors, by discovering the law of uuiveraal gravitation, 
and thus com]itctta^ tbe theoretic view of tbe planetary Bystem. 
"Hie satellites of Jnpiter were discovered by Galileo in the beginning 
of tbe aeventeentli century; those of Saturn, by Enygbeas and 
Cnsaini, in tbe latter half of that century; Urllnus, by Herscbel, 
in 1781 ; Neptune, by Adams and Leverrier simultaneoualy, m 1816 ; 
Vulcan, hy Lescarbault, » French physician, in 186B; snrl all tbe 
planetoids during the present century. Every year, indeed, is addinR 
new members to the aystem, as inatmments are improvsl and tliJe 
nnmbsr of abservets multiplied. 



Astronomical Tables. — ^The following tables,— originally construct- 
ed by Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, Astronomer -Hoyal for Scotland, 
and subsequently revised by him and brought down to the present 
state of astronomical science, — ^give in detail all the most import- 
ant of the numerous interesting facts hitherto ascertained regarding 
the different members of the solar system. On comparing these 
tables with those published in the first edition of this work, it will 
be seen that astronomers have not been idle during the last ton 
years — that numerous corrections and rectifications have been made 
in almost every column ; and that, in particular, the great physical 
problem of the age — the true mean distance of the sun from the 
earth — ^has made rapid progress towards a satisfactory solution. 
This problem is fully discussed in the author's recently-published 
work, * Facts and Dates* (Edinburgh, Blackwood & Sons), and need 
not be repeated here. That distance, it may now be confidently 
assumed, is 92,093,000 miles ; for that is at once the grand mean of 
all recent researches, as also the number clearly indicated by that 
marvel of architecture, the Great Pyramid of Jeezeh, now shown to 
have been erected B.C. 2170. In accordance with the third law of 
Kepler, the earth's distance from the sun determines the distances 
of all the other planets, the proper numbers for which have been 
drawn up by the indefatigable W. Petrie, civil engineer, whose la- 
bours have had no small share in solving the great problem referred 
to: — 


Names and Order 
of the 

Mean Distance 
from the Sun 


Time of 


in orbit 

Time of 
Rotation on 




. in Miles.* 

Solar Days. 

per hour 

Axis in 
Solar Days. 

Days, ho. m. 



25 7 48 









10 5 






28 21 













1 37 


Minor > 
planets j 









9 55 







10 29 







9 30 









* Profesor Bode, of Berlin, in 1778 pointed out the following remarkable em« 
pirical law, relative to the distances of the planets from the sun and from each 
other : ** The distance between the orbits of any two planets is nearly twice as 
great as that between the orbits of the next two nearer the sun." Thus suppose 
the distance of Mercury from the Sun to be represented by 4 ; then, Venus will 
be 4 -t- 3, or 7 such distances ; the Earth 4 -f twice 3, or 10 such distances, dec 


























33 27 24 




Mloor > 




BS,1 1 




7111. B9a 


38 48 





sal 820! 







2. Helation op the Solak System to the Univehse. — 
The Solar System, or the bud witli ins nccompanyitig train of 
planets, BBtellites, and comets, constitutes but a small pordon 
of the material universe. When we aurvej the heavens at 
night, we behold a multitude of luniinons objects called stars ; 
and, by the iwaiBtance of a good telescope, myriadfl more liecome 
risible. Their apparent magnitudes are very different, and 
this difference has been made the basis of classiB cation in form- 
ing some estimate of their number. Those visible to the naked 
eye are divided into six classes : the brightest stars are said to 
be of the first magnitude; those of an inferior ilegree of bright- 
ness, of the second magnitude ; and bo on, down to the sixth, 
which comprises the smallest stars visible to the naked eye in 
the clearest moonless night. The telescope vastly extends the 
power of vision, and astronomers are familiar with staw of 
the sixteenth degree of magnitude ; and there is no reason to 
suppose that this is the Hiait to the progression, as every in- 
crease in the dimensions and power of the instroment brinos 
into view myriads of stars that were invisible before. 

Nnmtwr of Uu Stan.— Ths total trnmber of sUrs visible to thu 
naked eve in the most fnvoared localities is about SOOO, It is only 
at the equator, however, that so large a number can be seen ; fnr 
there only the spectator hai the opportnnity of seeing the wholo 
heavens, withoat altering his position. Shoiud he take np his posi- 
titrn at cither of the poles, no more than half the stsny flrmometit 
can ever pass in review before him ; while at all intermedinte posi- 
tions, the number of stars visible in any one night will depenil on 
the latitude of the place. ArgeUnder of Bonn hai ctsMzlied the 
* r^iUu tiiF uiseic of tA^io. 


number of stars visible to the naked eye as follows : Stars of the 
first magnitude, 20 ; second magnitude, 65 ; third magnitude, 190 ; 
fourth magnitude, 425; fifth magnitude, 1100; sixth magnitude, 
8200. Total number visible at equator, 5000. It thus appears 
that each inferior class is about tnree times as numerous as the 
one preceding it. The whole number of stars already registered, 
down to the seventh magnitude, is about 18,000; and some astrono* 
mers have estimated the total number of stars visible by means 
of the best telescopes, down to the sixteenth degree of magnitude, at 
500,000,000,000 ! On the other hand, such is the extreme tenuity 
of matter that 5,000,000,000 molecules placed side by side do not 
occupy more than one lineal inch, while the number of molecules 
in a solid inch is the cube of that number I * 

Distance of the Siaxs. — ^The distance of the fixed stars from our 
sun is as inconceivable as their number ; but, until recently, there 
were no data from which any probable calculation could be made. 
In the year 1838, however, the parallax (or angle subtended by the 
diameter of the earth's orbit, as seen from a star) was measured in 
the case of three of them. The parallax of a Centauri was ascer- 
tained by Professor Henderson of Edinburgh to be 0''.9128, or nearly 
one second; that of 61 Cygni, by Professor Bessel of Konigsberg, 
who found it to be 0''.3483 ; and that of a Lyrce, by Otto Struve, 
who found it to be about 0".25, or a quarter of a second. The major 
diameter of the earth's orbit being about 185,000,000 of miles, a 
parallax of one second will give a distance of 20,000,000,000,000 
(twenty billions) of miles, which is probably the distance from our 
sun of the nearest fixed star ; — ^a distance so great that light, which 
travels at the rate of 185,000 miles per second, would require 34 
years to traverse it. The distance of the star 61 Cygni, its parallax 
Deing only i of a second, will be three times this number ; and of 
a Lyras, whose parallax is } of a second, will be four times twenty 
billions ! The distance of twelve fixed stars is now approximately 

Magnitude of the Stars. — In the present state of astronomical 
science, the magnitude of even the nearest of the fixed stars cannot 
be given with any degree of accuracy. It is certain, however, that, 
in general, they are greatly larger than our sun ; for were the sun 
to be removed from his present position, where he has an apparent 
diameter of 32^ 3", and made to occupy the place of a Centauri, 
which is regarded as the nearest of the fixed stars, his diameter 
would be reduced to 0\0093, or less than the hundredth part of a 
second. Here he would fail to be seen by the naked eye, and no 
telescope ever invented could give us any idea of his size. If, on 
the other hand, a Centauri were removed from his actual position, 
and made to occupy the place of our sun, it is calculated that the 
light which he emits would be 2^ times greater than that of the sun ; 
and hence, it is argued, his magnitude must be correspondingly 
greater. The intrinsic 'splendour of Sirius is 63 times greater than 
that of a Centauri, and 192 times greater than that of the sun ; and 
hence it is supposed the magnitude of Sirius is 2688 times greater 
than that of our luminary. Considerable uncertainty, however, 

* 'The New Chemistry,' by J. P. Cooke, 1874, p. 34. 



nttachea to this mode of eatknating the maguitiiile of tlioBe ilietnut 
Lodies. The light of the eun ia so immensely saperior in iitten^itj 
to thnt of any star that it is impractieablo to obtain any dirsi^t 
comparison between them, and it la only by usinc the moon ea KB 
intermsdiats term of comparisoo that any appioximation to occu' 
Tacy can be mads. Wollaston, in 1829, rouuii the proportion of the 
sntfs light to that of the full moon to be aa 801,072 to 1 ; while , 
the light of the full moon exceeds that of o CetttaaH in the propor- 
tion of S7,40S to 1. Comhining these resalts, he Dalculated the 
light of the Bun as exceeding that of the star 21,956,000,000 times. 
Hence, from the parallax above assigned to the alar, it is eaay to 
conclude that its intrinsie splendour is 2.3247 times that of the auu. 
Proper Hotlou of the Son aod Stars. — The ao-called "hjied 
stois " are, in reality, all in motion : and no fixoi point — no ohject 
absolutely at rest — is to be met with in the whole uniTcrae. The 
power of gravitation, wliich binds together the numerous memhers 
of the solar system, appears to he equally operative among the most 
distant objects in space. The relative distances of the hzed stars, 
and even the conGguration of the constellations, are imperceptibly 
altering. Of all the bright stara observed by the ancients, not one 
has Itept ita place unchangEd. In the case of Aretiirus, for example, 
of n Cassiopeite, and of a double star in Oi/gnw, this chaoge of posi- 
tioE baa, in 2000 years, amounted to ^, SJ, and 8 moon's diameters, 
Teapectively. While some vary only the twentieth part of a secoai) 
linnnully, others vary 7.7 seconds, — showing a ratio in their proper 
motions of 1 : 151. The Southern Cross will not always shine iu 
the heavens in its present form, for the four atars of which it con- 
eiats are moving in different directions. Even our own sun, go lonj; 
regarded as stationary in the centra of the aystem, ia found to be in 
rapid motion through space, and daily traversing a distance of 
432,000 miles, — a apace exceeding his own radius. Sir W. Herschel 
arrived at the conclaaion, three quarters of a century ago, that hu 
was moving in the direction of A ileTciilis,—a point in right ascen- 
sion 280° 34', and north polar distance 63* 43', for the year 1790. 
Otto Strove, from a very elaborate discussion of the proper motion 
of 3B2 stars, detenninad the point, for 1850, to ha in right ascension 
281" 32' ; declination 37° 33'. It will probably, however, be a long 
time yet before astronomers are in a position to detemiiue whether 
this motion of our system through spaco is in a right line or curvi- 
linear j and, if the letter, what that point ia aronud which it is re- 
volving. Dr Madlei of Dorpat haa, indeed, hazarded the conjectaro 
that our sun is only one of the millions of stars of the well-known 
lilky-Way, which consistB of a mighW ring, or wheel of stars, 
preatly crowded together at the oircumference, bat comparatively 
few towards the centre. The central group of thia grand ayatom. 
[ which eamposeB om; finnainent, is, ha thinks, the FleiaileB, which 
revolves round Alcyme, the brightest orb of that beautiful couatel- 
iBtion. The distance of our sun from that centre of force he calcu- 
lates at 31,500,000 times the distance of the earth from the sun,— n 
distance so great that light could not traverse it in less tluin 600 
yeaa, and reiiuiring 18,200,000 years for our sun to com^lel* qbb 


revolution ! But however lofty such conceptions of genius may bo, 
they are not, as yet, to be regarded as established scientific truths. 

3. Form, Size, and Motions op the Earth. — Having thus 
traced the relation of the earth to surrounding worlds, we now 
return to examine itself more minutely. Its /orm is that which 
a perfect sphere* of fluid consistency would assume, were it made 
to rotate around its axis with the same rapidity as the earth 
does. Such a form is called an oblate-sphisroidyf — ^that is, a 
sphere somewhat flattened or compressed at the poles, like an 
orange. The larger or equatorial diameter exceeds the polar 
<liameter by 26 miles — ^the former being 7925, and the latter 
7899 nules. In round numbers, the diameter may be stated at 
8000 miles ; the radius, or semi-diameter, at 4000 ; the circum- 
ference at 25,000 ; the area, or superficial content, at 197,310,000 
sq. m. ; the volume, or solid content, at 260,613,000,000 cubic 
miles ; and the weight at 6000 trillions of tons. J 

Motions of the Earth. — The earth has three motions : first, that 
referred to above, in accompanying the snn through space {see p. 2) ; 
second, an annual or orhitual motion round the sun, which it per- 

* Among the numerous proofs of the spherical form of the earth, the followinj; 
may be mentioned : — 

1. A much greater extent of the earth's surface is visible from the top of a 
mountain than from a plain near the level of the sea. 

2. As the mariner nears the land, he first sees the tops of the mountains ; and 
on approaching nearer, the lower grounds become visible. 

3. In cutting for a canal, it is found that allowance must be made for a dip of 
about 8 inches per mile. In order to keep the water at a uniform level. 

4. In travelling to any considerable distance, either north or south, new stars 
come to view in the direction in which the traveller is advancing, while others 
disappear in the direction from which he is receding. 

ft. Many navigators, who have sailed constantly in one direction, whether due 
east or due west, have returned to the jwrt from which they set out. 

6. The shadow which the earth casts on the moon, during an eclipse, is always 

7. All the other members of the solar system are spherical 

f A prolate spheroid, on the contrary, is a sphere somewhat elongated in the 
direction of its poles, forming a body shaped like a lemon. 

X IjTOS in mathematics may be reminded of the following facts :— 
1. The circumference of a circle, or sphere, whose diameter is 1, is = 3.1416, 
or S} nfearly. Hence, to find the circumference of any other circle, or sphere, 
multiply its diameter by 8^. 

D 2. The area of a circle is found by multi« 

plying its radius by half its circumference. 
Th'is the area of the circle ^ D is equal 

C,. ] to the area of the triangle A B C^ the 

base of wliich, AB,iB = the circumference 

rad.x cira 
B of the circle. More briefly, area = 5 — 


jy 3. The area of a sphere is equal to the convex area of the 
circumscribing cylinder^A BCD; and its solid content, S, is equal 
to { of the solid content of the circumscribing cylinder. Or, 

Area = i>2 x 3.1416; 5 = ?^^l-|_H2*; Weight ^10" X 
S weight of Great Pyramid = 10'*' x 6,000,000 tons. 



fui'ina in 3'>3.2f>fl moen sdIbt dayn ; nnd tlte thii'J, culled its iliunmt 
motion, ronnd its owa niis, in 1 clny, or 24 solar hours.* The nxis 
is an imaginaiT line passing throagi tlie earth's centre, and inclined 
to the plana of its orbit at an angla of 66° 32'. This imaginary line 
remains nlwHys parallel to itself ; or, what is the same thing its ex- 
tremities, irbicli are called its poles, always point In the Eame fixed 
stara, and present tbemsetTes alternately to the sun, — thus giving 
rise to the variety of the seasons, as the diurnal motion, wliich is 
l¥om vest to east, causes the alternations of day and niglU, and of 
the riaing, southing, and setting of the heavenly bodies. If the axin 
ua which the earth performs her daily rotation ware eKaotiy perpen- 
ilicular to the plana of her patli ronnd the sun, one constant climate 
Wonld characterise the some parallel of latitude at all times of the 
year, and all the benefits which resalt to maiUcind from the regu- 
lar lucoession of the seasons would have been wanting ; hnt by the 
simple arrangement of the aiia being inclined 234° ffom the perpen- 
dicolor, the All-Wise Creator has made perpetual provision for the 
regular recurrence of summer and winter, of aeed- time and harvest. 

4. MathemSlTICAL Divisons op the Eailth. — In order to 
describe with precision the position of pinces on the earth's 
snrface, end the effects that result from ita orbitual and dinmnl 
motioni, certain imarinaiy lines are drawn round it, which are 
called great circles when they divide it into two eqnal hemi- 
Hpheres, and small circles when they divide it nneqiiaUy. 

The Great Oirclea are tha Equator, Horizon, Meridians, 
Ecliptic, and tlie two Colures. 

The E(piator, a large circle, equidistant (rora the poles, divides 
the earth into a Northern and a Southern Hemisphere. The lati- 
tude of places is measured /rom it, north and south; and their longi- 
tude, on it, east and west. 

The Hoiliaii separates the visible half of the celestial concave 
/rom the half that is invisible, and is either nUioiiai or sensHle, 
The rational, or true horizon, by which the risina and setting of 
all the heavenly bodies are determined, is an imaginary plane 
passing tliroogh the centre of the earth, and prolonKed in imagina- 
tion till it attains the region of the stars. Parallel to it, and co- 
extensive with it, is the sensible horizon, whose plane is a tangent to 
the surfaee at the point on which the spectator is placed. These t«'o 

5 lanes, although se[>arated throughout their whole extent by a semi- 
iameter of the earth, will yet, on sccount of the vest distance at 
which that interval is seen, he confounded together, and appear as one 
line in the heavens. As applied to the earth, however, the sensible or 
apparent horison is the small circle which terminates oar view of 
the surface, where earth and sky appear to meet It enlarges or 
contracts, according as the spectators eye is elevated or depressed : 
thus, if the eye be elevated 6 feet above the sea, the ulrcular expense 
nf water visible to it will be 3 miles in diameter. The Oaiiuiial 
Foluta of the horizon are north, south, east, and west ; the Zenith is 
the upper pole of onr horizon, and the KoiUr the lower pole. 


Ths Heildl&ns, or lines of longitude, are gnat circles passin)! 
through the polea, and cQtting the equ&tor at nght angles. Each of 
them divides the earth into two hemiapheros which, in respect to 
each other, may be termed east and west. There are- 12 meridians 
commonly drawn on globes, each 15° apart, eqnal to a difference in 

^■_. ...... 1 ..._ __•! ,a !j.-_^_ (.nmspg of the world, each 10° 

apart, corresponding to a dif- 
ference itt time of 40 minutes. 
Bat every place is supposed 
to hsTO A meridiaa passing 
through it ; and when the 
sun comes to that meridian, it 
is noon or mid-day at that 
place. The lonsltude of a 
place is its distance east or 
west from the first meridiaa, 
or that one from which we 
Rgres to count This has varied 
with different nations : thus 
the French reckon from Paris ; 
the Spaniards, from Cadiz ; and 
the English, from Greenwich. 
Bat there is one meridan which 
has a claim above all others to 
be regarded as the Grst — viz., that passing through the Great ^ramid 
of Jeezeh.* When the latitude and longitude of a place are known, 
its exact position on the globe may at once he pointed out. The 
value of a, degree of longitude varies according to the latitude, and 
is nowhere equal to a decree of latitude, except on the equator. At 
60° lat. a degree of longitude is equal to SO geographical miles, or 
just the half of its length on the equator ; while at the polea it 
vanishes to nothing. 


aeog. KLIe.. 

Bug. MDm. 





























61. 9S 















The Ecliptic is a (^eat tirc^Io, nhtch rcpresottta Iho suit's apparent 
snnuat track amoug the fixed gtars. It derives its name tvota being 
the cirula on or near which the moon muat be in the case of an 
edUwa. Its plane makes an angle of 231° '"th t^a pl«i» "f 'lie 
et]iiatAr. Tlie snnia in the north, or highest point of the Ecliptic, 
on 21at June ; and he is then vertical at the tropic of Cancer ; he ia 
in the HOUth, or lowest point, on 21at December, nud ia then vertical 
at the tropic of Capricorn. The Ecliptic is divided into twelve equnl 
parts, called atgnt, of S0° each, named from the coDstellattons or 
sTonps of stars throngh which the aun appears succeadvely to pass. 
These, with the days on which the sun enters them, are as fallows : — 

Arto, Unn 
Tarmu, April II 


Llbn, Sep. 23. 


Scorpio, Oct. I 
Bigittulas, Sov. ii. I 
CKprloomiu, Dec SS. ) 
AquorlDB, »n. 30. [Wlntir. 
t n^Tt, Aug. ». ; PUces, Feb. ID. i 

The OOlnraa are two meridians which divide the Ecliptic into four 
equal parts, making the four Seaaons of the year. One of them in- 
tersect the eqainoctial pointy Aries and Libra, and is thence called 
the Equinoctial Colure ; the other intersects the solstitial points, 
Cimcer and Capricorn, and is called the Solstitial Colure. 

The Small ClrcleB are the Tropica, the Parallels of Latitude, 
and the Polar Circles. 

The Troidoi are two small circles parallel ta the equator, and at 
the distance of 23t°, north and aouth. They are so named becansu 
the aun, arrived at them in his apparent annual course, seems ta 
turn atcay, either northward or southward, as the case may be. The 
northern ia called the Tropie of Cancer, and the southern the Tropic 
of Capricorn, because they touch the ecliptic in the beginning of thoBS 

The Parallels of Latitude are small circles parallel to the equator, 
tlie abject of which is to indicate the latitude of places, and to eun- 
uect together alt places on the globe having Uie same latitude. 
Though on globes and maps of the world tliey an: nsually drawn at 
intervals of 10°, every place is supposed to have a parallel of latitude 
passing throngh it. 

The Pol&r (ardes are two small circles, drawn aronnd the North 
and South Pole respectively — the former being called the Arctic, 
and the latter the Antarctic Circle. Their distance from the Pales 
is 234°, that being the angle formed by the earth's axis and a line 
drawl) perpendicular to the earth's orbit. When the sun is vertical 
to places situated an the Tropic of Cancer, his rays ext«nd beyond 
the Pole to the Arctic Circle, and all countries within the Antarctic 
Circle are then in darkneSB. 

Zones-— The Tropics and Polar Circles divide the surface o( 
tlie eartk into iive great Climatal Zones or Bella — viz.: 

1. One Tonld Zons, 17° in breadth, or 231° "■> either side of the 
Equator, and bounded by the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. 







Zones and Circles. 

Every place in this wide region has the sun vertical to it twice 
a-year ; and as the sun's rays never fall very obliquely on any part 
of it, the temperature at the surface of the earth is here always very 

2. Two Temperate Zones, one northern and the other southern, 
each 43° in breadth, lying between the Tropics and the Polar 
Circles. Never having the sun vertical, they are characterised 

by a lower temperature 
than tropical regions ; 
the fruits of the earth 
are less luxuriant and 
spontaneous; and man, 
compelled to exercise 
his corporeal and thinl^- 
ing powers, attains to a 
higher degree of intel- 
ligence and civilisation 
than in those regions 
where his wants are sup- 
plied without any exer- 
tion on his part. 

3. The Two Frigid 
Zones, each 234° in 
radius, are included 
within the Polar Circles. 
They are deprived of the influence of the sun for long inter- 
vals in winter, and have a correspondingly greater length of 
day in summer, when his rays fall very obliquely on the sur- 
lace. These conditions, coupled with the extreme cold of the long 
winters, are so unfavourable to human culture and human happiness, 
that the tribes who inhabit the frigid zone have not been able to 
attain to any considerable degree of civilisation. 

The Moon, or the Earth's Satellite. — The earth, on her annual 
journey round the sun, is attended by a nioon or satellite, which re- 
volves round her in the same way as the former does round the cen- 
tral luminary. Of the five planets and numerous planetoids situated 
between the centre of the system and the orbit of Jupiter, the earth 
alone enjoys the advantage of such a companion ; while all the other 
planets possessed of satellites are not only of vastly greater dimen- 
sions, but also greatly farther from the sun. The mean distance of 
the moon from the earth is 239,840 miles, or little more than half 
the sun's radius, and she performs her revolution round her primary 
in one lunar month of 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes. It is a re- 
markable fact that this is also the precise time in which she rotates 
round her own axis. Hence, at all times, the moon presents very 
nearly the same face to the earth. The time of her rotation is 
much longer than that of any of the planets ; but, so far as yet ascer- 
tained, all the other satellites belonging to our system follow the 
same law — that is, they rotate on their axes in the same time as they 
revolve around their primaries. Unlike the sun and fixed stars. 


wliicli are aiiU-lumiuoUB, the moon, in coTTirami witli all tlie iilniiets 
Hud satelliteH, sliinBs by reflected Ustt derived from the centnll lu- 
minaiy. Her urbit is incliiied to that of tbe earlii at an angle of 
5° S*, bnt for wliicli we ahoald Iiave iul eclipse of the bud and moon 
^ilternatelf every fortnight. There is a total eclipse of the snn vrhen 
the moon ia near the eiuth, aud the sun, earth, and moon in the 
soma straigbt line ; and an amailar eolipse wheu, being more remoto 
from the earth, her apparent diameter is leta than that of the sun. 
The BorfEice of the moon presenta the aspect of a voluaniu wildar- 
oesa, beinj; interaperaed irith enormona crateriibrm monntuius, 
dykea, and lara streams, while no diversities of eea and land are 



y (aided by that of the sun at 

f the 0i3ean into a great tidal 

a her path through the 

new and full n 

vrave, whidt seems to follow the s 

heavens. This attraction, howevot, directly aooounta for only o 
high tide ot any place every lunar day of 24 hours, 60 miaittea ; 
whereaa, in raahty, there are two high tides, occnmng at intervala 
of 12 bouts, 26 minutes. The other takes place at the same instant, 
hut on the opposite side of the earth's surface, aud is caused by the 
1 drawing towards hot the nearer or aolid part of the planet 
with greater foroe than the more distant iraters. 

When the moon ia in the position M [aea moon], or nt m(ftiU m 
It acta in conjunclion with the sun. The tides on both sides of the 
earth are then at the highest, and are called Spring Tides. Bnt 
when the moon is at M' (first ijuarler), or at m' {Imt gaarler], the 
waters rise the least, as the attraction of the sun, acting at right 
anglea to that of the moon, considerably neutraiisas the effect of die 
latter, and produces what are known as Nenp Tides. 




1. — Materials, Density, and Attractive Power op the 
Earth. — Of the interior of the planet which we inhabit we 
know almost nothing, our observation being confined to a por- 
tion of its external crust, or rind, rarely exceeding 14 miles in 
depth, or ^l^ of the distance from the surface to the centre. 
Even this insignificant distance is attained by adding the height 
of the loftiest mown mountain to the depth below 3ie sea-level 
of the deepest ocean sounding (p. 22). The Geologist, however, 
without penetrating beneath tne siirface, but by carefully ex- 
amining the order of superposition of the stratified rocks, has 
made us more or less ac(}uainted with a depth of about 25 miles. 
Small as this portion is, when compared with the immense 
volume enclosed by it, it presents to our view a vast variety of 
substances, each of which has a character peculiar to itself. On 
examination, they are nearly all foimd to be compound bodies, 
which, on being analysed, are reducible to 65 constituent ele- 

ConstitaeiitB of the Earth's Crust.— These 65 elements tbe chemist 
divides into two groups,— the Metallic and the Non-metaUic The 
metals are 52 in number, the best known of them being gold, silver, 
copper, iron, lead, tin, zinc, and mercury ; while the metalloids, or 
non-metallic class, consists of only 13, the principal of which are 
oxycen, hydrogen,* nitrogen, carbon, sulphur, and pnosphorus. Each 
of these elementary substances has properties peculiar to itself ; and, 
what is more remarkable, on each of taeifi the Creator has stamped, 
in deep and indelible characters, a particular number, which forms, 
as it were, the law of its being, and determines in what proportions 
it shall combine with other substances. This law of definite pro- 
portions serves in the mineral kingdom the same end as the laws 
which regulate the propagation of species in the vegetable and animal 
kingdoms ; the identity of species is rigidly preserved, and, notwith- 
standing the prodigious number of combinations, all confusion is 

Density of the Earth.— Each of the 65 elementary substances has 
a density or specific gravity peculiar to itself, ranging from hydrogen, 
which is the lightest, to platinum, which is the heaviest ; but the 
resulting mean densi^ of the Earth is 5.7 the weight of its own 

* From recent experiments by the late Professor Graham of London University, 
it would appear that hydrogen must now be regarded as a metaL 




Tralk oEdistiUed water at the temperatnra of 63°. Thus, wliilo tho 
BpeciSo gravity of Mercury is n«arly a foarth. greater, that of Tenua 
nni Mara ia aearlr equal, while that of the San and Jupiter is four, 
TTrllDiia five, and Neptune six times leaa. As the snecinc gravity of 
the substances fonniog the cruat of tha Earth rorely exceeds 3, ths 
obWons iaference seems to be, that the interior of the planet oaaDot 
be llollow, bnt^ on the eontrary, most consisl; of metalB, or of othet 
materials in a highly condensed and incandescent state. 

The AttractlTe EnsTEy wliich the Earth exercises on all material 
substances near its surface is such that, when freely Buspendad, they 
■re drawn towards it with a Telocity of 16 feet in the Hrst second of 
time ; three times 16 feet the next second ; /ve times 16 feet tha 
third second ; and so on, following the order of the odd numbers of 
the scale. Comparing the Earth, in this particular, with the other 
]ilanets, we find that bodies fitlling towards the 
surface of Mars desr^nd with only a fonrth of 
this Telocity ; while in Jupiter the Telocity ia 
two and a half times greater. At great eleva- 
tions ahore the surface the intensity of the force 
of gravitation decreases in the inverse ratio ijf 
thx »guaTt of tM dielaiice. Thus, a body which 
(in a spring baknl^e) weighs 16 ounces at tha 
surface, wui weigh only i ounces at the dis- 
tance of two semi-diameters from the centre, or 
one serai-diaraeter above the anrfece ; while at 
the diatanoo of four semi-diaiaetera it will weigh 
iinly 1 oaneo. Under the surface the law of 
decrease is very different, it heinK there di- 
rectly Of the dialanix from the centre. Thua, 
at one thousand miles below the surface the 
body will weigh 12 oonces ; half-way towards I 
the centre, 8 ounces ; at the distance of a thon- 
sand miles from the centre, i ounces ; while at 
the centre the pressure on the balance will bo 
nothing. The accompanying diagram will 
render these obBervations more intelligible to the pupiL 

2. CosFTQUHATioi' OF THE SuBFAOE. — The terraqueons globe 
must be aiijjposed to haTa assumed ita present epheroidal form 
when rotftting in its primitive incandescent state. This form 
the vast collection of waters now on its surface powerfully tends 
to peipetnnte— ;S''»'f ^Y the''' capacity of yielding to the centri- 
fugal force arising from the planera rotatory motion j and, 
ewondly, by their filling up inmimerable depreaaiona in its 
crust — depressions whiet it is now certain, exceed in depth 
the highest elevations of the land. These elevations very 
larely amount to the ,i, part of the radius, and, therefore, 
L BCMcely interfere with the re^ilar form of the planet In fact, 
"■^ " n-cbains on the globe produce no greater deviation 


from its spheroidal shape than the small protuberances on the 
rind of an orange do on its general form. 

Diilsion into Land and Water. — ^The surface of the earth, which, 
as we have akeady seen, comprises an area of 197,000,000 square 
miles, is very unequally divided into land and water. The total 
area of the land is estimated at £2,000,000 sq. m., or a little more 
than i of the entire surface ; while the waters cover 144,712,850 sq. 
m., or nearly | of the whole.* The land is, moreover, very unequally 
distributed over the surface : thus, the northern hemisphere contains 
three times as much land as the southern ; the eastern hemisphere, 
or Old World, contains twice as much as the western ; and if a great 
circle be drawn roimd the globe, having London as its centre, it will 
divide the surface in such a way as that nearly all the land will be 
in one hemisphere — ^which may therefore be called the contmenkU 
hemisphere; while the other, or that which has Antipodes IsiLand* 
near New Zealand, as its centre, will be nearly all water, and may 
therefore be called the oceanic hemisphere — only that it contains 
Australia and a portion of South America. If we regard the earth 
as divided into zones instead of hemispheres, we find uiat the North 
Temperate Zone, or that in which the continent of £urope is situated, 
is the one which contains the greatest proportion of land. 

Ck>ntinents. — The land surface of the globe is further broken up 
into huge masses, called continents, which are six in number — viz., 
Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia, 
but should Antarctica turn out to be a continent, the number will be 
seven. These, however, are not always detached from each other, 
but collected into groups, the members of which are generally united 
by isthmuses. Properly speaking, there are only three continents — 
viz., first, the Old World, containing Europe, Asia, and Africa ; 
second, the New World, embracing North and South America ; and 
thirdy the Australian continent — ^ue only important mass of land in 
the oceanic hemisphere, with the exception of the recently-discovered 
countries within the Antarctic Circle {see p. 26). Of these grand 
continents the eastern or Old World is by far the largest and most 
important, having an area of 32,500,000 sq. m., a maritime coast- 
line of 60,000 m., and a pop. of 1,312,000,000. The area of tlie 
western continent, or New World, is 16,000,000 sq. m., being almost 
exactly \ of the former ; its pop. 80,000,000, or 4z of the Old 
World ; while its coast-line is only 32,000 m., or but little more than 
^ of the Old World. Australia has an area estimated at 3,000,000 
Sq. m., being \ of the western continent, and a population of 1,600,000, 
or /^ of America. 

Contour and EleYation.— The following are some of the compari- 
sons, equally interesting and curious, that have been drawn by Cm-I 
Ritter and other geographers between the two great continents, in 
respect to their forms of contour and reli^: — 

1. The greatest length of the Old World is from east to west, while 
that of the New is from north to south ; in other words, the eastern con- 
tinent has its greatest extension in the direction of the paralUlt, while 

* The exact ratio of land to water is as 1 : 2.85L 


the western has its greatest exteDsion in the direction of the mendians. 
2. The greatest extension of both continents towards the north and south 
is nearl}' iinder the same meridianB. Thus, the Cape of* Good Hope is 
nearly in the same meridian with Gape Nordkyn in Norway ; the penin- 
Buk of Malacca with Cape Bevero in Siberia ; and Cape Horn with the 
north-west angle of Greenland. The last-mentioned country, however, 
is now known to be detached from the North American continent. 8. 
Both continents attain their greatest extension from west to east along 
the same parallel — viz., that of 50" N. 4. Both continents spread out 
widely towards the nortii, where they closely approach each other ; both 
are abruptly terminated by the Arctic Ocean in nearly the same latitude 
— viz., that of 72° ; whereas toward the south they widely diverge, and 
narrow down to single promontories. 5. In either continent a large por- 
tion of the area is nearly detached from its prindpal mass : thus Africa is 
nearly severed from the one continent, and South America from the other. 
C. Ail the great pQiinsulas of both continents follow a southerly direc- 
tion ; as the Scandinavian, Spamsh, Italian, Hellenic peninsulas, Africa, 
Arabia, Hindostan, Further India, Coi«a, and Kamtschatka, in the one ; 
and Caiifomia, South Ajnerica, Florida, and Nova Scotia, in the other. 
The only important exceptions to this generalisation are Jutland in the 
Old World, with Yucatan and Boothia Felix in the New, all of which 
stretch noHh/ioard ; and Anatolia in the former, and Alaska in the 
latter, wliich project towards the west. 7. The opposite coasts of the two 
grand continents are strikingly conformable to each other, the projections 
of the one being opposite to the indentations of the other, though separ- 
ated by the breadth of the Atlantic : thus Brazil stands opposite to the 
Gulf of Guinea ; Western Africa to the Gulf of Mexico ; Nova Scotia to 
the Bay of Biscay ; while the opposite coasts of Greenland and Norway 
are nearly parallel 6. Looking at the two continents in another way, we 
tind that Africa with Madagascar has its counterpart in South America 
with the Falkland Isles ; while Florida and the West Indies have a simi- 
lar correspondence with Malacca and the East Indian Archipelago. 9. 
Taking the six separate continents, it is a remarkable fact that, with the 
exception of Africa, they all present to the ocean on their nortiiem sides 
broad flats of low-l3ring land ; while their southern extremities are rocky, 
pointed, and elevated. Again, while Africa, South America, and, we 
may almost add. North America, contract toward the south into single 
promontories, each of the others sends out three separate projections, 
which curiously corre^ond, each to each. Thus the Spanisn peninsula 
resfflnbles Arabia ; Itsuy with Sicily corresponds to Inma with Ceylon ; 
and the Hellenic peninsula, with its adjacent islands, to Further India 
with the Malay Archipelago. 10. But the most important feature of 
configuration is that which has reference to their comparative lengths of 
eoast'line. While the three southern continents present to the ocean an 
almost unbroken outline, neither receiving its waters into their bosoms 
nor projecting into it any important poiinsulas, the three northern ones 
are highly indented, thou^ in very different degrees, their masses evinc- 
ing a tendency to break up into members. Thus, while Asia and North 
America has each an extensive line of coast, Europe has wholly surren- 
dered herself to the ocean, as if conscious that, at a future time, that 
element would become one of the chief sources of her prosperity. 

Vertical Sellef. — In regard to the lines of vertical relief, on the 
other hand, the following are the most important generalisations : — 

1 . AU the continents rise gradually from the sea-shore towards t\\t m- 


terior, where they attain their maximum elevation ; and thus each of 
them presents to the surrounding ocean two great slopes, which greatly 
differ, however, in length and degree of inclination. 2. In the Ola 
World, the long gentle slope is inclined toward the north, and the short 
abrupt slope toward the south ; while in the New World the gentle slope 
is toward the east, and the abrupt toward the west. 8. But while each 
of the grand continents has thus a law peculiar to itself, it is also influ- 
enced by the law of the other. Thus, though in the Old World the lonff 
or gentle slope is toward the north, and the short or abrupt one toward 
the south, it is also true that the slope fronting the east is more gradual 
than that fronting the west. In like manner, though in- the New World 
the longer slope fronts the east, and the shorter the west, it is also true 
that the slope which fronts the north is gentler than that which fronts the 
south. 4. The elevated ridge formed by the intersection of the great 
slopes or watersheds is usually occupied by lofty mountain-chains, and 
constitutes the grand water-oartings of the different continents. Hence 
in the Old World the general direction of the principal mountain-ranges 
is from east to west, while in the New it is from nortn to south ; while in 
both they extend in the direction of the greatest len^k of the continents* 
Thus, in the eastern continent, one immense mountain-chain extendi, 
wil^ few interruntions, from the western extremity of the Pyrenees to 
the vicinity of Behring Strait ; while in the western, an almost unbroken 
range extends from the north-east angle of Alaska to the southern ex- 
tremity of Patagonia. 5. Hiis law holds equally true in regard to all 
the more important peninsulas and islands. Thus Scandinavia, Italy, 
Malacca, Corea, Eamtschatka, and Lower California, together with Great 
Britain, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicil}', Crete, Madagascar, Sumatra, Java, 
Japan, Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica, and New Zealand, are all traversed by 
mountain-ranges in the direction of their greatest lengths. 6. While in 
both hemispheres the reliefs go on increasing irova. the poles to the 
equator, the highest elevations of the eastern liemisphere occur in the 
vicinity of the Tropic of Cancer, while in the western they are found 
near the Tropic of Capricorn : compare the positions of Mount Everest 
in the Himalaya, with that of Aconcagua, in the Andes. 7. A remark- 
able similarity exists between Europe and Asia in respect to their re- 
liefs. Thus the Pyrenees and Alps correspond with the Taurus, Cau- 
casus, and Himalayan ranges ; the basin of the lower Danube has its 
counterpart in Tonquin; European Turkey corresponds with Fur* 
ther India ; Venetian Lombardy with the basin of the Ganges ; while 
Delhi, Calcutta, and Bombay at once suggest Milan, Venice, and Genoa. 
8. Notwithstanding the imposing height of the various mountain-chains, 
the mean elevation of the continents depends far less on this than on the 
general configuration and extent of the plains and table-lands. For 
example, if the entire mass of the Alps were pulverised and distributed 
over the whole extent of Europe, its sui'face would not thereby be raised 
more than 22 feet above its present level ; while, on the contrary, were 
the great plateau of Spain, which has an elevation of only 2000 feet, 
levelled down and spread in a similar manner over the continent, the 
general surface would be raised 76 feet. Taking each of the continents 
separately, the average elevation of Europe would be 671 feet : of North 
America, 748 feet ; of South America, 1132 feet ; and of Asia, 1151 feet : 
and it is estimated that if all the inequalities of the earth's surface were 
reduced to a uniform natural level, the land would have an- elevation 
aVove the sea-level of 925 feet. If these data could be relied on, the real 
level of the eaith's surface^ as distinguished from that of the sea, could 


nately estimated al 230 foet liiglier 

I. The Ocean. — About 144,712,850 square milea, or nearly 
tliree-fourthe of the entire superflciea of tlie fjlolie, are peima- 
nently covered with water, the euriace of which forma a true 
natural level, all the jwrta of which are nearly equidistant from 
the earth's centre. Such a level, in the case of a rotating; body 
like the earth, the materials of which were once capable of 
yielding to the influences of gravity and of the other forces that 
acted upon it, is of a spheroidal form, like that of an orange, and 
differs materially from a dead, horizontal level, such as the floor 
of an apartment. Tlie euiface of lakes, deserts, plains, and even 
of the continents, conforms itself to this natural level ; it forma 
the limit from which all the elevations of the land and tha 
soundings of the ocean are measured ; and, in constructing a 
canal or a railwav along the surface, an allovaiiue must always 
be made for this difference, amounting to about 8 inches in the 
mile. By the inTestigations of H.M.S. Challenger and other 
expeditions, it is now ascertained that, contrary to all former 
ideas, the average depth of the ocean does not exceed 2000 
fathoms, or rather more than 2 miles. The surface temperature 
of the ocean varies with the latitude and season of the year, hut 
except in the neighbourhood of ice, it is everywhere' warmer 
than lower down. After a depth of 100 fathoms (at which 
seasonal changes have no effect) the temperature invariably de- 
creases as the depth increases, until we arrive at a depth of 
20O0 fathoms, where, as a rule, it remains stationary at or about 
35° Fuhr. The waters of the ocean are salt and bitter, their 
density varying according to the quantity of saline matter they 
contain. Generally speaking, the quantity of salt ia from 3.5 
to 4.0 per cent of the entire volume, the resulting density being 
1.0£7& — pure water being unity. Animalaof many orders and 
genera — some of them, too, of very high organisation — exist at the 
profoundest depths of the ocean. Sponges, annelids, moUuscB, 
echinodemiB, and cmataceans, have already been found in vast 
numbers. One expedition alone has added 127 species to the 
molluscs already faiown to exist in British waters. These, 
doubtless, are to be regarde<l as mere prognostications of a new 
world about to te revealed to naturalists, 

The Atlantic Ocean desi>rve9 tha lirat place, for thongh less than 
half the size of tlie Pacific, it is the best-luiawn to EaropeRns; and of 
all Oia great watsrs o( the globe it has always bean tho most im- 
portant, as that on whose shores and gulfs the ereater number of the 
civilised nations of the earth have taken up their abode. It occupies 
a huge, angular, canal-ahaped basin, whose sides are nearly parallel 

ounot DUinbeT as Hi rael—thiit being the beltht of its tMUitboTe Um leiL 


to each other — the projections of the one side standing opposite to 
the indentations of tne other; extends from N. to S. ahont 9000 miles; 
separates the Old World, on the east side, from the New on the 
west ; and connects the Arctic with the Antarctic Ocean. It varies 
greatly in breadth in different parts, being 4100 mUes between the 
shores of Marocco and the Isthmns of Florida; 1700 miles between 
Brazil and Sierra Leone; and 900 miles between Greenland and the 
coast of Noiway. The area is estimated at 35,000,000 square miles, 
or nearly half the area of the Pacific It is distingmshed from 
all the- other oceans by the fewness of its islands and the great num- 
ber of seas and gulfs which it projects into the continents. Its aver- 
age depth, as ascertained by the Ohalleuger Expedition of 1872-76, is 
about 2500 fathoms. In the N. Atlantic it rarely exceeds 2000, thoi^ 
here they obtained one sounding of 3916 fathoms, or 23,500 feet, 
which is now to be regarded as the greatest known depth of this ocean. 
A submarine plateau runs north and south, near the middle, with 
an average depth of less than 2000 fathoms, having the Azores 
as its culmination. This plateau narrows as it approaches 50** N., 
where it touches the so-called " Telegraphic Plateau," which extends 
from the coast of Ireland to that of Newfoundland, and on whidi 
are laid the telegraphic cables between Europe and America. 

The princix)al Branches of the Atlantic are the Baltic, the North Sea, 
the Irish Sea, the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, the Mediterranean, 
and the Gulf of Guinea, on the east side ; and Hudson Bay, Gulf of St 
Lawrence, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea, on the west. The 
principal Islands and Archipelagos are, Iceland, the British Isles, 
Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verd Isles, near its eastern shores ; 
and Newfoundland, Cape Breton, Bermudas, Bahamas, Antilles, and the 
Falkland Isles, near its western. Its chief Affluents fit)m the Old World 
are the Neva, Rhine, Loire, Tagus, Rhone, Po, Danube, and Don ; Nile, 
Senegal, Niger, Congo, and Orange ; and from the New World, the St 
Lawrence, Mi9sissippi, and Rio Grande del Norte ; the Orinoco, Amazon, 
and Rio de la Plata. Among its principal Currento are, the Equatorial 
Current, which flows firom the coast of South Africa to the Caribbean Sea, 
with a velocity of from 18 to 20 miles a-day, and a temperature of 75® ; ana 
the far more celebrated Gulf Stream, which, leaving the Gulf of Mexico. 
flows through the Strait of Florida with a velocity of 80 miles a-day, and 
a mean temperature of 81** Fahr. " After having run 3000 i^es towards 
the north, it still preserves, even in winter, the heat of summer. With this 
temperature it crosses the 40th degree of north latitude, and there over- 
flowing its liquid banks, it spreads itself out for thousands of square 
leagues over the cold waters around, and covers the ocean with a mantle 
of warmth that serves so much to mitigate in Europe the rigours of 
winter. Moving now more slowly, but dispensing its genial influences 
more freely, it finally meets the British Islands. By these it is divided, 
one part ^oing into the polar basin of Spitzbeigen, the other entering tilie 
Bay of Biscay, but each with a warmth considerably above the ocean 
temperature." The Trade-Winds blow regidarly in its intertropical 
regions; but beyond these limits the winds are variable. Thus we see 
that the waters of the Atlantic between the equator and the 40th parallel 
are kept in a perpetual whirlpool, the circumference of which cannot be 
less than from eleven to twelve thousand miles. In the centre of this 


revolving current tliere is a mass of nearly atagnsnt water, covered liy 
riense mu^ea of on fveiKreeti sca-weeil, cnlled Fitcua Natajis, nhicti tnada 
■□ livijy aa impression on ths nuad o( Columbna and Ms crew when about 
to disiover America in 1492. 

The Bu)]fic Ocean sapai-atea America on the east, from Asia, Ma- 
lajiis, and Anatralia on the iveat; and is by far the Ki^n^^est ex- 
pacas of water on the K^obe, hsvins an area estimated at 72,DDD,00O 
square miles, or equal to one-half the entire waters of the globe. 
Unlike the Atkntic, of which it is fully douhle the size, itA 
grentest: length is from E. to W. along the equator — a direction in 
which it Bitfitida 175*. or upwards of 13,000 roilea, reckoning from 
the coast of Fora to the Malay peninsula. Its greatest breadth, 
between Behring Strait and the Antarctic Circle, is 9000 miles, cor- 
responding with the extreme length of the Atlantic Its shape is 
somewhat oval, being widest in the middle and contracting towarila 
both extremities, especiallj in the north, where the opposite shores 
are onlj 36 nules apart. The Pacific Ocean was unknown to 
Europeans till the year 1513, whtn it was discovered by Vaeeo Ifuttet 
de Bilbao, from the autnmit of a mouQtaiu near the Isthmus ol 
Panama. Magaihaens, who aailed from America to the Philippine 
Islands, in 1S21, bestowed on it the name of Pacific, in CDnsequenco 
of the calm and delightful weather he experienced while navigating 
its aiuface. 

The coaat-lijie, an the American side, thongh liold. Is very little in- 
dsDted by the ocean, the principal Inleti and Branches being, Beliring 
Sea, or the Sea of Eamtsahstka, the Gulf of California, and Bay of 
PuuuDB ; while of those on its western side the chief are, the Sea of 
Okhotsk, Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, China Sea, and Gulf of Blam, witb 
the Gulf of Carpentaria in Anstralia. This ocean is especially charoc- 
tansed by the immense nnmber of ArcWpela^os— many of which are of 
volcanic, and others of submarine u'oral formation— that are scattered over 
its surface, especially in iti weiteni and central parts. North of the 
Tropic of Cancer the principal gronpa are, the Japan IbIbs, Kurile Isles, 
Aleutian Isles, Quean Chaifuttc's Island, and Viuicouver Island. South 
of the Tropic ot Cancer, and proceeding from W. to B., we find Malaysia, 
or the Malay ArehipelsEO, tho Ladrones, Caroline Isles, Marsliall Archi- 
pelago, Saudwich Isles, and the Galapagos Islands near the South Ame- 
rican cmai. Then returning weatwani, we came to the Marqnesss, X.dw 
Atchipelago, Society Islands, Hervey or Cook's Islands, Navigators' 
Islands, Friendly Islands, Fiji Islands, Queen Charlotte's Islands, Salo- 
mon Isles, New HebrideB. New Caledonia, and New Zealand. Its chief 
AflnoBta troai the Old Worid are, the Amour, Hoang-Ho, Yang-tae- 
£ian^ Cambodia, Ueinam ; and from the New World, the Frszer, 
Columbia, and Coloiulo. The principal Current of this ocean la oalled 
the Eqnatorial Cnrrent, which, origlnathig in the Antarctic Drift Cur- 
rent, nowa N. along the western shores ol South America to the coast of 
Pern, and then W, through the Pacific, where it occupies the entire space 
between the tropics, producing a genial coolness, where otherwise the heat 
would be almost insupportable. Opposite Lima, on the Peruvian eoiwt, 
Ita temperature b 11° below that of^tho neighbouring ocean ; and even at 
Payta, which is 7 degrees farther N., it is 10° colder than the aea in its 
vicmity. Farther W. it gradually loses its cooling powers, which, how- 
ever, are perceptible to the vicinity of the Morquesaii. 


The Indian Ocean separates Malaysia, Australia, and Tasmania, 
on the east, from Arabia and Africa on the west ; its northern 
bonndary is formed by the shores of India and Biluchistan, and its 
southern, by tiie Antarctic Circle. Its shape would have approxi- 
mated to an ec^uilateral triangle, had not A^ia projected its hugest 
peninsula into its apex, and given it a very irregular form. Extend- 
ing from a little beyond the Tropic of Cancer to the Antarctic Circle, 
its greatest length is 90% or about 6000 miles ; while its extreme 
breadth, from Cape A^lhas to Tasmania, is expressed by the same 
number. The area is generally estimated at 25,000,000 square 
miles, or 20,000,000 when its southern boundary is formed by a line 
connecting South Cape in Tasmania with Cape Agulhas in Amca. 

In proportion to its ma^itude it equals even the Atlantic as to the 
mmiber and extent of the Branches which it sends into the land, espe- 
cially on its northern frontier. The principal of these are the Bay of 
Bengal ; the Arabian Sea, with its members, the Gulf of Kachh, Gulf of 
Oman, and the Persian Gulf ; the Gulf of Aden with the Red Sea ; the 
Channel of Mozambique ; Encounter Bay, St Vincent Gulf, Spencer Gulf, 
and the Great Australian Bight, in Australia. The only Islands of con- 
siderable magnitude are Ceylon and Madagascar; but smaller islands 
and archipelagos are numerous, as Bourbon, Mauritius, Comoro, Ami- 
rantes, Seychelles, Socotra ; the Laccadive, Maldive, and Chagos archi- 
pelagos ; Kodrigues ; the Andaman, Nicobar, and Mergui archipelagos ; 
Keeling Islands ; St Paul aild Amsterdam ; Eerguelen or Desolation 
Island, &c. Its larger Affluents are nearly all from the Asiatic continent, 
as the Irawadi, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Mahanadi, Godaveri, Krishna, 
Tapti, Nerbudda, Indus, and Euphrates ; together with the Zambezi 
from Africa, and the Mmxay from Australia. The waters of the Indian 
Ocean being as hot as even those of the Gulf of Mexico, several warm 
Currents flow out of it in various directions. One of these originates in 
the Bay of Bengal, and after passing through the Strait of Malacca, 
unites with other warm currents from the Java and China seas, and 
then flows out into the Pacific like another Gulf Stream — to which, 
indeed, both in its direction and effects, it bears numerous and striking 
resemblances. Another current, from the Arabian and Red Seas, flows 
southwards between Africa and Madagascar, tiU it meets the Cape Cur- 
rent from the Atlantic, south of Cape Colony. The latter current, 
formerljr supposed to be flowing northward along the west coast of 
Africa, is now ascertained t<i be flowing southward, till, after uniting 
with the Mozambique cun-ent, both find their way into the intensely 
cold waters of the Antarctic Ocean. 

The Arctic Ocean, or north polar basin, is bonnded in general by 
the northern shores of Continental Europe, Asia, and America, all of 
which remarkably conform to the parallel of 72^; and hence its 
form is nearly circular, and its usual breadth 2500 miles. In other 
directions it is bounded by the Arctic Circle, which separates it from 
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and forms the northern limit of sun- 
shine in winter. Its greatest length from Behring Strait to that 
point on the Norwegian coast at which the Arctic Circle cuts the 
land — ^that is, along the meridian of 124** E. — is 3240 miles; and 
the total area is estimated at 5,000,000 square miles. Except on the 
Atlantic sidC; the waters of this ocean are virtually land-locked« 


the outlet by Behring Strait being onlj 36 miles viie, with a mim- 
matn depth of S5 fotnoma. Hmnerona attempts have heen made to 
Teach the Pole, bnt as yet all have proTed imsaecessfnl. The latest 
was bj the British Expedition nader Captain Narea, which returned 
to England in October 187S. Captain Nares, proceeding up Davis 
Strait and Smith's Sound, penetrated aa far as 83° 20', heing 35 
miles beyond the furthest paint hitberto attained, and only 100 

thickness. The depth of water here was 72 fathoms, and the lowest 
winter temperature — 72° Fahr. The long sought JVortt- Wesi Fasaage— 
that is to say, a navigable passage from European countriea to China 
along the northern coast of America — was at last, after inDiunerable 
unanccessfnl efforts continued for two centuries, effected hy Captain 
Maolnro, who, in 1860, achieved the haiatdoua task by sailing ont of 
the Pttciic through Behring Strait; then, turning eastward, pursued 
hia conwe along the coast till he came to Cape Bathurat, at the 
entrance to Coronation Galf ; theo northward, along the west coast 
of Banks' Land to Melville Sound, which he entered ; and continued 
has dangeroua voyuge eastward to Baf!iu Bay and Davis Strait ; and 
1 finally entered the Atlantic. It now appears, however, that the 
I lionour of the discovery ia really due to Sir John Franklin, who left 
I England in search of a north-west passage in 1S15, hut who perished 
In the attempt in 1847. Notwithstanding the success of this bril- 
liant exploit, the route thus discovered is all but absolutely impmc- 
ticable, and can never be of any avail in a conmetcial point of view ; 
while the same route in the opposite direction remains still unnccam- 

The principal Branchei of the Arctic Ocean are, the White Sea, in 
Europe; the Gulfa of Kara, Obi, and Yenisei, m Asia ; Behring Strait, 
between Asia and the New World ; and Coronation Gulf, Melville Sooiul, 
Barrow Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Baffin Bay, in North America. 

The Blveta that find their way into this ocean are, for the most part, 
of great magnitude. Having their sources aa far south as the SOth 
paroUe), in hoth hemiapheres, they drain an area fuUy equal to that of 
the ocean which they enter, or considerably more than that of the conti- 
nent of Europe. The chief of those from the Old World ar* the Dwina, 
Petchora, Obi, Teniasi, Lena, and Kolyma ; and from the New World, 
the Colville, Macltenzie, and Coppermine. The northward direction of 
these rirera imparls a sliiking pecuharity (o the annual thawln)^ of their 
waters. As their upper courses belong to more temperate latitudes than 
their lower, the former are melted by the heat of the sun at an earlier 
data than the latter, and discharge their liberateil contenta into the 
valleys and eatunrios below, which, being thus iimndated hy waters of a 
comparatively elevated temperature, apeedily give way in turn ; and 
thus, in a compaistively brief period, the entire ocean is covered with 
an immense volume of freah water of more than 32° of temperature, 
which now becomes the prime mover of that Meaa-cnrrent that, everj- 
■nmmsr, drifts the polar ice int^ the Atlantic. Another cause, however, 
eo-operatea in producing this pheuomenoo. The north-east branch of the 
Gnlf Stream from the Atlantic enters the Arctic Ocean between Norway 
' on the one side, and Iceland and Spitibergcn on the other, Donbliug 


the North Cape, it flows eastward, close to the shores of Lapland and 
Siberia, the rigorous climate of which it materially softens. Arriving 
at Behring Strait, it is greatly increased in volume and force by the 
Japan current from the Pacific, and now pursuing its circuitous journey, 
it eventually arrives at Banks* Land and the Parry Islands. The IslanoB 
of this ocean are but imperfectly known. They are for the most part 
uninhabited, and are important only a.s the temporary abodes of the 
whale, seal, and walrus hunter. The principal groups are the following : 
Spitzbergen, Novaia Zemlia, Franz Joseph Land, and New Siberia, be- 
tween the Pole and the Eastern Continent; and the great North American 
Archipelago, the chief members of which are the Parry Islands, Banks' 
Land, N. Somerset, Cockbum Island, Cumberland Island, Comwallis 
Island, North Devon, EUesmere, Grinnell Land, Grant's Land, and 

The Antarctic Ocean is far less accurately known to geographers 
than any of the other great oceanic basins, the cold being more in- 
tense, the winds and seas more boisterous, and the ice extending at 
least 10° degrees nearer the equator than in the Arctic Basin. The 
highest latitude yet attained in this ocean was reached by Sir James 
Boss, who, in 1841, penetrated to lat. 78° 4', or within 815 miles of 
the South Pole. In this latitude, and immediately S. of New Zea- 
land, his progress southward was arrested by an ice-bound shore, on 
which he landed, and which, in honour of his sovereign, he named 
South Victoria Land. Other navigators, in approaching the pole 
from other directions, have encountered similar obstructions at con- 
siderably lower latitudes, as Adelie Land, S. of Australia ; Enderby 
Land, S. of Madagascar ; and South Shetland, S. of Cape Horn. Pro- 
bably, therefore, almost the entire area embraced by the Antarctic 
Circle is occupied by a continent which is nearly circular in form, 
and more than twice the size of Australia ; which is covered by eternal 
snows, and wholly devoid of vegetation ; the shores of which are 
guarded by gigantic volcanoes, or by impenetrable barriers of ice ; 
and whose interior has never been trodden by the foot of man. One 
of these volcanoes, named Mount Erebus, was found by Sir James 
Ross to be 12,400 feet above the level of the sea, and in a state of 
constant activity ; while Mount Terror, an extinct volcano, has an 
altitude of 9000 feet. The seas around this continent are remark- 
ably shallow, the depth rarely exceeding 400 fathoms. The tempera- 
ture of the hottest month, even at the level of the sea, ranges from 
11** Fahr. to the freezing-point of water. The baxometric pressure 
is also greatly less than in tropical regions {see p. 28). Sir Jamea 
Ross determined the position of the South Magnetic Pole to be within 
the limits of South Victoria Land — viz., in lat. 75° 6' S., and Ion. 
145° 8' E. 

4. The Atmosphere.— Many of the phenomena of physical 
geography are inexplicable without some previous acquaintance 
with that thin, aerial, and invisible fluid called the Atmosphere, 
which envelops the earth on all sides, which shares in its diur- 
nal motion, and which accompanies it in its annual journey 
round the son. In respect to composition, atmospheric air 


consists almost exclusively of two gaseous, elementary sub- 
stances, oxygen and nitrogen, in the proj)ortion of 21 parts by 
volume of the former, and 79 jjarts of the latter, or, 23 parts by 
weight of oxvgen, and 77 of nitrogen. It also contains a little 
carlK)nic acid gas, a minute though very variable quantity of 
aqueous vapour, and a trace of ammonia. The oxygen and 
nitrogen are not chemically combined, but exist in a state of 
mixture; yet their relative proportions remain invariable, Ijeiiig 
the same on the summits of tne highest mountains as in the 
deepest recesses of the surface, the same in the country as in 
the crowded city, and the same in the tropical as in the frigid 
zones. On the contrary, the carbonic acid and vapour of water 
vary greatly in quantity in different localities, the one beiDff 
affect^ by local causes, and the otlier mainly by changes of 

of the Atmotpliertt. — ^Notwithstanding its extreme light* 
ii€SB, the air, in common with all other material bodies, is affo^cted 
by the aU-pervading law of gravitation, and exerts a pressure on 
1^ aorfiux of the earth which can easily be measttre<(i, A/^cording 
TO Dr Prout, 100 cubic inches of pure dry air, at 60* of t(»apera' 
tore, and ihe barometer standing at 30 mches, weigh 31 grainsif 
The wdi^it on erery square inch (jf surCau^ at the level of the sea gene* 
tbUt anKxmts to about 1 5 lb. avoirdupois, bdn^ the same as the weight 
of a wAxmm of water of equal base, 34 fbet high, or of a coluirm of 
mercmr 30 inches io^ Snpposoag the mufM^ of a man's body to 
sMSBiire 15 sqnare feet, it castains a pressure of no less than 14 toos^ 
Beixt^ a hiduy elastic fluid, the deontT and ynmnam of the »tm<>' 
^^j^nere rapadhr dknTTridi as we asoend upward, 1000 leet of Mist(y^f>t 
(near like sDrSnoe) roo^r oorraponding to a USX of 1 imk m the 
'baatoneter ; or, to ifpeak more exactir. As ih/t ^Jt4X)f^ii/im i»^*'j(uiiu im 

*jal pr^presmKM. ThxB, at liie lerel of the «es, the pressure on ea^ 
stnocre inc^ is 15 lb., or oqnsl to a eolusm of 'SbfiXi:!txxr 30 ijudtiee 
lii£^ : St 3.4 sola abore toe sorlaioe lite presstire w oofr 7^ Xb., or 
lo'indieE of mercnnr: axtd «t ^6 aiiles « eier^tion, 3| Jb., or TJ 
i&fdiss of menmrr. From lids the appOdestioD of the b&rosueUir in 
as m gta mi ng li» jbeoj^bts of ixkoimtaixa becogB»es obrlous. 

Bfik^it dr-tte AlaiiMpteEie. — ^Masr reasoai$ <:cfiLbine to indu<ie ttke 
iKsbd* ihat the atmo^^bere does Jix/t erte&d to au ixkde&uul^ hetjgfat; 
hut termiiacteE at as ahititde of l&xmi 45 to 50 fiule&* Xtt; heij^ is 
also difierent in difiereait latrtodes, beinir oososideraUr ip:«8$«r botwees 
tht TTiqpioE than wrdmi 1i» Polar Cird^s. This is onriu* partly to 
the creata- cemxifasaJ foroe liuct exerts is the oquatoritU than in ths 
polar resnoia ieaosed by liie rotatiuD of the eami arotmd its ^jom), 
and portiT lo like high teur^ieratnre of the earth's suiisoe in io«r Jaeti^ 
mdes, whidi causes tine air in oontaet with it to erpaud at the rate 
ol^j^tifiteTohmieat ^92*rahr- (« •pi^CeaacL) for ererr increase of J* 
^ James ?i1he ohwrv«d thai, in Sooth Tittoia Laoi^ iat. 7^^ -^ 
'^ Qlaiaiker iiae actaiuefi & iiel^ flf SCHTl; ft. iit a \is31ofnL 


barometric pressure rarely exceeded 29 inches, whereas in the torrid 
zone it averages about 80 inches. 

Temperature of the Atmosphere. — When ascending the side of 
a mountain-chain, the traveller feels the cold increasing perceptibly 
in proportion to his elevation ; and should the chain be sufficiently 
lofly, he will find tiie summit covered with perennial snow. If the 
ascent is made within the tropics, this difference of temperature 
arising from elevation is beautifully represented to the eye by a cor- 
responding succession of climatic zones, each of which is occupied 
by a fauna and flora peculiar to itself, but quite analogous to the 
succession of zones, with their respective faunas and floras, that is 
traversed when proceeding from the equator to either pole. This 
beautiful phenomenon, of which the Andes and Himalaya afford the 
most striking examples, depends on the fact that any change in the 
density of the atmosphere is uniformly accompanied by a corre- 
sponding change in its temperature. When a gaseous body expands, 
a portion of its heat becomes latent, and the amount of heat re- 
quired to raise it to any given temperature increases the more the 
gas expands. If there be no source of heat from which this addi- 
tional quantity can be obtained, the gas will cool during expansion, 
by a portion of its free heat becoming latent. Generally speaking, 
the thermometer sinks 1** of Fahr. for every 300 feet of elevation 
for the first mile above the surface, but the rate is influenced by many 
causes. For higher elevations no regular law has been ascertained. 

Winds. — ^When the air is put in motion by any cause, a wind is 
produced; and no cause so powerfully contributes to such motion 
as local changes of temperature, arising from the uneqiial degree in 
which portions of the earth's surface are heated by the solar rays. 
In order to obtain a clear notion of the nature and direction of 
winds, it will be necessary to leave out of view, for the time, 
the various inequalities of the earth's surface, and to regard it as 
uniformly spherical. In tropical regions, where the sun is always 
vertical at noon, his rays fall perpendicularly on the surface, and 
consequently with a far greater heating power than if they came 
down slantingly, as in the temperate and frigid zones. The heated 
surface communicates its own temperature to the stratum of air in 
contact with it, causing the latter to expand, and, with a diminished 
density, to ascend through a higher stratum, supported by which it 
flows off towards the nearest cold region, its place meanwhile being sup* 
plied by other currents proceeding from adjacent cold regions. Hence 
we should expect that at any point on the surface in the northern 
hemisphere, northern winds (that is, winds from the north) would 
prevail throughout the year; while everywhere in the southern 
hemisphere they would blow incessantly from the south. And, were 
the earth at rest, and its surface wholly land or water, such would 
be the actual direction of the winds throughout the year. But the 
earth rotates on its axis from west to east every twenty-four hours, 
its equatorial parts movins at the rate of 1000 miles per hour, 
while at the poles the surface remains at rest. Hence, in passing 
from the higher latitudes towards the equator, the cold currents of 



air arrive progressiTely at regions of increaBcJ rotntory Telocity ; 
and aa tlier cannot keep pace vith this increase of mution, tbey 
neoesaai-ily lag behind, and form curronta flowing In a direction, 
opposite to tlie rotsition of tlie globe, ot fram etut to vtut; and tiros, 
by the combined efTectB ot the rotBtion of the globe and the difference 
of temperature at its surface, the northern and aoiithem currents 
are deflected and modified, so as to become respectively the per- 
manent north-easterly and south ■ easterly currents, farming the 
roagoificent phenomenon of the Trade-Vlnds. These winds extend, 
\riuL occasionnl interruptions and. modificntiong, Irom the i-iciolty of 
the eqiaator to the 28tb or 30th parallel, K. and S. — the limit vary- 
ing accolding to the sun's northern or southern declination. Their 
action is most regular in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans ; bat their 
influence ia neatralised in the vicinity of continents and Isive 
islands by the currents that ars generated on the land. In the 
Indian Ocean and aouth'Gastem Asia, the trnde-wincla imdergo 
remarkable modifi cations, changing their direction at certain seasons 
of the year, and hence called Monaoona. These winds prevail over 
a tract extending from lat. 7° S. to the Tropic of Cancer, and from 
the E. coast of Africa to Japan, Siheria, and the W. Pscifio Ocean. 
They blow for six months of the year in one direction, and for the 
other six in an opposite one ; the change occurring about the ISth 
April and the ISth October. On the north side of the equator the 
HTK monsoon prevails, mth little variation, from October to April ; 
tihile from April to October it ia replaced by the S.W. monsoon. 
In the W. part of the Indian Ocean south of the equator the 
S.W. monsoon blows from October to April, constituting the rainy 
season; while from April to October the S.E, monsoon holds sway, 
and forma tie dry season. The last-named monsoon may be con- 
aidered as identical with the S.E. trade-wind. In general, the mon- 
soons blow towards the continent during summer, and in an opposite 
direction in winter. They regulate the alternations ot the wet and 
dry seasons throughout south-eastern j*sia — the rainy season of 
theW. coast of India corresponding with the prevalence of the S.W. 
monsoon, and that of the £. coast with the S.E. monsoon. They 
are also of great importance to commerce, for by them a ship may 
he wafted to a distant port, where she nmaina IJll the monsoon 
changes, and is then aided hy it home again. 

Zima ot Calms and Vaiiabla Winds, — In the Atlantic and Pacilic 
oceans, immediately nnder the equator, where the N.E and S.E. 
trade-winds approach each other, there occurs a zone of calms and 
variable winds; there being a calm when the opposing winds wholly 
neutralise each other, and a wind, which is usually from the east, 
when either predominates. This zone varies in breadth from 150 to 
COO mOes, according to the season of the jsar, and is perpetually 
shifting its position. In March and April it extends from lat. 7° N. 
to 2° H. ; in July and August from 7 N. to 12° N. ; thus ranging 
over 10° of latitude. As each of the trade-winds has traversed a 
great extent of ocean before arriving at the equator, it becomes 
highly charged with vapour; and hence this zone is characterised hj 


constant precipitation, the rain falling at irregular intervals and at 
all hours of the day. The heat is great, and thunderstorms are 
frequent ; and perhaps there is no part of the ocean more dreaded by 
mariners than the zone of calms and variables. 

Region of S.W. and N.W. Winds. — We have seen that the heated 
air of the Torrid Zone, forced upwards by colder and denser cur- 
rents, finds its way to the Frigid Zones. On quitting the tropics it 
begins to cool, and consequently to descend, arriving at the surface 
about the 30th parallel of latitude in both hemispheres. Were the 
earth stationary, and were there, also, no opposing current from 
the polar regions, it is obvious that south winds would prevail over 
the entire N. Temperate Zone, and north winds over the S. Tempe- 
rate Zone. But the earth rotates from west to east, and the wind, 
on its way from the tropics to the poles, is ever arriving at zones 
of surface possessed of less rotatory velocity than itself; and it 
will, therefore, so far as this cause is concerned, manifest itself as a 
west wind. Combining, now, both these causes, the resultant effect 
is that in the N. Temperate Zone S. W. winds must prevail, while in 
the S. Temperate Zone N.W. winds will predominate. Both these 
\vinds, however, are subject to great irregularities, mainly owing to 
their being affected by the great polar currents that are ever pro- 
ceeding from the poles to the equator. The winds which result mom 
such collisions must necessarily take a Tnean direction, depending on 
the relative force of the opposing currents; but this direction, 
though very variable, is chiefly westerly. - In the North Atlantic 
they are chiefly from the S.W. ; and the effect is, that a sailing 
vessel which takes forty days from Liverpool to New York can 
make its return voyage in twenty-three days. South of the equa- 
tor, between the parallels of 40° and 50" S., the winds are pretty 
regular, being generally W.N. W.; while in the N. Frigid Zone no 
regular succession has been observed, but northern winds are the 
most frequent. 

Land and Sea Breezes. — On islands and near the shores of the 
continents, especially in warm and tropical regions, the wind during 
the da)'^ blows from the sea, while during the night it pursues a 
contrary direction. After the explanations given above, the cause 
of this becomes sufficiently obvious. Tho sea and the land are 
very unequally heated by the solar beams. About sunrise and sun- 
set the temperature of both is nearly equal, and there is consequently 
no wind either way; but shortly after sunrise the land becomes 
warmer than the water, in consequence of the more powerful action 
of the solar rays; the temperature of the stratum of air next the 
surface is increased and its density lessened ; it must therefore 
ascend to the upper regions of the atmosphere, leaving behind a 
vacuum, which is immediately occupied by colder and denser air 
from the ocean. Thus is originated a sea-breeze^ which attains its 
greatest velocity at the period of the maximum heat of the day, and 
gradually declines towards evening. During night, when the tem- 
perature of the sea exceeds that of the land, the current of air must 
necessarily flow in an opposite direction, aod produce what is called 
the land-breeze. 


The Vapour of Water ana tta Prodncta.— The quiintity of vn-pQUt 
u] Ihe atmosphere, whicb is always very small, varies with tlie teni- 
poratare, lieing greater when the temperature is high, and smaller 
when it is low. Sir John Leslie Bhowed, by numerous experiments, 
that the air can hold the IQOth part of its own weight of vapour iu 
_^Hii£penaiou when its temperKture is et 32° l^'ahr. ; the 80tb part of its 
freight at the temperature of G9°; the 40th part at 86°; the 20th 
BbKt at 113°] and the 10th part at 140°. Seas, rivers, lakes, and 
Enoist grouud are the sources from which the vapour iu the atmo- 
Htthere emanates. When water is thus passing mna the liquid into 
HLe gaseous or invisible form, it is said to evaporate. Evaporation 
^pakas place at all temperatures, and is caused chieBy by the aetieii 
K>f wiuile and of the solar heat on the surface of the earth ; and the 
■iiore intense this action is, the greater becomes the quantity of 
Fanoisture that rises into the atmosphere. When the air has received 
M mnch vaponr as it is capable of holding in the inviaibte form, at 
any given temperature, it is said to be sataratfd. Should any more 
vapour enter it at this temperature, or should its temperature bs re- 
duced to any exteaC, the supeCBhundant vapour instantly becomes 
visible, and aaaumes the form of mist or clouds, or is precipitated as 
dew, hoar-frost. Tain, snow, or hail. Should the reduction of tem- 
perature take place at a considerable elevation above the surface of 
the earth, by means of a cold current of air coming into contact with 
a wnrmer one already at the point of saturation, donda will he the 
form which the superabundant vapour will assume ; but if the re- 
duction takes place at a lower level, so that the clond rests on the 
pround instead of Boating in the upper regions of the atmosphere. 
It is called a tOg or nil«t. Clouds and mist are identical in their 
nature, and only dilfer in resjiect to elevation ; for in each of them 
^e rapour, formerly invisible, is supposed to pass into the form 
of minnte, visible globules, which, from being hollow within, are 
possessed of such buoyancj as to be capable of floating in the atmo- 
rohare. When the sntfaoe of the ground has been reduced by radia- 
tion, BO that the air in contact with it falls helow its point of saturation, 
H pintioit of the vapour contained iu the latter becomes condensed, 
and aasumes the form of dew ; and when the radiation baa proceed^i 
BO for as to reduce the surface below the freezing-point, lunr-frOEt 
is the product. The quantity of dew, however, which is deposited 
on any given object depends not only on. its temperature, hut iu a 
great measure also on the nature of its materials, its texture, and the 
roughness or smoothness of its surface. Thus, white metala, stones, 
and wood, are found comparatively dry, living plaiits of every form 
are copiaoaly laden with dew : substances having a close testure are 
unfavourable to its formation, while those that are loosely com- 
pacted, as cloth, wool, down, cotton, &c., are highly favourable; 
and those surfaces which part with their heat least readily, as, for 
Example, polished metals, contract the least dew ; while those that 
port vrili their heat moat readily — viz., roughened or painted sur- 
faces, contract the most Wlien the tem)ierBture that has led to the 
fonoation of the minute hollow vesicles of which a cloud conaiata has 
been reduced still lower, the vesii'lea become larger 


in twos and threes ; and ultimately, by reason of their densi^jind 
increased gravity, fall to the ground in large drops of raliL When 
the vesicles have been exposed to an intensely cold current of air, 
they are congealed or solidified into minute, icy crystals ; and when 
many of these collect together, they usually assume a liighly sym- 
metrical and beautiful shape before descending to the earth in the 
form of flakes of snow. Captain Scoresby, during his Arctic voyages, 
observed nearly a hundred different forms of snow-flakes, many of 
which were extremely beautiful. Should the snow-flakes, in descend- 
ing towards the surface, pass through a warm stratum of air, they 
melt and become rain-drops ; and, on the other hand, should the 
rain-drops, while descending, pass through a stratum of very cold air, 
they are converted into hailstones. 

IMstribution of Rain. — Kain falls very unequally in different re- 
gions of the globe, but in general the greatest quantity of rain falls 
in warm climates, as evaporation proceeds there more rapidly than in 
cold and temperate regions. The following generalisations, which can 
only be regarded as rough approximations, will be found useful : — 

1. Bain is more abundant in tropical regions than under higher lati- 
tudes ; but the number of rainy days is greater the farther the place is 
from the equator. The annual average of rain between the tropics is 
about 96 in., and the number of rainy days is only 80 ; while in the two 
temperate zones the average annual fall is only 87 inches, but the number 
of days on which rain falls varies fi*om 64, in the N. of Syria, to 169 at 
St Petersburg. 2. The annual amount of rain decreases in ascendine 
from low plains to elevated plateaux. 3. On the contrary, the amount 
of rain increases in ascending from plains to the rugged slopes of moun- 
tain-chains. Thus, while at Paris only 20 inches of rain nill annually, 
upwards of tlurice that quantity falls on the sides of the Great St Ber- 
nard; and in England the quantity that falls in the mountainous dis- 
tricts is more than double that of the less elevated portions of the country. 
4. The amount of rain decreases as we proceed from the shores of conti- 
nents towards their interior ; thus, while on the W. coast of Ireland, Nor- 
way, and Portugal, the annual average is 47, 80, and 111 inches, respect- 
ively, in central and eastern Europe it is only 15 inches. There are important 
exceptions, however, to this rule, arising from the direction and position 
of mountain-chains, and from the character of the winds (whether dry or 
humid) to which any given place is exposed. For example, one side of a 
mountain-chain may be humid, while the other is comparatively rainless. 
The Andes in South America, the mountains of Norway, and Mount 
Atlas in North Africa, afford striking examples. 5. Within the tropics, 
the eastern coasts of the continents, owing to their exposure to the trade- 
winds, are more humid than the western ; while in the temperate zone 
their toestem, sides, from being exposed to westerly winds charged with 
moisture— received in their passage across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 
— are more humid than the eastern. 

5. Climate. — By the climate of a place is meant the prevail- 
ing character of its weather, or all those states and changes of 
its atmosphere which sensibly affect the organs of plants and 
animals. The peculiarities of climate are mainly attributable 
to the following causes : — 

1. Latitude. — This determines the amount of solar heat which the 


f tf"«e enjow— tMcIi unannt dep«]>da, not meni; on t^« IniirtU i>( 
tiiBe it ia omtuiiiooilj eiposvd to th« solar rays, bnt npccially nn 
th«diracliDnartheixfa«lieo th« sun is in the mcridiui, tiettvcsii 
iba tn^Hca tha solar an descend lertically at noon, and halioa juv- 
dnee tfaair noi-iminn eOect ; bat the more mnota the plaoa la tVum 
the torrid nma, the nys dosceud mora and mora slmtinsly. SI. tl*- 
■nam. — The more Blefated any place Ja, the lonor ia ita tenipor*. 
tan ; and a change of level of oulj a fon icet will diminish tlie teui< 
perstore of the place as much as a change of latitude amounting to 
many miles. In the tonid Kane an ascent of 300 foot alnha tha 
thermometer 1° Fahi. ; bat the rote is not nnilorm aa the ascent i* 
coDlinned — less than 300 feet beinc safficient for reducing the tatii- 
peratore anotber de^ce. A smaller elevation will also aulfico for 
producing this effect in higher latitudes. By continuing the nsceiit 
in any latitude, ne at length arrive at what is called the now-Ua*, 
or the Umlt of peremilal congelation. This line attains its maxl. 
mum elevation between the tropics, andgradually descends — tlioilgll 
at a rate not yet exactly ascertained — as it proceeds to the poles, In 
the Antarctic regions it reaches the sea-level between the fl7tli and 
Tlat parallel; but in tha north frigid zone it is more than douhtCnl 
whether it touches the seb at all: for hare the greater drynoHS of the 
rJimate and the perpetual day of summer occnsion the compute disip> 
pearance of the snow, though the mean annual tetnpentun! Unalow »x 
zero (Fahr.) The height ot the anow-line is not regulated exclusively 
by the degree of latitude ; but depends very much on the cxpnaurn 
of the place, the character of the prevailing winds, and on the dfl|itli 
of Ihesnow tbat hasfaUen during winter. Nonaof tliemountaluM if 
the British Mea attain the height of the anow-line; but Den Nevie, 
the highest of them, wbnse height is tlOS feet, approaches it very 
closely, aa it generally retains the snow in t)ie deeper ravines all tiia 
year round. 3. Slopo or Aspect at noon greatly affects the elimato 
of a country, especially in the tflmpemte zone. If the slope ia towards 
the son at noon, the raya of that luminary foil more directly on the 
nu&ce, and therefore produce a grmter effect than if the place ia 
level ; while, on the other hand, if the surface inclines towards tha 
nort^ the contrary eSect is produced. Thus, in Siberia and British 
Americ*:, where the slope is northward, as indicated by the direction 
of the riven^ the climate ia incomparably more rigorous than in the 
BritiA Isles and ScaDdinavia, tnough situated between the saue 
psalldsof ktitnile. In the south o[ Siberia mercoc? freezes in 
winter; lAereai in Ireland the myrtle grows in the open air. Even 
'~ " IS tocali^ the greatest diversity of climate prevails or """ " 

oopente nim of a mAontajn-range. Thns, on the southern slopes of 
ue Al(« of the Talaui tbevioeattainsto ita utmost perfection, while 
dMlWidwra sHop* is densely covered witli ice and snow. 4. The 

-mJiT In teapeet to Laige Tracts of Land ot Water. 

!E of the ocean is more equable than that of the 
■g u^ iflntid hj the action of the solar lays and by 
Heoee; tkimwh the agency of the winds, those countries 
wHA HC wtw<f< BMZ m ocean are leu sabject to tiie eitremea 


of heat and cold than other countries under the same latitude, situ- 
ated in the interior of continents. Thus London eiyoys a milder 
winter and a cooler summer than Paris, which is 2° 42' of latitude 
farther south. In the northern hemisphere a country is rendered 
hotter by having a large tract of land to the south and sea to the 
north, but cooler when these relations are reversed. 6. Other im- 
portant elements of climate, such as the prevalence of partlcalar 
winds, proximity to ocean-currents, the annual taM of rain, and the 
direction and relative position of mountain-clialns, together with 
the nature of tlie soil and the degree of cultivation to which it has 
been subjected, have for the most part been treated of in previous 
sections of this work, and need not here be resumed. 

Isothermal Lines and dlmatlc Zones. — As the temperature of any 
given place depends on a multitude of causes besides latitude, it is 
obvious that the old designations of torrid, temperate^ and frigid 
zones, bounded by the tropics and the polar circles, do not ade- 
quately express the temperature, and far less the general climatic 
character, of the different parts of the earth's surface. Humboldt 
and others have accordingly substituted other lines, instead of the 
parallels, as the true boundaries of climatic zones — viz., ItothermcU, 
Isocheimenal, and laotheral lines. The mean annual temperature of 
any given place may be readily ascertained by means of the thermo- 
meter ; and imaginary lines connecting together all the places in 
the same hemisj^ere, having the same mean annual temperature^ 
are called Isotherms. The Isocheimenals are similar lines connect- 
ing places that have the same winter temperature, and the Isotheral 
lines are those drawn between places having the same summer tem^ 
perature. These lines of equal temperature approximate, more or 
less, to the direction of the equator, though they are nowhere 
parallel to it. They diverge from it more in the northern than in 
the southern hemisphere, and greatly more in high than in low lati- 
tudes. The hottest portion of the earth's surface is an oval-shaped 
tract in East Africa, extending from Lake Tchad to Mecca and the 
Strait of Babelmandeb, having a mean annual temperature of 81"; 
and the coldest, so far as yet ascertained, is a long narrow belt in the 
Arctic Ocean, midway between Behring Strait and the North Pole, 
and extending from Melville Island, in the direction of New Siberia, 
with an average temperature of 0' Fahr. It appears, therefore, that 
the hottest region is not under the equator, nor the coldest under 
the pole ; and that all the lines of equal temperature in the northern 
hemisphere attain their highest latitude in the eastern side of the 
Atlantic Ocean — owing, no doubt, to the high temperature of the 
Gulf Stream, which flows northward along the western shores of 
Europe. By means of these Isotherms eacn hemisphere is divided 
by the meteorologist into six climatic zones, named respectively the 
hot or equatorial, the warm, mUd, cool, cold, sjid. frigid or polar zone. 

The Equatorial Zone extends on both sides of the equator, is bounded 
by the isotherms of 77*, and embraces Central America, the West India 
Islands, a portion of South America, all Africa between the Atlas chain 
and the 15th degree of S. latitude, and the north of Australia. The 



is boimded on the soufh hy the equatorial zone, and on the 
north by the isotherm of 59% which, in the New World, Basses throneh 
San Fnmcisco and Gajte Hatteras ; and, in the Old Worlo, through tne 
north of Spain, Borne, GktUipoli, tiie north off Asia Minor, the south of 
the Caspian, Lake Koko-Nor, the mouth of the Hoang-Ho, and the 
capital of Japan. The WM Zone is bounded on the south bv the warm 
zone, and on the north by the isotherm of 41", which passes tnrouffh the 
Aleutian Islands, Sitka, a little south of Lake Superior, througn the 
centre of Kova Scotia; and, in the Old World, through Bergen, 
Christiania, Stockholm, Riga, Moscow, and Orenbui^. The Cool Zone ia 
bounded on the north by the isotherm of 82"; whidi, in the New World, 
passes Cape Bomanzoff, Cumberland House, and the southern extremity 
of James Bay, south of Nain in Labrador, and north of Cape Farewell in 
Greenland; and, in the Old World, through the north of Iceland, Ham- 
merfest, head of the Gulf of Bothnia, Archansel, Tobolsk, and to the 
south of Lake Baikal. The Cold Zone is bounded on the north by the 
isotherm of 5°, which passes through the centre of the North American 
Archipelago, nort^ of Greenland, and through the extreme north of 
Siberia. And, lastly, the Polar Zone, whose southern limit is the 
isotherm of 5", embraces all the remainder of the Arctic regions. 

Table of Mean Temperatnres. — In order to illustrate this subject 
more fully, we subjoin a table of the mean a/nmuU, mean lointer, 
and mean gummer temperature of a number of the most im- 
I>ortant cities in the world. 



Mean — 





Dec. Jan. 

June, July, 




London, .... 

51*' 82'N. 



63-. 8 

Edinburgh, . 





Dublin, . . 

53** 21' 




Paris, . . . 





Marseilles, . 





Lisbon^ . . 





Madrid, . 





Gibraltar, . 





Borne, . 






e, . 





Brussels, . . 





Vienna, . . 





Berlin, . . 











51^' 17' 




St Petezsbm:! 






Moscow, . 





Yakutsk, . 

CI- 58' 




Pekin, . . 





C^BtOO, . 









Cakstta, . . . . 









Mean — 

Mean — 




Dec. Jan. 

June, July, 




Madras, .... 

IS'' 5' 




Bombay, . , 

18'' 57' 




Cabool, . . . 

34'' 63' 




Jerusalem, . . 

SI'' 47' 




Cairo, . . . 

30* 3' 




Tunis, .... 





Sierra Leone, 





Timbuctoo, . . 

17* 48' 




Melville I., . 

75* 40^ 




Nain, . . . 

56* 25' 




Montreal, . . . 

45* 31' 




Halifax, . . 

44* 38' 




New York, . . 





New Orleans, , 

. 30* 




Mexico, . . . 

19* 25' 




Havannah, . , 

23* 10' 




Mozambique, . 

15* 2' S 




Cape Towu, . . 
Quito, .... 

34* 56' 








Kio de Ja,neiro, , 

22* 57' 




Melbourne, . . 

37* 49 




Sydney, . . . 





AucklaTid, . , 





6. Mineralogy. — ^The sixty-five constituent elements form- 
ing the earth's crust are, in general, characterised by a strong 
affinity for each other, disposing them to form compound bodies, 
each of which possesses properties widely different from those 
of its constituents. These compounds are termed minerals, and 
the science which treats of their forms, composition, and other 
properties, is called Mineralogy. 

Number of Minerals. — The number of mineral species at present 
recognised by science somewhat exceeds five hundred, many of them 
having, in addition, a great number of varieties. The mineral 
species, however, found on our globe, is exceedingly small when com- 
pared with the vast number of species in the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms. All the species above named have been arranged by 
mineralogists into seven ordexs and thirty-seven families. Theso 
orders, with their respective families, are as follows: 1. Oxidised 
StoneSf comprising 12 families — quartz, felspar, scapolite, haloid 
stones, leucite, zeolites, mica, hornblende, clays, garnet, gems, and 
metallic stones. 2. Saline Stones, 6 families — calc-spar, fluor-spar, 
heavy-spar, gypsum, rock-salt, 3. Saline Ores, 3 families — sparry 
iron ores, copper salts, lead salts. 4. Oxidised Ores, 5 families — 
iron ores, tin-stone, manganese ores, red copper ores, white antimony 
ores. 6. Native Metals, forming only one family. 6. Sulphuretted 


itelals, Q faiiiilioa — iron jiyrites, galeuti, grey antimony nre, grey 
' copper ore, blende, ruby blende. 7. fijlammahles, S lamiliea — aul- 
L phur, diamnnd, eoal, mineral resins, inllammable salta. 
I Fomu of BOneraU. — Miners! subatancea occw in natnre in two 
diatinet modes of aggremtion— amorphaua and crj-atalliaed. When, 
the pirtiolaa of the mineral are merely collected together, without 
Bibibitiog any regukrity of atructure, it is called UTnorp/toug ; bat 
ihould the mineral possess a deEuite chemical composition, together 
with a regular symmetrical esternal form, it is said to be crystallised. 
Generally speaking, every mineral substance, whether simple or 
campoond, is found ia nature with a form peenliar to itself, and that 
readily distingnishes it from all other minerals. Mapy of them, 
moreover, eiist in various allied forma, and hence tho number of 
nstiiraJ cryatala is fnoiraoua Mineralogists, however, have succeed- 
ed iu arranging them all under abs mstenta of orystalllsatioD, to emh 
of which belongs a number of forma navinc some properties in com- 
mon. In every crystal there are found three rxcb, which, intersect 
Rt its centre and pass through from side to side. The entire classiS- 
cation of crystals depends on the relative lengths and poaitiou of 
these aiea. 1. The first system is named the Segiilar or Teeeeral 
Syslem (from teasera, a cube), and is ch&raeterised by three equal axes 
intersecting each other at right angles. It includes the cube, the 
regular octohedron, the rhombic dodecahedron, and the regular 
tetrahedron. Some of the best-known minerals that assume one or 
other of these forms are common salt, alum, fluor-spar, iron pyrites, 
Krey oopper ore, and boracite. 2. The Quadratic or Teiragonal 
Mtlem, with three axes at right angles, but one shorter or longer 
than the other two. Eight principal forms, with nnmeroua varieties, 
belong to this system, among which are included the first and second 
tight square prisms, and the first and second right square octohedra ; 
exam^es — zircon, stannic oside, and yellow pruasiete of potash. 3. 
The Sexagrmal or RhajnbohedraX &yitan, with four axes, three of 
which are eqnal, intersecting each other in one plane at 60°, and one 
principal axis at right angles to them. It embraces the regular six- 
sided prism, the regular six-sided pyramid, and the rhombohedron. 
Rock-crystal, calc-spar, beryl, comndnm, graphite, and many other 
minerals, assume forms belonging to this system. 4. The lihoml/ia 
Sysltia, characterised by three axes, all unequal, but at right angles 
to each other: its principal forms are the right octohedron with 
rhombic base, and the right rhombic prism. This system comprises 
□nir a few varieties of form essentially distinct, but embraces nitre, 
native sulphur, topaz, and arragonite. 6. The ifonodinic or Mono- 
eliBohedric Sytlem, having three unequal axes, two of which inter- 
sect each other at an oblique angle, and aro cut by the third at right 
angles. The forms peculiar to this system— among which is the 
obSqna rhombic octohedron — approach very near to those of the 
rhombio, but the inclination of the axes enables us readily to dis- 
tingnish them. As eiamplea of tho numerous minerals assuming one 
or other of its forme may be mentioned sulphur deposited from 
(iuion, sodium carbonate, and borax. 6. The TTiolinia or Tnclino- 


hedric, with tLree axes, all unequal and all oblique. This is the 
least regular of all the systems, and departs the most widely from 
symmetry of form. The doubly-oblique octohedron and the doubly- 
oblique prism are the leading forms ; examples — copper sulphate, 
boracic acid, and albite. 

7. Geology. — Minerals aggregated together, so as to form 
large masses, are technically called rocks. These rocks, accord- 
ing to their structure, are of two kinds : either they consist of 
minute particles of one and the same mineral, or of two, three, 
or more different minerals aggregated together. The former 
are caMed^.mplej the latter mixed rocks. Thus, for instance, 
marble, consisting of nothing but grains of carbonate of lime, 
is a simple rock; while gramtef on the contrary, which is made 
up of small crystals of quartz, felspar, and mica, is a mixed 
rock. The component parts of a rock are either crystallised 
together, or united by a non-crystalline cement, in the same 
manner as mortar binas the stones of a wall. In many rocks 
the cohesion is very great, as for instance in greenstone ; while 
in others it is but slight, as in sandstone, gravel, coal, &c. As 
compared with the vast variety of minerals, the number of 
distinct rocks is exceedingly small. They are also pretty uni- 
formly distributed over the globe, while none of them is 
peculiar to any particular country. Thus, while the plants and 
animals of tropical regions differ exceedingly from those of the 
frigid zone, the materials which form the mountain-ranges, as 
well as the pebbles along the sea-shore, are everywhere the 
same. Notwithstanding, however, this general uniformity, there 
is considerable local variety, depending on the geological char- 
acter of the place. Thus a traveller setting out from London, 
either to Berwick or Land's End, will find the character of the 
rocks continually varying as he proceeds from county to county ; 
and before he arrives at nis destination, he will have passed in 
review almost every variety of rock in the geological scale. In 
like maimer, when a considerable section ot the earth's crust is 
exposed to view — as in sea-cliffs, quarries, mines, and railway 
cuttings — a great variety of rocks is discernible ; but they may 
be all reduced to two principal kinds. They are either arranged 
in beds or layers, and hence known as stratified rocks; or they 
are found in shapeless, indeterminate masses, destitute of any 
such arrangement, and therefore called unstratified, 

Unstratlfied Rocks. — ^The unstratified rocks are also termed igne- 
tms, being regarded as having been formed by the agency of fire, at 
a time when the temperature of the earth's crust was immeasurably 
higher than at present. Most geologists are of opinion that our 
planet was in an incandescent state in the earlier stages of its exist- 


ence, inst ns the tran and fiied stars aw by some anpposed to be at 
the present ilay. In the course of a^tes, according totLishypotheaiB, 
the eiterior portion gradually cooled down, and the materials of 
which it couBiated, preriously in a molten atate, came by demea to 
asanme the consolidated form which the crust of the earth now 
prssants, while thn interior still retains ita former intense heat, 
whatever view we may form of this hypotheais, there can ha EO 
doubt of the fact, that the lower we penetrate into the bowels of the 
earth the temperature gradnally increases. A thermometer placed 
in any locality, only 3 feet below the aarface of the earth, no longer 
indicates the chnngea of the daily temperature, bat merely those of 
the Tear. Again, at a depth of 55 feet, it indicates everywhere and 
at all times the same temperature, which ia neither affected by the 
hottest summer nor by the coldest winter. Below Ciis depth, it has 
been found that a rise of 1 decree of Fahr. takes place for every EO or 
C6 feet of descent.* Calculating at this rate of increase, a tempera- 
ture of 2100° Fahr. would he reached at adepthof 25 miles, sufficient 
to keep in fusion such rocks sa basalt, greenstone, and porphyry ; at a 
depth of 8B miles the temperature would be 3272°, eufiicient to malt 
iron ; and at a depth of 5i miles, a beat of 4892° would prevail — a 
temperature at which all known subatancea would pass into the 
liquid or molten form. The phenomena of hot springs, rolcanoea, 
and earthqoakes, atTord other and independent evidence of the in- 
tense heat prevailing in the interior of our planet. The igneous 
Tflcks have everywhere the appearance of having existed at a former 
period in a molten state ; and the nnnieroua varieties of beautiful 
crystals found osBociated with them are a striking testimony of 
their having cooled down with great slowneaa and regularity. Cfene- 
rally speaking, they occupy a lower position in the crust than tha 
aqneons ; though they are often seen overlying the latter, or aepatat- 
ing the strata of which they consist, or forcing their way tlrough 
those strata in veins, rents, and fissares. They are usually divided 
iato three principal kinda — granitic, irappean, and volcanic. The 
first of these is reckoned the oldest, as it is generally found under- 
lying or aaaoctated with the oldest series of the stratmed rocks ; the 
second is considered more recent in ita origin, because occurring for 
the moat part among the secondary and tertiary forniationa ; and the 
, third, as the neweat of all, being generally found aaaociated n-ith 
Utilise modem formations which have been deposited since theter- 

I * " It roUowi from thli (mportant remit ttist beat mnat be oonatantly ronlnE 
r ftom the iolerior ot thB C4rt£ tfl lli Burfnce, wlionca tt eicapea intg spade ; and 
bence the temperitnreot the whole earth nm8t be cooling from year to rear. Blr 
W. TbonwoD of aiBigDwlms cilcalated that during the Luiee.OOMOO j^eui, the 
ratoofUicroaie of Umpsreture under ground hu dimialahed (rem I' for every 
10 foet to 1- for erary SO feel, of descent, an at present; and adds, tbut if thii 
•cHonimd been gnliig on with anji approach to nnifgrmlty fbr 29,000,000,(100 
reus, the amount of heat loat out of the earth woold be more tban enough to 
melt a miu of sorftce-mck eqnal in bulk to the whole earth, and In BOO.OOO.OM 


tiary era. The following are the principal rocks belonging to these 
three varieties, beginning with the lowest : — 

Granitic: Common granite (consisting of small regular crystals of 
quartz, felspar, and mica), porphyry or porphyritic granite, syenite, 
proto^e, pegmatite, hornblende rock, primitive greenstone, serpen* 
tine, felspathic rock, &c. 

Tbafpean : Basalt, greenstone or dolerite, clinkstone, compact felspar, 
hometone, pitchstone, claystone, amygdaloid, trap-tuff, &c. 

VoLOANio : Lava, trachyte, obsidian, pumice, pearlstone, tufa, scoriae, 
palagonite, sulphur, &c. 

Igneous rocks are very widely distributed, and play a most 
important part in the physical aspect of many countries. The 
mightiest mountain-ranges on the earth's surface are mainly 
formed of the granitic series, as the Alps, Pyrenees, Ural, and 
Grampian Mountains in Europe ; the Himalayas in Asia ; the 
Abyssinian Mountains in Africa ; and the Andes in South 
America. The prevailing scenery is dreary and monotonous, 
and the soil barren and inhospitable. But the economic uses 
of granitic rocks are numerous and varied. They form exceed- 
ingly durable building - stones, admirably fitted for bridjges, 
lighthouses, docks, fortresses, and as road and street matermls. 
When polished they are generally highly ornamental, and are 
therefore employed for obelisks, tombstones, and pillars. The 
industrial products of the trap-rocks are also numerous, though 
not of equal importance. Some basalts and ^eenstones make 
good building-stone, but the difficulty of dressmg them into the 
required shape prevents their extensive use. X^early all the 
sulphur of commerce is derived from volcanic regions ; pumice 
has long been used as a polishing or rubbing stone; while many 
of the lavas yield precious stones, and others are metalliferous. 

Stratified Bocks. — ^These are divided by geologists into two 
peat series — the Orj-^stalline or Non-fossiliferous, and the Fossil- 
iferous. The former, — also called Metamorphic rocks, — are 
usually found immediately above the granitic, separating them 
from the fossiliferous strata above, and embrace the foflowing 
members — viz., gneiss, mica-slate, clay-slate, hornblende-slate, 
talc-slate, actynolite-slate, chlorite-slate, quartz-rock, and pri- 
mary limestone. Although gneiss usually occupies the lowest 
place in the series, these rocks do not follow any invariable 
order, and not imfrequently one or more of them is wanting. 
The materials of these strata appear to have been originally de- 
posited by water in the form oi sediment, and to have been sub- 
sequently so altered by subterranean heat as to assume their 
present crystalline texture. At the time of their original for- 
mation they were probably replete with organic remains similar 
to the fossiliferous systems above them ; but the intense heat pro- 


ceeding from the nnderlymg granite !ias destroyed every vestige 
of oi^nio matter. In regionB where the Metamorphic rocka Se 
near the aurface, the Boenery in usually bold, rugged, luid pic- 
tureaqiie, and the soil unprodnctive ; but fllate, marble, and 
building-stone are obtained in theiD, and not unfrequently tin, 
copper, lead, silver, and gold, 

FosBiLiT'EEOUB Strata — FalEeontologr. — By carefully 
Btudying the fossiliferoua strata above mentioned, we obtain, 
moat important information regarding the earliest stages of the 
earth's existence — information, in faet, nowhere else to be found. 
We learn, for example, that our world had arrived at a hoary 
antiquitj before the creation of man ; that it was not then a 
barren, untenanted wilderness, hut the happy home of innu- 
merable races of living creatniea, which, once and again, were 
swept away by great natural oatastrophea, and replaced by other 
orders of plants and animals, higher in tjie scale of being than 
their predeceasora, and more nearly appoxjmating in beauty of 
form and utility to the many races, animal and vegetable, which 
are now placed under man's domain. This knowledge is partly 
derived &om the lithological character and immense depth of 
these strata, each of which, in ita turn, muat have been slowly 
deposited by the waters of seas, lahea, or rivers ; but principally 
&om the conntless petrified remains of the enimala and planta 
that had their abode in the waters or on the land, at the period 
of their formation. The branch of geology which treats of these 
organic remains ia termed Palaeontology (from palaioi, ancient, 
anta, beings, and If^oa, a description), signifying a description 
of ancient beings. The long-continued study of the fissiliferona 
strata of many coiuitriea has enabled geologists to arrange the 
entire series into ten distinct and weLl-deiined systems, each of 
which differs essentially from all the others, both as recards its 
litholo^cal conatituentH and ita petrified organisms. Tiieae ten 
BystemB are further grouped into three great series, or periotk — 
vit., the PaIuEOZOIC, or moat ancient ; the Mesozoic, or seoond- 
arys and the CAiNozorc, or moat recent. The diagram (p. 51) 
indicates at a glance the precise place in the geological scale 
where each higher order of organised existence made its £rst 

J. TlB Lanrentlsn ayrtsm. — This, the niost ancient of all Itnown 
fossiliferoua deposits, drnvesi ita name from the river St Law- 
rence, in the haain of which it occnpiea an immeusa area. Sir W. 
Logan, of the Causdian Geological Survey, regards these rocka as the 
moat ancient on the American continent, and as the enoiraleDts of 
the oldtat gneiss of Scotland and Scan iliua via. In the geological 
scale they occupy a lower position than the Camhiian rocka of 
Kortb Wales, and consist of nighly crystalline gneissoid and honv- 


blendic schists, -which, in some localities, attain a thickness of 30,000 
feet. Principal Dawson, the eminent Canadian geologist, has re- 
cently (1868) detected in the lower formation of these rocks what 
may justly be regarded as the earliest indication of animal life on our 
globe. This consists of a foraminifer, named by him EozoGn Carta- 
dense, a humble Zoophyte, and one of the very lowest types of the 
animal kingdom. This zoophyte has since been detected in Bohemia, 
in strata underlying the Silurian rocks. 

2. Tlie Cambrian Syvtem.— (From Carnbria^ the ancient name of 
Wales), a term employed by Professor Sedgwick to designate the 
lowest fossiliferous rocks in North Wales. They consist mainly of 
slaty, gritty, and silicious beds of immense thickness (from 20, 000 
to 80,000 feet), which are regarded as the geological equivalents of 
the fossiliferous schists of Wicklow, the lower greywacke of Dum- 
fries, the Northern Highlands of Scotland, the alum -schists of 
Sweden, and the Huronian sandstone of America. A deeper interest 
attaches to the Cambrian and Laurentian systems than to any other 
in the geological scale, on account of their containing the petrified 
remains of the earliest living inhabitants of our planet. These con- 
sist of FucoiDS, a humble genus of marine plants ; of Zoophytes 
(Oldhamia), and Graptolites, the lowest forms of animal life; of 
brachyopodous Molluscs (lingula and terebratula) ; and of Trilo- 
bites (olenus and paradoxides), a remarkable family of Crustaceans 
peculiar to the Palaeozoic period. 

3. The Silurian Ssrstem, so called on account of its huge develop- 
ment in South-Eastem Wales, a locality once inhabited by the iS'i7- 
ureSy an ancient British tribe. Here it amounts to about 8000 feet 
in thickness, forming several distinct formations, which differ essen- 
tially in the character of their organic remains. The prodigious de- 
velopment of fossils has no parallel in the underlying formations. 
In the British Isles' alone, in 1867, the Silurian strata contained 
1194 recognised species, only 8 of which were plants. In a small 
tract around Prague in Bohemia, the indefatigable M. Barrande enu- 
merates no fewer than 2735 species ; while Dr Bigsby, in his * The- 
saurus Siluricus, * a work of immense industry and research, enumerates 
7553 well-defined species as belonging to all countries. By inspect- 
ing this great work it will be perceived that in the Silurian age of 
the world's history all the classes of the invertebrate division of the 
animal kingdom are well represented, but that Molluscs, Echino- 
dermata, and especially Trilobites, existed in vast numbers. But 
what imparts the deepest interest to the Silurian system is that it 
affords the earliest evidence both of vertebrated animals and of land- 
plants. These occur in the uppermost strata of the Ludlow rocks, 
and immediately underlying the lowest beds of the Devonian system. 
The vertebrata consist of Fishes of the genus Pteraspia. They are 
few in number (11 species only having yet been found in British 
rocks), small in size, and of the lowest order. They are all cartila- 
ginous fishes, like the skate and dog-fish — for fishes with ossified 
vertebrae are not found till we arrive at the Devonian strata. The 
land-plants are also of the humblest rank, belonging to the family 


I Lycopodiacea:, and allied to our present club-mossea. "Very recently 
fi^ea have also been detected in the Lower Siluriaa fartaation. Sil- 
urian strata are eirteosivelT dereloped in many countries, especially 
in Wales, the Soutti of Scotland, Bohemia. Russia, Scaadinavia, 
Nori:h and Soath America, and AaBtralia. The Teina that trareriis 
the Bystem are OBiially metalliferons, yielding mercury, copper, lend, 
■ilvor, and gold. It ia mainly from rocks lielongins to tliia system tlmt 
the pi'odi^ous quantitiea of gold recently brought to light in Aua- 
tralia, California, the Ural Mountains, and other loealitiea, have been 
obtained. Thoy also yield flagstones, roofing- alatea, and limestone 
for mortar and manure. In Silurian districts, the scenery ia usually 
Taried and picturesque, less ahrunt and bold than in Metamorphic 
regions, yet move diversified by hill and dale tLan Secondary strata ; 
but in KoBsia, south of the G. of Finlaod,t1ieyfann wide level plains, 
or low plateaux. Sir Boderick Impey Morchison, the Prince of British, 
geolog^ta, has been the chief investigator of the Silurian system, 

4. Tbe Devonian or Old Bed Sandstone SyBtem overlies the 
Silurian, separating it from the Carboniferous system. Geologists 
are far from bein^ nt one as to the number of formations into which 
it is divisible ; but Hugh Miller, its most illusti'ious explorer, 
divides it into three — Lower, Middle, and Upper. It is lai^ly de- 
veloped in Scotland, South Wales, Devonshire, Belgium, fiussia, ani 
North America, where it usually conaiata of aaucccasion of sandstones, 
alternating with layers of sandy shale and beds of concretionary lime- 
atones. The Sora of the system consists partly of msriDe, bntchieily 
of land plants, of a gi'eatly higher order than those found in the up- 
permost beds of the Silurian. Upwards of ten years ago, the author 
of this Manual discovered several huge calamites in the lowermost 
strata of the Old Ked Sandstone of Aberdeenshire, previously re- 
gBjded OS unfoasiliferous. Conc-lwaring trees— plants as high in the 
Buale of nature as the pines sad Cedars of the present day — were 
found by Miller, long previously, in the same formation at Cromarty ; 
while Dr Dawson has recently discovered no fewer than eighty-two 
species of laud-plants in tlie Devonian strata of Nova Scotia. To 
inch an extent, indeed, did lBnd-]ilants abound in the Devonian age., 
that in some localities, as at Point Gasp*, in Canada, thin seams of 
bituminous coal have been discovered. Perhaps the moat beautiful 
species of the Devonian flora was the Adiantiles Hibemkue, a Iree- 
fem, obtained from the yellow sandstone series of Ireland and Rox- 
burfthshire. The fauna of the system displays an equal development; 
for thongh the Trilobites, which so pre-eminently characterised the 
Silurian system, have passed their meridian, other cnistaceajia of a 
still higher order appear in their room. The most remarkable of 
these is the PCerygotaf j4Tigliciu, a gigantic lobster-like crustacesu, 
from 4 to fl feet long, found in the Devonian rocks of Hereford, For- 
far, and Ulbster in Coithneas. A few placoid fislies were found in 
the Silurian system, but here fishes exist in vast numbers and of two 
distinct ordere — Placoids and Ganoids — the latter with osseous ver- 
tebrse and dermal skeletons. Among the most characteristic foritiR 
are Oachui, Cvplutlw/a^, Coccaeteua, Aetcmlepk, DipUrue, and Holop- 


tychius. Insects make their first appearance here, but the reptU* 
ian remains of Elgin, formerly supposed to belong to this system, 
are now assigned to the Trias. In 1856, the total number of fossil 
species belonging to British Devonian rocks amounted to only 300 ; 
but the number has since been greatly increased. In the Khenish 
and Belgian rocks alone, 450 species have been discovered ; while 
the total number of species known in 1867 was 682. The minerals 
of the system are mainly building-stone of inferior colour and dura- 
bility, paving-slabs of excellent quality, which are extensively ex- 
ported from Caithness and Forfarshire ; while to the trap-rocks of 
the system the lapidary is indebted for his agates, jaspers, and Scotch 
pebbles. The scenery is generally flat and tame, though occasionally 
Iiighly diversified ; and the soil, owing to its porousness, is usually 
well adapted for agriculture. 

6. Tbe CaTbonlferouB System, so called from the profusion of 
vegetable matter {carbon) which it contains, consists in like manner 
of three formations — the Lower Coal-Measures or Carboniferous 
Slates, the Mountain Limestone, and the Upper or true Coid-Mea- 
sures. Not unfrequently one of the members is wanting, and some- 
times beds of one formation alternate with those of another. In 
some parts of Scotland the Lower Coal-Measures yield great quanti- 
ties of serviceable coal ; while in Ireland, where the formation is so 
enormously developed, little coal is found. Wherever this forma- 
tion exists, it presents indications of having been deposited in fresh 
water, in estuaries, or in inland seas. The Mountain Limestone, 
^ain, is essentially a marine deposit, and, by the peculiar character 
of its fossils, forms the most easily recognised formation in the 
earth's crust The Upper Coal-Measures, like the Lower, are mainly 
of lacustrine origin, and consist of alternations of sandstone, coal, 
shale, ironstone, clay, and impure limestone. The minerals of this 
formation, especially its coal and iron, form an inexhaustible source 
of wealth to those countries where, as in Britain, they most exten- 
sively prevail. In Britain, especially, they mightily contribute to 
our power and eminence amongst neighbouring nations. The flora 
of the system is the most abundant and gigantic that ever appeared 
on the earth's surface — consisting of coniferous trees of immense size, 
huge palms, tree-terns, lenidodendra, calamites, sigillarise, equiseta, 
club-mosses, and other allied forms. Wherever any of tiie Carbon- 
iferous formations occurs, these crowd eveiy bed of shale, and form 
the materials of which every seam of coal consists. Considering, 
then, that the Coal-Measures exist in numerous lands and in all lati- 
tudes, and that these plants all belong to a tropical vegetation, the 
obvious inference is, that during the deposition of the Carboniferous 
strata a hot moist climate prevailed over the entire surface of the 
globe. The fauna is less peculiar than the flora, but it equally marks 
distinct progress in organic development. Here sauroid fishes, and 
Reptiles of the Batrachian or lowest order, appear for the first 
time.* The number of plants hitherto discovered in the whole sys- 

* While these sheets are passing throni^h the press, there is a report in the 
newspapers that Sir T. P. Barcas of Newcastle has detected, in the Northamber- 




tsm amoants fully to 1700, of wliiali Rbout one-tenth are plianero- 
{(amous. In British strata alone, the fauna, iu 1B67, iiumbered 1100 
species, Carboniferona strata cover lar^^ portions of t^e British 
Isles. In England the; extend from Bertiy to Berwick, but the 
Upper Coal-Measatas are chiefly confined to South Wales and the 
T^iey of ths IVne. In Scotland they form a broad belt across the 
coiratiy from the coast of Ayrshire to Fife. Ireland is not rich in 
coal, ul her coal-fields being situated in the Carboniferous limestone, 
which covers the central plain. On the Continent the principal 
localities are the north of France, Belgium, Germany, Frussia, Aus- 
tria, and the south of Russia. In extra-Earopeau countries (for 
which see under the diflarent continents) the main localities are, 
Hindostan, the coasta of Chili and Pent, the lathmiu of Panama, 
Nova Scotia, and especially the United States of America, where the 
Coal- Measures occupy an area of 600,001) sq^uare miles. The econn- 
mic importance of the Carboniferous system canoot be overratod. ] t 
furnishes nearly all the coal consumed iu every civilised country. 
In the British lales alone about 100,000,000 tons of this valuable 
mineral is dug annually- Almost equally important is the iron, 
which is ustiBlIy asaociated with the coal. Other products of the 
-—^ m are, petroleura, asphalt, naphtha, paraffliie-oil copperas, ochre. 
; the ores of lead, zinc, and antimony | marble, limestone, and 
building-stone of the finest quality. The scenery, with the excep- 
tion of some limestone districts, is generally tame and iinpicturesi^ue, 
while the sod is often cold and only moderately fertile. 

8. The Fennlaii SyBtsm, so named from its enormoos development 
in the govEmment of Perm, in Russia, forms the uppermost member 
of the great PalKozoio aeriee of rocka. It was formerly known as the 
Saliferoos or Kew Red Sandstone, in opposition to the Devonian or 
Old Bed, from which it is separated by the Carboniferous systeni. 
It consists of two formations in England — Red Sandstone and Mag- 
neaian Limestone — hut of three m Central Eussia. The organio 
remains ara neitlier nnweroua nor very remarkable, but approximate 
far mora closely to those of tha Carboniferous system below, than to 
those of the overlying Triaaaic, The flora, consietin^ of land and 
marine plants, amounts to 183 species, embraciog fucoids, calamltes, 
coniferous trees, and silicified trunks of tree-ferns. The fauns 
amounts to 350 fossil speciea, including £3 fishes- The Trilobites 
and other higher forms of crustacean life have disappeared, la 
common nith the other Paleozoic systems, the fishes are all charac- 
terised by heleracaval or uneqaaUj-lobed tails ; whereaa in all the 
XBteraa above the Permian the hovtocereal or equally-Iobad tail pre- 
iminates — a form which is nearly uaitorsal in the 8000 speciea 
now existing. Reptiles are more numerooa than in the Carhonifcr- 
OQs ayatem, and uow cm brace Sachiank as well as Batrachians — f.g., 
the paUcomunu, proCoroaaurus. and tkccodonloaauna, all of which 
are true air-breatbiDg and land-inhabiting reptiles. The minerals 
land Coal-MeiinrM, the Jkbt of a true nummal I The efftot of tJiis dlscowir, ([ 
*g» (Of- 1B6B). This, however, has not Jet been tone (Jan. 187T), 


embrace excellent building-stones, limestone, ^(ypsum, lithographic 
stone, and copper, and occasionally veins of galena and sulphuret of 
zinc. Permian strata are known to prevail in the north and midland 
counties of England, in the whole of eastern Russia, and over con- 
siderable areas in Ireland, France, Germany, and America. The 
physical aspect of Permian districts is by no means destitute of beauty 
and variety, though the scenery is sometimes tame and uninviting, 
and the soil well adapted for pasture and woodland. 

7. The Triassio System derives its name from the fact that in 
Germany, where the system is highly developed, it consists of three 
well-defined formations — ^the Burder SandstHn, the Jduschelkalkf and 
the Keuper — the middle formation being wanting in England. With 
these formations we commence, on our upward march, the second 
great division of the fossiliferous strata, and hence named the Meso- 
ZOIC. At the close of the Permian system, an infinitely greater 
change took place in organic life than that which marked tne ascent 
at any previous stage. All the species and most of the genera of 
the earlier races have now disappeared, and are replaced in tne Trias 
by an entirely new series, the types of which are continued to the 
base of the Tertiary. Nature has entered on a new cycle, and every- 
where the humbler forms of organic life have given place to forms 
more highly organised. It is to this system, and not to the Devo- 
nian, that we must now refer the remarkable reptiles, the Telerpeton, 
Staganolepis, and Hyperadapedon of the Elgin Sandstone. In the 
Trias formations on the Connecticut river, in New England, the 
footprints of no fewer than 23 species of Birds are enumerated by 
Dr Hitchcock, together with Chelonians, Batrachians, and other 
reptiles. In the Trias also occur the earliest traces of Mammals. 
In 1847, Professor Plieninger discovered in the upper beds of the 
keuper formation, in WUrtemberg, the molar teeth and bones of a 
small marsupial animal named Microlestes ardiquvs. In England, 
the animal remains in the Trias are not very numerous (omy 61 
species) ; but on the Continent, one single formation (the Muschel- 
kalk) has already yielded 222 species, and the St Cassian beds* 744 
species. The flora embraces equisetums, calamites, ferns, cycada- 
ceous and coniferous plants, but is very limited. In England and 
Ireland this system is the great repository of rock-salt, the layers of 
which, in Cheshire, in some places attain a thickness of from 75 
to 100 feet. It also yields sandstone for building purposes, calcare- 
ous flagstones, limestones, and valuable beds of gypsum. The 
scenery of the Trias is usually tame and monotonous, and the soil 
better adapted for pastoral than agricultural purposes. 

8. The Oolitic System is highly developed in England, where it con- 
sists of three very distinct formations — tne Lias, Oolite, and Wealden 
— and stretches slantingly across the country from Dorsetshire to 
Yorkshire. It is evident from the character of the imbedded organ- 
isms that the first two are mariTie formations, while the last must 
have been deposited from fresh water. The characteristic fossils of. 
the lAas — the lowest of the three — are cycadaceous plants, which 
occupy a middle position between ferns and coniferous trees,, and 



which here make thcdr first appparaccH. The fauna wears a aiiigulac 
aspects owing to the vast number of aminoniteB, faiJleraBites, gry- 
phes, and cuttle -ftsbea which it embraces. Beptilea also attain 
their higbeat development in thia formation, contkining, as it does, 
those gigootio and highly characteristic forms, the Ichtbyosaama and 
Pledosaurua. In 1864, the fosail fauna of this formation, as devel- 
oped in the British Isles, contained, accordiDg to Professor Eamsay 
4K ths London University, 467 species. The flora of the Oolite ta 
tha same year comprised 128 species — consisting, for the most part, 
of cyoadaEere, fetus, eqitisetaceee, and pines, with the new orders — 
■cypresses, yews, dammaras, thujas, and acrew-pinas. Sucb, indeed, 
was the abuadaace of vegetation in the Oolitic age, that not nnfre- 
QUently it exhibita seams of workable coal, as at Brora in Sutberland- 
ahire, and Richmond in Virginia. Ita faaua was pecaliarlj riuh and 
Taded, as is evident from uie fact that in the British rocks alone 
no fewer than 11S3 species were known to geologists in 1S64. Tho 
marsupial or pouched auimals, which Brat appeared in the Trias, 
now existed if grant numbers. They were allied to the living opos- 
■um and kangaroo of the Australian continent, and formed a con- 
necting link between birds and tha placental or true Mammalia, 
which do not appear till neat the end of the Wealden age. The 
IfMWen derives ita name from the "wealds"or "wolds'' of Suffolk, 
because it prevails extensively in that country. Unlike the two 
tlnderlfing formationB, the Wealden is essentially a fresh-water 
I formatian, and the only one of that nature occurring within tha 
I limits of the Mesozoic series. Its organic remains differ very widely 
[ from those of the Lisa and Oolite— rconaisting of " the spoils of tliH 
■ river and the land, not of tha sea. Among its most characteristic 
plants may be named the tphejiopteris gratis (a sort of fern), leaves 
of com/enE and cgmdaceiB, and fruits resembling those of palma. Of 
theoumeroua reptiles belonging to tha formation ore — the Iguaaodon, 
a gigantic herbivorous animal, and the Fterodacti/l, or Hying reptile, 
wbich somewhat reaembled a baL But by far the most interesting 
fossils of the Weatden are fonnd in its uppermost strata, near the 
base of the Cretaceous system — being the bones and teeth of Placen- 
tal or Trite M^UHals, which mark another stage in the great 
march of creation. Including the Purbeck beds, the Wealdon for- 
mation of tho British Isles have yielded 253 fossil species, including 
23 plants, SO fishes, and 29 reptiles. The minerals of the Oolitic aya- 
tem are of considerable importance, consisting of building, paving, 
roofiugand tile stones, alum, marble, coal, and fuller's earth. Both 
the Lias and Oolitic Limestones are largely quarried for mortar and 
hydraulic cement, the latter also furnishing the best description of 
I lithographic stones. The scensry of Oolitic districts is varied and 
I pleasing, but wants the boldness and abruptness of Metamorphio 
1 tegions. The soil is osually dry and fertile, except the Lias and 
F Wealden clays, which in dry seasons are stiff and intractable. 
' S. Tlia Oretaceoni Sjetixa, the highest in the great Hesozoio 
■eriea of rooks, derives ita name from the chalk (l^t. erela) that 
forms the main ingredient in its composition. It is a marine depcEiiE, 


and embraces two well-defined formations — ^the Greensand and the 
Chalk. The ^ora is not abundant, there being only 12 species 
known in British rocks, and even these usually consist of (uifted 
and imperfect fragments. They exhibit, however, a great era in 
the progress of terrestrial vegetation, for here first occur the re- 
mains of Exogenous or Dicotyledonous Trees — i.6:, trees having 
a separable bark, distinct concentric circles, increasing at their circum- 
ference, the solidity diminishing from the centre outwards, the pith 
enclosed in a longitudinal canal, and possessed of medullary rays. 
The fauna is rich, varied, and beautifully preserved. Nearly all the 
types of life are strictly and peculiarly Mesozoic. * * Of the 521 species 
Imown in our Upper Chalk, all, with the exception of TerebratiUa 
captU-serpentia and a few foraminifera, have apparentlv become 
extinct during that vast period that elapsed between the close of the 
Cretaceous and the beginning of the Eocene epoch in England." — 
(Professor Ramsay.) Of the four orders into which fishes are divided, 
two appear for the first time in Cretaceous rocks — viz.,CTENOiDsand 
Cycloids. Reptiles, though still the dormant class of animals, have 
now passed their meridian ; but turtles, pterodactyles, and oviparous 
saurians are not unfrequent. Bones of birds have been detected in 
N. America, but the formerly supposed Qtutdrumarums Mammids 
first appear in the Eocene. Altogether, 1362 species of fossil animals 
were Known to exist in British rocks in 1864, of which 89 were 
fishes and 31 reptiles. Cretaceous strata cover extensive areas in the 
south of England, in France, Germany, the United States, and 
Vancouver iSand, in all of which the scenery is distinguished by 
the rounded outlines of the hills and valleys, which afford excellent 
pasturage. The origin of the chalk-beds has led to much discussion, 
but it IS now believed to be derived from the myriads of coralline 
zoophytes and foraminifera "mth. which the seas of the period 
abounded. The industrial products are comparatively unimportant, 
consisting chiefly of preparations of chalk and flint. The former, 
which consists of carbonate of lime, is employed by the farmer, 
bricklayer, and plasterer ; while the latter, when calcined, is largely 
used in the manufacture of flint-glass and porcelain ware. 

10. Tlie Tertiary SyBtem, embraces three formations — ^the Lower, 
Middle, and Upper — or, as they are more commonly called (with 
reference to the number of species which they respectively con- 
tain in common with our existing fauna). Eocene, Miocene, and 
Pliocene. These consist of vast and varied deposits — fluviatile, 
lacustrine, marine, and volcanic — usually found resting on one or 
other of the formations of the Cretaceous system. It appears evi- 
dent that during their deposition important changes tooK place in 
the relative level of sea and land ; that volcanic agency was de- 
veloped on a vast and magnificent scale ; that the portion of Europe 
now forming the British Isles was the site of enormous lakes, which 
at the present day have their best analogues in the vast fresh-water 
lakes of Canada ; and that, during the same epoch, such a gradual 
refrigeration of climate took place in European countries as to admit 
of the existence of plants and animals similar to, or identical with. 


• those now Existiog in lliat continent. On entering tlio Tertmij 
■trata the palieontologist finds that orguiie nature ha^ uudersone a 
ccmplete cuanj^e — that everj plant and animal with which he h«- 
c«ine acquainted irhen itudjing the SeccndaTj rocks has passed 
anny, and that he has now entered on a wholly new stage of exist- 
ence, Never before, during Uie pre-AdimichiHtoiyof our earth, did 
BO thorough ond total a change take place in the fiorn and fauna of 
the globe (see under " Trisssic Syatem," p. 46). The flora ia dia- 
tinguished from that of the older epochs by the abundance of 
dicotyledonous trees (oaks, beeches, elms, ftc), a few leaves and 
fragments only of which have as yet been detected in the Cretaceous 
TOCKB, and even these are of wholly different species. The mono- 
cotyledons, especially jialms, also 'become greatly more nomerons ; 
while the conifers, previously ao abundant, no longer ocrnpy a 
prominent place. In the Goccna formation atone, in which between 
200 and 300 fosail plnnta have heen detected, no fewer than one-half 
are dicotyledons. The fauna of the ayatem is equally characteristic 
It was pre-eminently the age of mammalia ; for, though manimals, 
both marsupial and placental, are knowu to hare existed in the 
Seeondary ages, only a few vestiges of either occur in formations 
lower down than the Eocene. In this single formation — that to 
which the London and Paris basins belong — no fewer than 25 genera 
of this class of vertebrata were known in 1656, Altogether, upwards 
of 100 genera of mammals occur in the Tertiary rocks ; and, what 
ii Kill more remarkable, all the existine orders of the class are 
represented, though unequally. The pochydennata were especially 
nnmerouB, embracing the uncouth jialieothe-ium, aaoplotherium, da- 
uot/ieriujn, maetodon, and mammoth. It was among the pachyder- 
mata of the Paris basin that the illustrious Cuvier etfected those 
wonderful restorations which, in the beginning of this century, gave 
such an impetus to palEeontoIogy. Several species of birds, chiefly 
from the Eocene of Paris, have been described, the most remarkable 
of which is the gigantic gastoraia Parisiensii, a fonn intermediate 
between the wading and aqnatio orders. The reptiles resemble the 
esisting crocodile, Bligator, and gavial. The fishes embrace the four 
orders — plaeoids, ganoids, cycloids, and ctenoids — but appear to be 
almost without esceptiou of diflerent species from those now peopling 
the ocean. In England, Tertiary strata cover nearly all the basin of 
the Thames, as also Hampshire and the northern part of the Isle of 
Wight, but they scarcely exist in ScotUnd and Ireland, For their 
distribntion in Southern Eurojie see at p. BO. The indastrial pro- 
duct* are various, comprising building- stone, marble, limestone, 
(ffpsum, brick-clay, potter's clay, pipe-clay, miUstonos, lignite or 

brown coal," and amber, 

II. The FleUtDoetLB or Boulder Cliur.— It would appear that, 
after the deposition of the Eocene, Pliocene, and Pliocene fcrma- 
tiona, a great change took place in all the higher latitudes of the 
1 northern hemisphere in regard to the relative distribution of sea and 
'»nd; that a large portion of Europe and of the British Isles was 
p»dllal!y submerged beneath the waters, the summits c[ the loftiot 


moontam-raiiges appearing as islands in mid-ocean ; that a corre- 
sponding elevation of land oocnrred simultaneously in the Arctic 
regions, accompanied by a change iu the direction of the great ocean- 
currents, and by a great diminution of temperature over all North- 
em Europe ; that enormous icebergs — ^laden with gravel, sand, and 
gigantic boulders — were annually disengaged from the Arctic shores, 
which, floating southwards, discharged their miscellaneous contents 
over tiie recently-submerged lands ; that this submergence and ac- 
companying change of temperature caused the destruction of by far 
the greater number of the plants and animals which existed in North 
Europe in the Miocene and Pliocene ages — ^their places being sup- 
plied, however, to some extent, by the fauna and nora now peculiar 
to more northern latitudes ; that after this state of things had con- 
tinued for ages, the submeiged lands of North Europe and the Bri- 
tish Isles were again gradually elevated to their present level ; and 
that, finally, the glaci^ epoch having passed away, a new flora and 
fauna, suited to &e new conditions, made their appearance — ^many 
of the species of which c-ontinue to exist to the present day. The 
organic remains of the boulder clay are by no means numerous. In 
the British Isles they occur chiefly in the Norwich Crag, Lanca- 
shire, North Wales, Isle of Man, the banks of the Clyde, Caitliness, 
and in the north and east of Ireland. On the Contment the main 
localities are Scandinavia, Russia, and North Germany ; while 
similar deposits are found in Sicily, North America, Patagonia, and 
Tierra del Fuego. The Pleistocene beds contain very few recognis- 
able remains of plants, but some of the species still exist among car 
aboriginal trees; a^ for example, the Scotch fir and the common 
birch. Others continue to hold tiieir place in the forests of North- 
western Europe ; as Abies exceUa, or the Norwegian spruce, which is 
found rooted in the Norwich Crag. In general^ the coniferae alone 
appear to have flourished during the enture era of the boulder clay. 
Tbe fossil fiinna is more abundant, but consists for the most part of 
mollusca; though in the fresh-water beds numerous remains of 
mammals occur, the greater number of which have become extinct. 
The total number of marine testacea in the Norwich Crag does not 
exceed 76 species, of which only one-tenth are extinct ; while of the 
14 fresh- water species associated with them, all appear to be now 
living, either in the British seas, the Boreal, or the Arctic r^ons. 
No fewer than 87 species of mammals are enxmierated by Professor 
Owen as occurring in the caves of the British Isles ; and of these, he 
says, 18 species have become extinct, while the remaining 19 con- 
tinue to survive in the British archipelago, or on the Continent. 
The entire fauna of the glacial beds, as given by Dr Edward Forbes 
in the new edition of the * Physical Atlas,' amounts to 170 species. 
These are chiefly mollusca, but the number includes several birds, 
and not a few extinct mammals ; but the horse, goat, ox, red deer, 
badger, fox, wild-cat, and several other species known to have existed 
in l£e Pliocene era, survived the storms of the Pleistocene, and now 
form a living bridge connecting the present epoch with the immea- 
surable ages of the past 




— t 





tfiuRO O riSHES. 




12. Prehistorlo Formation.— A deeper interest attftches to this 
formation than to any other in the entire geological scale. Here are 
found the earliest traces of the existence of Man on the earth — as pile- 
dwellings, tree canoes, flint arrow - heads and other stone imple- 
ments manufactured by human hands. No clear line of demarca- 
tion separates this formation from the Pleistocene, and in the present 
state of science it cannot be positively determined in what century 
or millennium those implements were fabricated. There can be little 
doubt, however, of the vast antiquity of some of them, as proven by 
Sir Charles Lyell and others. The antiquity of the human species, 
as thus indicated, no doubt conflicts with the chronology of u sher, 
founded on our modem Hebrew text. In the matter of antediluvian 
chronology, however, the Hebrew text has in all probability been 
vitiated, as we have shown at large in a separate work (* Facts and 
Dates,' p. 62-69). The Septuagint translation — ^a translation made 
from an uncorrupted text, and sanctioned by our Lord and His apos- 
tles — assigns to our race an antiquity of nearly 1500 years more tnan 
Usher does. Science is giving its emphatic verdict, in this particolary 
in favour of the Septuacint ; and tnough the extended cnronology 
may fail in meeting all the difficulties of the case, it will certainly 
meet many of them. In the mean time we cordially adopt the words 
of a recent brilliant writer when he says, "The theology of science 
is at present in its infancy, and consequently liable to multitudes of 
errors. When the theolo^n shall have become more conversant with 
Grod's works, and the scientiflc man more of a theologian, we shall 
obtain more light "—(* Old Bones,* by Rev. W. S. Symondi F.G.S.) 

8. Botany. — Physical Geography does not concern itself with 
the structure and classiflcation of plants, but conflnes its atten- 
tion to their existing number, to the various modes by which 
they have been disseminated, to the external causes which affect 
their distribution, and to the more or less limited areas to which 
the different species and families are confined. 

Number of Speoles. — The number of species presently known 
to botanists probably exceeds 120,000 ; but the progress of dis- 
covery is so rapid, and the parts of the earth's surface still unin- 
vestigated so extensive, that 200,000 appears to be a very moderate 
calculation of the number of species actually existing. Theophrastus 
(B.C. 390) knew only 600 ; Plmy (a.d. 79) increased the number to 
1000 ; the naturalists of the middle ages contented themselves with 
a description of 1400 ; the celebrated Linnseus, in 1753, swelled the 
number to 6988, and in 1762, to 8800; while Wildenow, in 1807, 
raised the number to 20,000. During the present century the pro- 
gress of the science has been remarkable. In the year 1820, ^e 
number of species in the herbarium of the Jardin des Plantes, at 
Paris, was estimated at 66,000. In 1847 the collection of M. Deles- 
sert, of the same city, contained about 86,000 speciea In 1844, 
Steudal, the German botanist, estimated the total number of known 
forms at 96,000 ; while in 1869 the number of recognised species was 
120,000, of which 103,000 were flowering, and 17,000 flowerless. 


JFIuin^ldt estimates the total numlier of existing plants as at liiast 

Aatlqolt? of Spedes. — Ths geologist can demonstnits that all 
the apeciaa of the eiiatiag flora were not creafed sinraltaneoasly, 
but were introduced at successive stages 33 the surface and teia- 
peratura of the earth became fitted for their reception. Tliey are, 
therefore, of very dilFerent degrees of antiquity ; for while they all 
appear to have been danizena of the earth ever since the creation of 
man, most of them were ushered into being prior to the time in 
which our existing continents acquired their present configuration ; 
■uid a very few of them can be traced back to the earliest Tertiary 
a^s. Those siieciea are reckoned the oldest which combine simpli- 
(dty of organisation with great width of distribution, as our commou 
i^rassea and rushes, together with mosses, lichens, ^ngi, and ferns ; 
while those that are confined to small areas — notwithatandine the 
contiguity of land having a suitahle climate, and their being endowed 
with the requisite means of transport — are consideredthe moat recent. 

Oantrea ol CreatloiL^Most people seem to be of opinion that all, 
or nearly all, the plants found in any particular locality, were oti- 
oinally created there. The great SwFdlsh botanist, on the other 
ABnd, believed that *'"■ *'«"">" :*'^''=' "' -n *i>^ .>i-;=t,'v.ri t.i.>nt., «■<.»> 
uraated in some oni 

•Uy disseminated o ._ .._. ..._.... _._ .._ 

be adduced by modem science to show that each of these hypotheses 
ii equally antenahle ; and most naturalists are now of opiuiou that 
there were numerous tpteifie tentrei, situated in numerous and 
widely-aeporated localities, each centre being the birthplace of one 
apeoiM, or assemblage of species, which continues to grow there in 
greater peifection tMn in any other region to which, by the various 
trsnaporting agents known to exist, it was subse(]^uently wafted. 

Hodee of DlflBemlnation. — Many plants are possessed of moons by 
which they can diffuse themselves over areas more or loss extensive. 
Some have seeds with winged or feathery appendages, which enable 
them to float on the air ; other seeds are so small as to be borne 
by winds to very distant locahtiea ; very many are trsuaported by 
Tivers. streams, marine currents, and even icebergs, to very remote 
regtona, where, if the soil and climate be suitable, they take root 
•nd propagate their species; while not a few adhere to the hairy 
coatioga of migratory animals, or, entering into the gizzards of birds 
of passage, retain their vitality after being voided by them in distant 
localities. The agency of man has also, m all ages, been very effec- 
tual in the dissemination of plants ; for example, the passage of 
armies from one country to another, commerce by sea with foreign 
naliona, the discovery of previously unknown lands, and the plant- 
ing of colonies in lustant regions. But all these agencies, singly 
or combined, cannot adequately account for the present distribution 
of the species, without supposing a multiplicity of original specific 


that the individual species are confined to particular portions of the 
surface characterised hy a certain temperature and other climatie 
conditions. The area within which a gLven plant prevails is called 
its TiaMiationf or area of distribution. In or near the centre of this 
area it attains its highest development ; it degenerates when far 
removed from this centre ; and when transported beyond the limits 
of the area it languishes and dies. Though each species of plant 
has a nature peculiar to itself^ the soil, temperature, and climatic 
conditions of the various portions of the earth's surface are so vari- 
ous, that each species finds for itself a x)erfectly suitable habitation. 
These habitations, or areas of distribution, are of all sizes ; embrac- 
ing in some cases a large section of a continent, or of several con- 
tinents, and being limited in others to the merest speck of land. 
For example, a considerable number of plants of Northern Europe 
occurs also in Liberia and British Kortn America ; some British 
species are found at high elevations on the Himalaya Mountains ; 
and one species — the Epilobium tetragonum — ^is common to Britain^ 
Canada, and Tierra del Fuego. On the other hand, the Cape of 
Good Hope, California, and certain regions of the Andes, have re- 
spectively certain species peculiar to themselves ; as also Madeira, 
tne Canaries, St Helena, the Sandwich and Society Islands, &c. 
The same species of plant seldom occurs in widely-separated coun- 
tries, however closely the soil and climate of both may approximate ; 
but similar species of the same genus are, in such circumstances, rarely 
absent, and these are spoken of by botanists as representative speeies. 
Thus the heaths of Europe are represented by other species oi the 
genus Erica in S. Africa ; and the violets of North America represent 
those of Britain, which are specifically different. 

Botanical Regions. — ^Various attempts have been made by botanists 
to divide the globe into certain well-defined regions, founded on their 
characteristic vegetation. Wildenow, De Candolle, Meyen, and espe- 
cially Schouw, have distinguished themselves in this department of 
science. The last-named naturalist, about thirty years ago, proposed 
to divide the earth's surface into what he calls ** Phy to-geographic 
re^ons.'' These, according to him, are 25 in number, and charac- 
terised as follows : 1. At least one-half of the species found in each 
region must be peculiar to it 2. One-fourth of the genera must be 
peculiar to it, or at least be more prevalent there than elsewhere. 
8. Some of the orders must either be peculiar to it, or reach their 
maximum in it. Each of the different regions receives three separate 
designations : the first indicating its botanical character ; the second 
its geographical position ; while the third is named after some 
eminent botanist. 

1. Region of Mosses and Saxifrages, the Arctic- Alpine flora, or Wahl- 
enberg's region ; embracing all the countries situated within the Arctic 
Circle, together with the higher elevations of the mountain-ranges of W. 
and S. Europe. 2. Beef on qf UmheWferm aaidCrvjciferce, North-European 
and North- Asiatic, or Linnaeus's re^pn ; embracing that large portion of 
the area of the Old World which lies between the Polar Circle and lat. 
i5° N., and between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 8. Region. ^ 

n^.,,^, .^u fj.^.,.0, 4. Region of AMert and Solidagoi, Nortliern 
Noiih.Americain, or Michaoi'a r^on; extending fram tha Atlantic to the 
Kocky MouDtams, and from lat. 35" N. to Lake Wionipeg and St Jamea 
Baj. It embraces the Kreater part of Canada and the N.B. part of the 
Ti-;..j o....„ c E,_-'.. ^ifagnoUiu, the S.E. North-American flora, 
the remavnder of the United States lying 
I. RegiuH of Caiiielliacea and Celattracta, 
n.ampier'9 regioa ; embracing Japan, CoTea, a ' 
7. Itr^ion cf Seitammr -" •>-- --^ ' 

i of SAododrndroj 

the Chino-JapaneKB, o: 
the N.E. part of Chim 
Indian flora, or Roxbn^h's 
and the S. of Cliina. ° " 
Wallieh's region 1 com; 
from the altitude of 500010 12,000 feet. It inolndea Sinnnr, QnTwh^al) 
Kninaon, Nepal, and Bholan. 9. Tin Mtdaysian jUrra, or Reinwanit'a 
region ; embracing Northern Australia and the Malay Aichipelago, with 
the exception of Sumatra, Java, and the &. of Borneo. 10. Jamnea 
flora, or Blnme'g region ; embracing Java, Sumatra, Timor, and the S. 
ofBomeo. II. Qeianie or Pott/naian flora, or Chaniisso'a region; em- 
bracing all the islands of the Pacifio Ocean within the tropica, 12. 
JtmoK of BaltaTnie Irea, Arabian, or Forskal'a region ; embracing the 
I ^W. of Arabia, the B. of Abyssinia, S. of Persia, Beluchistan, and 
"TBiadJi. 13. TheDeiert, or Delile's region; compriaing the Sahara, and 
alU Arabia except the S.W. angle. 14. fUgim of Tropkat Afrita, or 
pAdonson'a region ; embracing the whole af Af lica betw^ the Tropic of 
^^pricamandtbe 15th deg. of N. latitude, with the exception ofEaitem 
Ijttbysainia. It also includes Madagascar. 15. S^on qf Cadacta and 
^ftraeea, Meiican, or Jacnuin's region; Inclndes Meiico, Central 
'hnteriCB, New Granada, Eciiador, Peru, Venemiela, Guinea, and the N. 
if Brazil, with tbe exception of tlie higher elevations of the mountain- 
. _'. ..'. .. 16. Jt^ioJi of tie JUgilaadi o/ Mexico, or Bonplaod's xegicn ; 
those parta of Meiico and Central America which have an eloratloa of 
more than 6000 feet. 17. K/gioit of Cindiovce, or mtdicinai herlu, the 
Andes, or Hnmboldt's region ; embracing the elevated r^ions of the 
Andes, ftem 5000 to 9000 feet high, and extending southward to the 
Tropic of Caprieom. 18. Region i^ EicaUoniie mui Calttolaria, or Ruiz 
■nd Pavon'fl region, embraces the highest elevations of the last-nieationed 
rnnee, or above BOOO feet. 19. The Wtil Indian flm-a, or Swart^'e re- 
gioD : erabracingal] the islands of the Westlndies. 20. Region ijf Paltut 
and Melattoataeea, Brazilian, or Marti us's region; embracmg all South 
America between the Andes and the Attantio, and between tlie Tropic of 
Capricorn and the 15th region. 21. Jtegwa of Art-oitatftil Composila, 
Ettra-tropical South-American, or St Hilaire's region ; embracing South 
America between the Tropic of Capricorn and Patagonia. 2i Pata- 
oonvos or Antareiic Region, D'Urville's region; embracing Patagonia, 
Tlerra del Fuego, and the Falkland Isles. 23. Region of Ulapeliig and 
Xaai- "--■" ' .m-^.— -.- 1-^-. I--.-..I— .. - 

qwl Bpaeridaeea, Anfttralian, 

Australia and Tasmania. 25. Rtgian of Nev Zealu 

eiOD ; embracing the isLinda of New Ze^and. 

■ 9. Zoology. — Zoologicnl Geography ia closely allied to Botani- 
Sl Gw^ptipby, being that braneh of the science which treats of 

Brovrn's region; including Southern 


the habitats, limits of distribution, and dispersion of animals, 
as they at present exist on the globe. 

lTiim1)er of Animals. — The barriers in the way of obtaining acca« 
rate statistics of the number of animal species are even greater than 
in the case of plants ; and naturalists accordingly vary greatly in 
their estimates, not only of the probable number presently existing, 
but also of the known and described species. This statement ne^ 
not excite surprise when we consider that many regions of the globe 
remain almost wholly unknown, while others have been but imper- 
fectly explored ; that whilst the habitat of plants, when once dis- 
covered, can be visited and revisited by the botanist at pleasure, the 
great majority of animals are endowed with the powers of locomo- 
tion, and evade the pursuit of man ; that myriads of species are too 
minute to be seen by the naked eye, while others are too fleet or too 
formidable for being accurately observed ; that age and sex produce 
such changes in their appearance as often to render it doubtful 
whether or not the species are identical ; that many of them have 
their home in the depths of the ocean, or conceal themselves in the 
sand on the sea-shore ; while others seek shelter in the impenetrable 
recesses of the forest, or in inaccessible mountain-cliffs. The num- 
ber of known species of vertebrated animals, accordinj^ to Br Keith 
Johnston's * Physical Atlas,' published in 1856, is as Allows : Mam- 
mals, 1704 ; birds, 6226 ; reptiles, 657 ; fishes, 8000 — total, 
16,587. Wagner and Waterhouse, in 1848, gave the number of 
known mammals at 1967 ; birds, 8000 ; reptiles, 1600 ; and fishes, 
8000 — total, 19,567. The probable number of existing Vertebrata 
may therefore be estimated at about 20,000. The other divisions of 
the animal kingdom are far more uncertain. Thus, while Wood- 
ward, writing in 1861, gives the number of recent MoUusca at 12,000, 
and the fossu species at 15,000, others maintain that no fewer than 
20,000 recent species are to be found in certain existing collections. 
Keferstein (in 1834) assigns 1000 as the number of known species of 
Radiata, including the polypi, entozoa, acalepha, and echinoder- 
mata ; while Swainson, in 1840, gives the number at 2500. But by 
far the greatest discrepancy prevails in regard to the Articulata (em- 
bracing annellida, Crustacea, arachnides, and insecta), some authors 
stating the number at 120,000, others at 400,000, and some even as 
high as 550,000, the great majority of which, however, are Insects. 
Besides these, there exist innumerable hosts of infusoria or animal- 
cules, a class of microscopic animals belonging to the sub-kingdom 
Badiata, and found in countless numbers in vegetable infusions. 
Omitting from our reckoning the insects and infusoria, of the actual 
number of which we can form no probable estimate in the present 
state of science, the following may betaken as a tolerable approxima- 
tion to the existing number of animals : Vertebrata, 20,000 ; Mollusca, 
20,000 ; Radiata, 5000 ; Articulata, 5000— total, 50,000 species. M. 
Agassiz, one of the most eminent of modem naturalists, estimated, in 
1850, the total number ofhnoion ipedes, including insects> at 250,000. 
BUtrlbution of AnimalB. — Though animals are endowed with the 
power of voluntary motion, and are therefore more capable than 


F p]Ent3 of tranaporting themselves from one region to iinotlier, varioua 
causes combine to limit the bcIdoI extecBion of iniUvidiial species- 
Difference of climate, and tha greater or less facility of procuring 
nbdsteuce, are amongst the foremost of those caQsel j while in regard 
to land-animals, arms of tha sea and elevated mountain -chains pre- 
sent formidable barriers to miration. In numerous instances, how- 
ever, we can trace tha operation to no secondary cause, and little cnn 
bo advanced beyond conjecture as to the way and manner iu which 
a iaigB jiroportion of the species came to be located in the precise 
legions whore they are found ; unless, as in tlie case of plants, we 
assent to the doctrine of numerous caitree of creation. In no otlier 
way can science satisfnctority resolve the question how quadrupeds, 
for example, and other animals incapable of crossing arms of the sea, 
Lave found their way to islands situated in mid-ocean ; whilst in 
regions very remoto from each other, but having a similar climate, 
the species, instead of being identical, are merely analogous. 

Zoologloal KlnidomB. —Naturalists divide the snrface of the globe 
into six zoological kingdoms, which arc subdivided into fourteen 
zoological provinces. Approximately, the six kingdoms correspond 
respectively with the six continents of t3ie globe — viz., Europe, Asia, 
Afnca, North America, South America, and Oceania. Hor^i and 
Soath America ore indeed usually comprised under one kingdom, 
thus redacing the number to live ; but simplicity of arraueemeut, 
and the convenience of the student, render uie other uivisiou 

The first, or Europsan Kingdom, embraces the whole of insular 
Europe, and is subdivided into three zoological provinces— vii., Atetlc, 
Ctntrat, and SoKtkem /SKropt. Tlie sec^ond, or Asiatic Kihgdou, in- 
cludes continental Asia, with the exception of Arabia, extends from tha 
Unds ond the Volga to the Pacific, and embraces four provinces— vii., 
AMu!, CtHtral, end Tropical Asia, together with Asia Minor and Syria, 
which last is designated the Transition Province, as its fauna combines 
the cbaraeteristicB of Asia, Europe, and Africa. The third, or AfulCilJ 
KiNGDDU, consists of but one province, which embraces the entire con- 
tinent of Africa, together with Arabia, Madagascar, Bourbon, and Mau- 
ritius. The OcEAKic or Acstbalian KlNaDOU embraces the wliole of 
Oceania, and is subdivided into two provincss— viz.. the Malagiian, 
which forms a connecting link between the Asiatic aud Australian king- 
doms ; and the Melanaian, whoso fauna is of a very peculiar character. 
The fifth, or North Amebioan KiNoDoa, embraces the whole of that 
Pontbient noiih of the Meiicaa States, and contains two provinces, the 
first of wIlIcIi comprehends Alaska, and British and Danish An^erica, and 
the second tbe United States. The sixtb, or South Auekican Kino- 
DOH, embraces not only tbe whole South American continent, but alau 
Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. It consists of two pro- 
vinces of very unequal dimensions— viz.. Tropical America, which extends 
from the north of Mexico total. 40° S. ; and .<tuirai.4nimca, embracing 
Pati^nta, Tierra del I'uego, and the fUklsnd Isles.* 

iclerlatlc! ,.. 

I of tills work, ucdei the il 


The following Table,* which ia adapted with modifications from 
Milner's ' Doiversal Geography,' exhibits the distrihutioD of the aere- 
nl ordera of Mammslia m the six zoological hingdoms . — 





































Camlvom . 




3-n S94 


151 101 




- *l ^ 








nqdcntlB . . 







l.l .1 


; EJenlata . . 





s| s 









IT 16 



^ITi W 




li - 





M S 






" " 


Total So. or 1 

1-04: iwjT 



835 Ufljlue 

309 260 





10. Ethkography. — Man, from the perfection ami l)eaiity of 
lus bodily OTj^anieation, and from the order of time in which he 
was caUecl into existence, occupies the apes of the vast pyramid 
of animal life. Of all aniraala he only walks erect, his eye re- 
flecting earth and sky, and his look glancing freely over tbat 
world in the midst of ivhich he lives and reigns. Over hia 
whole form there is an air of more than material beauty, the 
reflection of a soul infinitely rich in thought and emotion ; 
while by XKissessiiig an immortal spirit he is raised immeasur- 
ably above material things, and separated, as by an impassable 
gulf, from all other animab. In common with these, he ia, to 
some extent, subject to the influence of external circumstances, 
though in a less degree than an^ other species. His superior 
inteUi"ence, and the pliancy of his constitution, tit him to be- 
come the denizen of all countries, and all varieties of climate, 
from the scorching heat of the ttcpics to the rigorous cold of 
Arctic latitudes. His geographical distribution, accordingly, 
differs from that of all other organic beings, and man is the only 

* Tlifl Jlnt oolnm 



hue cosmopolite. Of the vast number of countries brouf;tit to 
the knowledge of Europeana by modem. diaoovEry, very few 
ware found uninhabited ; the principal exceptione being Ice- 
land, Spitzbergen, and Novaia Zemlia ; Madeira, the Azores, 
and St Helena ; the Falkland Isles, the Galapagos, some minor 
groups in Polynesia, and the inhospitable legionB around the 
South Pole. 

Unltr of the Spedea, — JIan is of only one species, and tlie so- 
called races of men are mere rarietiea of the same Bpeeies, differing 
less from each other than do the varieties of many other animals ; 
■s, for example, the dog, the horse, the sheep, and the domestic 
fowl. Science and Revelation alike proclaim this fundamental 
truth ; the one, by establishing an identity of anatomical structure 
between the races, the same jieriod of gestation, the same instincts, 
longevity, and diseases, the same mental and mor^ character, and 
the fertility of offspring arising from intermixture of blood ; and 
the other, by declanng that in one man was the germ of the whole 
hninan family; that ^e myriads of men that now people the earth, 
after the lapse of a hnndred and fifty generations, are all brethrra, 
nnited together by the closest ties ; and that the nnirersal depravity 
«iid death which have their root in the common ancestor of all, are 
more than counterbalanced by the obedience and sniferings of his 
fflorions Descendant, whom every human being can claim as bis 
near kinsman. 

Origin of Boces. — Yet in all ages and countries tlie individuals of 
the human family have preseuteu numberless diTeraities of appear- 
ance ; and though all are speoincally identical, evei^ member of the 
family exhibits bia own proper individuality — that w to say, certain 
L charaeteristicB of physical organisation and of mental disposition 
■ ittiat distinguish him from every other individual of the sneciea. For 
pUan is a complex being, and embraces within him a world of diverse 
I elements, that rival, in their varions riches, the world of externa! 
nature. These elements are capable of combination in infinitely 
varied proportions. In one the soul predominates, in another tlie 
body ; here the nervous system bears rule, there the arterial ; here 
the affections, there the understanding. The laws and the causes, 
however, that determine these combinations, are to us a secret ; for 
L individuality is a mystery of life, the stamp of the Creator. This 
Ciniieh, however, seems certain,— viz., tliat while the distinctive char- 
f Wrter of the soul never fails te manifest itself very perceptibly in 
r'tiie entire physical oipinisation— eBpecially in the form of the head 
and fa the physiognomy — the influence of external nature, of the 
family, of lociebr, of habit, and of education, is but of secondary 
importance, temUng merely to modify the original individuality, 
Yeli by a constant and unvarying repetition, carried on through a 
long series of generations, even the latter inflaences may produce 
very important effects; though never to the extent of eradicating 
the ontlmes of this indiviiiuality, which, notwithstandine the con- 
rtnnt inttrmingling of blood by marriage, x>erpetuates itself for ages 


from father to son, in the same family, every member of which re- 
sembles, both in temperament and physical organisation, some one 
or other of his ancestors or blood relations. Accordingly we find 
that, from the earliest dawn of History, mankind has been divided 
into races,* and organised into nations ; and it is one of the first les- 
sons of Revelation that with this division human design and human 
choice had nothing Whatever to do, — that it was exclusively the work 
of the Creator, with nature to aid in its accomplishment, — and that 
these races and nations were distributed over the earth's surface ac- 
cording to a definite plan, in which each had assigned to it its proper 
part in the progress of events. £ach region, moreover, streng^thened 
and modified the character of the race that was conducted into it ; and 
thus national characteristics, which become more and more marked 
as generations succeeded each other, attained at length such a degree 
of fixedness and inflexibility as has enabled them to traverse the ages 
of history, and encounter the most opposite influences, without under- 
going any radical change. 

Dispersion of Nations. — The precise locality in which the disper- 
sion of nations originated, and the precise date at which it took 
place, are not easily determined ; but there can be no doubt that we 
must look for the former to Western Asia, and for the latter to the 
fifth generation after the Deluge, f Asiatic Turkey, situated in the 
centre of the Old World, and midway between its four great oceans, 
has been twice the cradle of mankind, and still remains the region in 
which the human form attains its highest perfection. Here Noah 
with his family, the sole survivor of that great catastrophe which 
swept away the inhabitants of the antediluvian world, took up his 
destined abode ; and here his three sons — Shem, Ham, and Japhetli 
^like branches cut from the same tree, took root and flourished, con- 
taining within themselves the germs of the three great races, and of 
all the minor varieties, that subsequently peopled the earth. The 
distinctive characteristics of the ancestors were indelibly impressed 
on their respective descendants: thus spiritual and religious tendencies 
predominated in the offspring of Shem ; the sensual and corporeal in those 
of Ham; while the nations that sprung from Japheth have been no less 
remarkable for their fuller development of all tne powers of the mind. 
Accordingly, when the set time for the great dispersion arrived (b.c. 
2552, accurd^g to W. Osbum), Ham and Japhetn wandered far from 
the ancestral home, in quest of abodes congenial to their respective 
natures ; while Shem retained possession of the paternal altars, became 
the custodier of the one true faith, and the ancestor of that promised 
Seed of the Woman in whom all nations of the earth shall yet be 
blessed. Begarding this distribution from another point of view, we 
observe a curious and remarkable anomaly ; for while all the other 
tvpes of animals, as also of plants, go on decreasing in perfection from 
tlie equator to the poles, man presents to our view his most perfect 
type at the centre of the north temperate zone, in that region of the 

* For an Important modification of this statement, see ' Facts and Dates,' p. 121> 
t The Hebrew Bible apparently gives the date of the Deluge as b.c. 2288 ; the 

Beptuagint as 8216 ; vhue the Great Pyramid at Jeezeh indicates an almost 

exact mean between them, giving it as b. a 2800. 


CEueaans above nlladed to ; whereos, departing from that wgion, 
whether to the nortli, aonth, or east, the types gradually lose their 

rmetiy, tiU, at the remntB eitremities of tlie continents, wa tinil 
moat deformed and degenerate niees. 
Mnmlwr and Oharacteilitlcs of Kacei. — Modem Ethnographjr 
classifies the unnieroua nations that people the globe into three 

E'mary races— viz., the Cancaaian, or white and bearded race ; the 
ngolian, or tawny and beardless race ; aad the Negro, or blacJt- 
skinued and wooUj'haired race. These are confined to the Old 
"Wgrld, and correspond, with certain linitations, to its three conti- 
nental diTistons; the Caucasians occupjing nearly all Europe, south- 
wettem Asia, and the north of Africa, and extending from Iceland 
and the Atlantic to the Ganges and Brahnfiapntra, and from the 
Arctio Cirda to the Tropic of Caprienm ; the Mongolians peopling 
all the rest of Asia, together with certain isolated localities in cen- 
tral and nnrtliem Europe ; and the Hegro race, the whole of conti- 
nental Africa south of the Tropic of Cancer. In addition to these 
there are several minor varieties, inhabiting Oceaniit and the New 
World, and probably originating in the inteitnixturea and modifi- 
cationa of the three primary raoe; : as the Malayans in Malaysia 
and Madagascar ; the Papuans in Now Guinea and Hew Hebrides ; 
the Maoris or Australians in Australasia; and the Americans, or 
aboriginal inhabitants of North and South America. The more 
jtromment characteristics of the principal races are the following : — 

■i metrical, ot gnat 

' cnpauity, and 1i\gh faplal angle; facBOVil. ancf tba featiiroi 


d ruddy, or o' 

diflaniit Abades ot bmwn ; balr abimdjuit oa head and chin, but ulBp^titKl 
tLinly over other parte ot the body ; culout varlcins, accardiug ta cooipleiion, 
from n yoUoir-red auburn and deep brown lo gloasy blaok ; *reab!neorhMel to 
(lark brown and black; eUtnrB ot medium size, apprpacblng 9 feet la the Cair 
TUJetiee. but sevei^ Incbea leti in the dark. MoHcular etrength greet ; InteL- 
lAOl highly developed. Langoagee polyBrlbtbii!, copious, and highly Infltxiorkal 
Thti tJTB it diyided Into two biancheB, Che /ndo-BurojJMH or Jsptetlc braucli, 
■Bd tha S^n-Arabian or Bemltic braach. For s toller deicrlrtiiin of Uiese we 

>kln ot 


m other parts of th 

in olive 
and btaok ; lAs Ih 

-hort atrenaUi and cndoraii 

Inlellict moderately developeii. bat ahrewd, 
more obstlnnta Ibnn brave, and extremely cmej to vanqniabed foes ; imBcitia- 
tfon and tute deacieut; Imitative and ekUrul in the duaieatio arts, but wiOioat 
■ajscienttBa oDterprlie; eootentwlth a ilatlonuy clvlliBatlon ; fond of hono- 
Iiaok. aluegiib, and dirty. Langtisgea inartiflnlal, limited In range of lltenture. 

mfleiUmi, and Che rinno-l^nnHan, uhli'Ji la illghtly inSeilonal ancl phoneUc. 
RvUgLous aapiratlonfl obtoae, tbe fonns being varlouB, as Buddhlem, Bbaniuilam, 



Neoro or Ethiopian Race. — Skull thick and heavy, compressed at the 
Bides, and elongated from front to back ; the forehead convex, retreating, fuid 
narrow, with facial angle lower than in the Mongolian type ; cheek-bones pro- 
jecting forward ; both jaws much elongated, with the front teeth of the upper 
turned obliquely forward ; mouth wide, and lips very thick ; the chin retracted ; 
eyes black and prominent ; skin varying from a deep sallow to intense black, 
and emitting a strong, offensive odour, but soft and silkv to the touch ; hair of 
a crisp, woolly texture, and curly on the head, generally destitute on other parts 
of the body ; beard scanty on the upper lip, and chiefly confined to the chin. 
Body strong, muscular, and often very symmetrical ; the arms somewhat elon- 
gated; feet broad, heavy, and flat-soled. Intellect without depth or compre- 
hensiveness, but acute and perceptive ; patient, submissive, affectionate, honest, 
cheerful, and contented ; well adapted for all domestic and i^cultuial employ- 
ments, but do not excel in uts, navigation, or commerce, and have never arrived 
at a high civilisation. Languages a^lutinate, slightly inflexional, but one 
stage removed Arom the simplest monosyllabic, and without a written litera- 
ture. Religion fetichism or demon-worship, but Mohammedanism among the 
northern tribes; in a civilised state, however, they are susceptible of deep 
devotional feelings.* 

Population of the Globe. — The population of the entire globe cannot, 
as yet, be stated with anything like accuracy, as many regions still 
remain unexplored, and as, beyond the limits of Europe, correct census 
of the population are almost wholly unknown. Accoiding, however, 
to the most recent estimates, it amounts to 1890 millions, that of the 
diffei*ent continents being as follows : — 


Area in Eiifirllsh Square 

Population by latest 




North America, . . . 
South America, . . . 

Total, . . % . . 










Religions of Haakind. — The following estimate has been made of the 
numbers professing each of the principal religions now existing ; but 
ihey can be viewed as only a rough approximation to the truth : — 

Roman Catholics, 176,000,000\ 

S^^ah;:::::::::::::::'K;r ^ christians. 400,000.000 

Minor Christian Sects, .... 28,000,000; 

Jews, 7,000,000 Jews, 7,000,000 

Mohammedans, 145,000,000 Mohammedans, 145,000,000 

Brahmins, 225,000,000 'j 

Buddhists, 395,000,000 V Heathens, 735,000.000 

Other Pagans 115,000,000) 

Not accounted for, 103,000,000 

Population of the Globe, 1,890,000,000 

* For a description of the sub-varieties above enumerated, the student ia re- 
tarred to the seuuons of this work treating of America and Oceania. 



E U K P E. 

_. Bonndaries. — Nortli, the Arctic Ocean ; West, the Atiau- 

' tic ; South, the Strait of Gibraltar, thii Sleditcrranean, Sea of 

Marmora, Black Sea, anil Mount Caucasus ; Eiiat, the Caspian 

Sea, the Kiver Ural, the Ural Mountains, and the Bivcr Kara. 

Continental Enrope licslMtween the parallels of 36"!' and 73° 8' N., 
and betwaen the meridians of S° 30" W., and 65° E. ; it otciipies 35° 8' of 
fait and 71° 30' of Ion., and, nith tlie eiception of Laplnnd and part o( 
thg gavermueut of Arkliaa^l, is wholly inchided within the north tem- 
perats lone. Bnt inanUr Enrope, including Iceland, Spitzbergen, the 
Azores, Candia, kc., embroceB a. much larger area — viz, , bom Int. S4° 51/ 
<C!andia) to 80° id' (SnitzljBTgen), and from Ion. 81° Iff W. (Amrea) to 
65° E. (Dnd MoiintBiaa),-heing in all, 45° 63- of Int. and 98° 18' of Ion. 
Grodno, in Russia, in the centre of tlie continent, ia nearly in the Enma 
latitude as the centre of Ireland, the south of Labrador, the nortli of Lake 
Winnipeg and Queen Charlotte Island, and as Tula, Uratak, and the 
middle of Lake Baikal ; and nearly in the same longitude as Hammer- 
Teat, Tomea, Riga, LembBr^ Klauaenbnrg, Athena, anO. the east side of 
Tripoli and Cat>e Colony. The aouth-eoat comer of Sweden is the centra 
cf laaalar Europe. 

2. Form, Dimensions, Eztreme Points, and Coast-Line. 
— Europe is an imineiiJie peninsula jutting out from Western 
Amb, and broken up into a great number of smaller peniBsuloa. 
the principal of which ate : The Scandinavian, bet. the Baltic 
imd Atlantic ; the Danish, het. the Baltic and North Sea ; Brit- 
tany, bet. tlie English Channel and Bay of Biscay ; the Spanish, 
bet. the Atlantic and Mediterranean ; the Italian, het, the Ad- 
riatic and Tyrrbeniiui Sea ; the HellDnic Peninsula with Istria 
and the Moteo, bet. the Adriatic and Black Sea i and the Crimea, 
bet the O. of Odessa and Sea of Azov. The peninsulas occupy 
oue-fborth of the entire area of the continent. 

All these, with the single exception of the Danish, Btretch out in a 
noatherly direction, and hare manntain-ianges occupying tlielr entire 
> — .1. mil arkible law holds good with aluiciit all the peniii4i\aa 

length. This re 


of the globe. The extreme length of Eurojpe, firom Cape St Vincent in 
l^ortugal to Orsk in the Ural Mountains, is 3400 miles ; extreme breadth, 
from North Cape in Lapland to Cape Matapan in Greece, 2450 miles. 
Cape Nordkyn m Norway is the most northern point of the continent ; 
Ponta da Tarifa, near Gibraltar, the most southern ; Cabo da Boca, in 
Portugal, the most western ; and the Urals, in Perm, the most eastern. 
Owing to its peculiar form and numerous deep indentations, the coast- 
line greatly exceeds in proportion that of every other continent. It is 
estimated at nearly 17,000 miles, being one mile of coast to every 225 
miles of surface ; while Asia has only one to everv 550 miles ; Africa, one 
to every 710 ; and America, one to every 490. Tne continental boundary 
does not exceed 2500 miles. It is in a great measure owing to this pecu- 
liarity of surrendering herself to the ocean, and her central position in 
the terrestrial hemisphere, that Europe owes her high civilisation and 
unrivalled commercial prosperity. 

3. Area and Population. — The total nrea of Europe, includ- 
ing the islands, is estimated at 3,857,122 sq. miles, or con- 
siderably less than one-fourth the size of Asia. Hence, reckon- 
ing the area of Oceania at 4,500,000 sq. miles, Europe is the 
simdlest of the six great divisions of the globe, of the land-sur- 
face of which it embraces only a fourteenth part Knssia 
embraces much more than a half of its entire area, and the 
British Isles less than a thirtieth. According to the most 
recent census of its various states, the population, in 1872, 
amounted to 301,222,352, or nearly one-tourth of the entire 
human race. It is by far the most densely peopled of all the 
continents, having 78 persons to each sq. mile. The seven 
most densely peopled countries are, — Belgium, which has 440 
persons to the sq. mile ; the Netherlands, 275 ; the United 
Kingdom, 259 ; Italy, 233 ; South Germany, 210 ; Prussia and 
North Germany, 194 ; France, 178. 

4. Political Divisions. — Europe contains, at present, six^^- . 
seven separate states, all of them more or less independent. Of 
this number 26 belong to the recently constituted German 
Empire (including Alsace), and 25 to Switzerland. Counting 
the confederations as forming one State each, we have in all 
16 states, the names, areas, populations, and capitals of which 
mil be found in the following table. There are 4 Empires 
(Germany, Austria, Russia, and Turkey) ; 37 Monarchies (in- 
cluding Kingdoms, Grand Duchies, Duchies, and Principalities) ; 
and 26 Republics. The various states are arranged in three 
separate classes, according to their political importance. Great 
Britain, Prance, Germany, Russia, Austria, and Italy are called 
the six Great Powers, because they exercise a decided influence 
on the political affairs of Europe. Those of the second rank 
are Spam, Belgium, Sweden and Norway, and Turkey ; while 
those of the third rank are Portugal, Switzerland, the Nether- 
lands, Greece, and Denmark. 







5. Isthmnses and Capes. — Isthmus of Coriuth, connecting 
the Morea with Northern Greece ; Isthmus of Perekop, connect- 
ing the Crimea with the mainland of Russia. The other isth- 
muses, though numerous, have no distinctive names. Owing to 
its peninsular character, the capes and headlands of Europe are 
extremely numerous. The following are the principal : — 

In the Arctic Ocean— C Nordkyn, in Finmark, the most N. point of 
the continent ; North Cape, in I. Mageroe ; C. Nord, N. W. of Iceland. In 
the Baltic—The Naze, S. of Norway ; Skaw, N. of Denmark ; Hango 
Head, S.W. of Finland. In North Sea and Atlantic— Sumbvagh. Head, 
S. of Shetland ; Dennis Ness, N. of Orkney ; Dunnet Head, Duncansby 
Head, and Cape Wrath, N. of Scotland : Buchanness the most E., Point 
of Ardnamurcnan the most W., and Mull of GaUoway the most S. points 
of Scotland ; Lowestoft Ness the most-E., South Foreland the most S.E., 
Lizard Point the most S.W., and Land's End the mostW. points of Eng- 
land ; Malin Head in the N., Fair Head in the N.E., Camsore Point in 
the S.E., C. Clear in the extreme S., and Dunmore Head in the extreme 
W. of Ireland ; Capes Gris-Nez, Barfleur, La Hague, in the English 
Channel ; Raz Point, the extreme N.W. of France ; Capes Ortegal and 
Finisterre, N.W. of Spain ; Cabo da Roca, in Portugal, the most W. 
point of the continent; C. St Vincent, S.W. of Portugal : Pt. Albemos, 
m the Azores, the most W. point of insular Europe. In the Mediier^ 
ranean — Punta da Tarifa, in Spain, the most S. point of the continent ; 
Capes de Gata, Palos, St Martin, Creux, E. of Spain ; Corso, N. of Cor- 
sica ; Teulada, S. of Sardinia ; Passaro, S.E., and S. Vito, N.W. of Sicily ; 
Spartivento, Nau, and Leuca, S. of Italy; Matapan, S. of Greece; 
Matala (Crete), the most S. point of insular Europe ; Chersonese, S.W. 
of Crimea; Abcheran, in the Caspian, the E. extremity of Mount 

6. Islands. — Very numerous, and best arranged in groups or 
classes, according to the seas in which they are situated : — 

In the Arctic Ocean — Novaia Zemlia ("new land") and Vaigatch, N.E. of 
Russia, and forming an insular prolongation of the Ural Mountains ; Spitz- 
bergen, N. of Lapland ; Franz Joseph Land, midway between Novaia 
Zemlia and the Pole, which is probably the most northern island on 
the globe ; Kolguev, at the entrance to the Gulf of Tcheskaia ; MageriJe 
group, fringing the N.W. coast of Finmark ; Loffoden Islands, W. of Nor- 
way . In the A tktntic — Iceland, 700 miles W. of Norway, and immediately 
S. of the Polar Circle ; Faroe Isles, 35 in number, midway between Iceland 
and Shetland, and at the northern limit of the growth of grain ; the Brit- 
ish Isles, 5500 in number, separating the Atlantic from the North Sea 
(principal, Great Britain, the largest island belonging to Europe, and the 
seventh largest in the world ; Ireland, Anglesea, Isle of Man, Hebrides 
or Western Islands, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands, Isle of Wight, 
Scilly Islands) ; the Norman or Channel Isles, N. of France ; the Azores, 
a volcanic group, 800 miles W. of Portugal. In the Baltic — The Danish 
group, between Denmark and Sweden (principal, Zealand, Fiinen, 
Langeland, Laaland, Falster, Alsen, Bomholm); the Swedish group, 
S.E. of Sweden (Gothland and Oeland) ; Rugen, NW. of Prussia; the 
Aland Isles, at the entrance of the Gulf of Bothnia ; the Livonian group 
(Oesel and Dago), at the mouth of the Gulf of Riga ; Cronstadt or Kot- 
linoi, in the E. extremity of the Gulf of Finland, with a celebrated Bus- 



... In the lledi/en-aMan — Tha Baieario Isles, east of Spain 
(prindpal, Majorca, Minorca, W^a, and Forment«ra) ; the Sardo- 
Coralcan group, W. of Central Italy (principal, Sardinia, Coraica, Elba); 
the Sicilian ^np, S. of Italy (principal, Sicily, Lipari Isles, Ustica, 
and Psntellnria) : the Maltese groap, or Malta, Gazo, and Comino ; thr 
niyrian Arcbipelago, in the Gulf of Quamero | the Dalmatinn Archi- 
pelago, on the W. coast of Dalmatia ; the Ionian Isles, W. of GSreaoe ; 
Eabtea or Fegropout, K of Hellas ; the Cjckdes, K of the Morea ; tbe 
Spoiadei, N. of Eubifa; Candia, S.K of the Jlorea. 

7. Seas, Gnl&i and Straits. — No other contment has eo 
ntanf inland eeaa and arma of the sea. We con enumecate 
only the following : — 

Tki ^tdiurrajttim, between Europe and Africa, 2300 m. long, and 
S76j(X)0 lu. In area. Its principal members are, G. of Lions, G. of Qenoa, 
**■* Tyrrhenian Sea, het. Italy and the Sardo-Coreican islands ; the Adii- 
bet. Italy and Turkey; lunian Sea, bel^ Greece and Italy; the .^geen 
Arcbipalago, hat. Greece and Asia Minor ; Sea of Manunia7™t- 
^ ian and Asiatic Tnikey. Tie Black Sea, het. Rnssia and Asiatic 
^_-key, 690 m. long by 380 m. broad, and having an area of 172,500 
■q. in. Its branctea are, G. of Odeaaa, Str. of Kherson, G. of Perekop, 
Sea of Azov, G. of Sivaah or Putrid Sea. TAe Catpum Sea, S.E. of Bus- 
■ia, 7O0 m. long, 200 m. broad ; area, 178,866 sq. m.; surfaceSS feet loiver 
tiian the Black Sea ; drained esctuaivaly by evaporation | probably 
cammnnicated at a remote period with the Black Sea, at nhich time its 
area wai vastly larger : belongs more to Asia |hau to Europe, ike 
WUte Sea, an inlet of the Arctic Ocean, m the N. of Bussia ; area, 40,000 
iq. m. : Kb parts are, Golfs of Onega, EandjJak, and Arkhangel ; Tchei- 
taia oil/, N.K of Biiesia; Varanger Fiotd, bet. Russia and Norwegian 
Lapland ; Weat Fiord, bet Norway and Loffoden lales. Tfie BaUic, a 

lai^ inland aea communioating with the Korth Sea, and *'-- 

Centra] from Northern Europe; lenglbaoo m., br. ISOm.i - 
■q. m. ; sbalUiw throughout, eaihng dangerona, tides scarce 
braDehes, G. of Bothnia, bet. Sweden and Finland; G. 
of Finland ; G. of Riga, bet. Livonia and Conrland ; G, of Dantzit N. 
of Pnuaia ; O. of Lnbeck, bet. Eolatein and Mecklenburg. 7jU North 
Statn Berma-n. Ocean, bet. tbe British Isles and tha continent; length 
from Shetland to Dover, 700 m.; greatest br., 420 m.; area, 244,000 aq. 
in.; traversed by immense saud-banke, as the Dogger Baiik and Long 
Forties ; branches, the Skager Bacb, M. Norway and Denmark, 60 m. 
broad ; the Katt^at, bet. Sweden and Denmark ; the Dollart and Zu jder 
Zee, is the N. of Holland ; the English Cluinuel, bet. Eu^nd and 
Ftuice ; the estuary of the Thames, the Wash, the Firtba of Forth and 
T^, the Moray and Pentland Firths. The Iriih ^en, bet. Great Britain 
md Ireland ; branches. North Channel, St Geot^e'e Channel, Solway 
Pirth, and Bristol Channel. The Baj/ 1^ Biicay, S. of Spain, famous for 
fu heavy seas and dangeroite navJgatiDn. 

Thb PBlBoiPii. Sthaits aie: Str. of Gibraltar, oniting tbe Medi- 
tananBan with the Atlantic ; 8tT. of Bonifacio, bet. Corsica and Sardinia; 
Sltr. of Meaaina, het. Italy and Sicily ; Str. of Otranto, het. Italy and 
Turkey; the Hellespont or Sardauellee, nnitiug the Archipelago with 
tbe Sea of Marmora ; the Boiparous, or Str. of Constautiitople, uniting 
the Sea of Mamiora with the Black Sea ; Str. of Kertch or Yenikaleh, 
bn. tbe Black Sea and Sea of Azov ; Pentland Firtb, bet Scotbuid and 


Orkney ; Str. of Dover, bet. England and France ; The Sonnd, "bet. 
Sweden and Seeland ; Great Belt^ bet. Seeland and Fiilmen ; Little Belt, 
bet. Schleswig and Ftihnen. 

8. Monntain-SsTstems. — ^Eastern Europe, or Bussia, is nearly 
all one nniform plain, and the northern portion of Central 
Europe is also remarkably level ; but Western and Southern 
Europe are highly mountainous. The various chains can be all 
arranged into eight grand mountain-systems — viz., the British, 
Hesperian, Sardo-Corsican, Alpine, Scandinavian, Sarmatian, 
TJratian, and Caucasian. The two last are partly European and 
partly Asiatic ; but as their highest summits occur in this con- 
tinent, and as there are no other mountains in Eastern or South- 
eastern Europe, they are most conveniently treated of here. 
These eight systems, with their widely - extended bases and 
ramifications, occupy the entire area of S.W. Europe. 

The British System traverses the British archipelago, finom the Scilly 
Isles to Shetland, a distance of 800 miles in length. It embraces also tiio 
Faroe group, midway between Shetland and Iceland. As compared with 
some of the other mountain-systems of Europe, it is of very moderate 
elevation, and nowhere reaches the line of perennial snow ; tibough Ben 
Nevis, its culminating-point, lat 56" 48', probably comes short of it by 
less than 100 feet. The system embraces various mountain-rang^ the 
principal of which traverses the extreme length of the largest island, and 
forms the water-parting between tiie North Sea and the Atlantic The 
mountains of Ireland and of the smaller islands are of greatly inferior 
elevation. We subjoin the names of the principal ranges, with tiie height 
of their loftiest mountains ; and for particulars, refer the student to 
Scotland, England, and Irelimd : Farde 7«Z««— Island of Ostero, 2864 
ft. ; Shetland Isles — Rooness, in Mainland, 1476 ft.; Orhn^n — Hill of 
Hoy, 1555 ft.; Northern Range of Scotland— Ben Attow, 4000 ft; Gram- 
pians — ^Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles^ 4406 ft. ; 
Cheviot ffillSy between Scotland and England, 2741 ft.; Pennine Chain, 
in north of England — Ooss FeU, 2927 ft. ; Cumbrian Chain, in Cumber- 
land— Scawfel^ 3229 ft.; Cambrian Chain, in Wales (Snowdon), 8590 ft ; 
Devonian Cham, in the S.W. of England (Caws and Beacon), 1792 ft; 
Irish Mountains— WGmicnMfa Reeks, inS.W., 3404 ft Height of 
snow-line in the centre of the archipelago — lat. 55% about 5000 ft; do. 
the Grampian range, about 4500 ft 

The HBsperian or Spanish System occupies the whole Spanish 
peninsula, the Balearic Isles, and the portion of France which lies south 
of the Garonne. It forms in its interior an elevated plateau of great 
extent, which has an average height of about 2500 feet, and embraces 
many lofty mountain-ranges, the principal of which are subjoined (see 
under " Spain") : The Pyrenees separate the Bay of Biscay and the Garonne 
basin from the basins of the Douro and Ebro, 11,168 ft.; Cantairian 
Chain, bet. Douro and Tagus, 10,552 ft.; Mountains of Toledo, bet the 
Tagus and Guadiana, 5110 ft: Sierra Morena, bet. the Gnadiana and 
Guadalquivir, 5550 ft.; Balearie Mountains, 5114 ft.; Sierra Nevada, 
bet the Guadalquivir and the Mediterranean, 11,663 ft Line of per- 
petual snow on Sierra Nevada, 11,200 ft ; do. in the Pyrenees, 8856 ft 

The Sardo-Corsican System is confined to the islands Corsica and 

le Cotsn in the tor- 

n CoiHicB. 9068 

e GBDnrgentu, id Snrdinia, TOUO ft.; Enow-line in lat i2*' Sf, 
POdfj ft. 

Die Alpine B yateia trsTHnra Ftsnce, Itutj, and Turkey, and extendi 
Iromtbe Maditeiraiiiiuu to the Great CeDtre.1 Flam, Bndfnotitlie Oonnme 
to the Dniester. It ambraoBS 6tb dirtinct minor ByBtoms, bU of Brefll 
altitndie, indndiag the Alps proper, contBinine Mont Blanc in &kvo7 
(13,781 feet], the higliest suiumtt in Europe. In reulitr, hDwe'ar, ihat 
iiononr ahould be awarded to Moimt ^burz, the cnlniinatin^'point tTf 
the CaniiaeaE cbain, vhich ie 2790 feet higher thui Mont Blont, ami 
within the Ijuiita af flnrope. 

(1. ) The Alys proper, a huge Drranani-BhapEd mnge, ertending from 
:N'iGeta Vieniu, and tiounded lif the haauu in the Bhouesnd DonluaD 
ttie VGGt, t>f Ibfi Aor and I>anTibB en the north and east, and by thnee of 
the PD and Ban ou the Boutb : total length, 000 luileB. It consiiiti of 
two cantiguouB chains — ru., the Weetera Alps, from the MediterTaDein 
at Hiaetu.MDnt Blanc in Saroy, dividing Fiance fmni Italy, and the 
" n, biun the ya ; and the Eaetem Alps, oj' lutich grester imadth. 

nsiBting of twi 

._ . _ le Alps, the Alps o!" St Gall, and the Motie Alps, and 

g nearly to Vieuna ; and the latter in blurting the Pennine Alps, 

B BcdTetion Alps, the Khactiaii Alpa, the Camic and Jnlian Alps. 

J« highest snnunits ate t (reiler»..4^j»— Mt. PBlvDllx,lS,14llfL; £ait- 

»j4ipi— N. fienes, Finfiter-aar-bDin, 14,100 ft— S. boriee, M. Blanc. 

V?B1 ft Height of luic ofpetenniol snow m Bwiss Alps, BBOO ft, 

'",) TbeFreauh or QuUo-IiuidBii Mountuins, embracing all the raomi- 

of I^ranoe north of the Garonne and vest of the lUjoue, iLUd oim- 

i vit^ the Alps prppcr by the Jura chain \aoe under ^* Fr/aics'^i- 

.itSeculet, in Jura cWn, f>Ca2ft.; BaLon de Gnebwiller (Toeera), 

t fL; Cote d'Or Mta., 1986; Cevaunes Mts., It. Jfesm, DB2B ; 

i<^ e., Fny dc Sancv, eiS7. 

B4(B.) The Apennines, 6(H) miles long, set out from the MnritiTna Alps. 

wttse the entire length cf Italy, reapiiear m the island of Sidlv, and 

D the-VBtfli-parting betiveeu the MedileiTaiiBaD on the one ude, aiid the 

_ and Adnatic on the other. Hcnte Como, in North of Naples, 9G31 

K. ; IL £ltna,tbe culntinating-point of the evoteiD, 10,B74 H. Height 

of snow-line in Bicily, BaOO ft. ; height in Central Italy, SaOO. 

(1.) The BlBVO-HeUemc Mountains conipilae all the mauntBiuE in the 
Hellonic pHUinsula south of the Danube ajid BaFE, locBthej with thole of 
CnvtiB and Lialmatia. There are two principid ranges — one, the 
MtUiBiw, etntching southward along the £, coast of the Adriatic, and 
liDuinating iLt Oupe Matapan in Greuce ; the olhur, the Halkay^, branch- 
ing off from the HelleniE in the N.Ii, of Albania, puisning no eaaterJy 
dkBctUm to Cape Eiiiineh in tiie Black Baa, and forming Uie boDndary 
bflbmon fioninelia and Bulgaria. SalUitic Ranqv — Ut- Olyiupus, V^i9 
n. Baikm, Rimge—iL'L. Tchar Sagh, OBtO. Height of snaH-Iine on Mt 
OljmipUB, 9000. 

jCi.) The Hercyrun-Ooipathian systetn EOmprisBs all the mountaiua 
lying betwesn the DoDiibe, Dniester, VMulu, Bhine, and the Baltic, 
biuoethe entire lemuindor itf the p'eat Alpine systeni. T\i£ Cargaihiaiia, 
SLBotaohetje, 9528 fL ; Riacugibirye, batween Bohemia and Moratia, 
nsTC ft. ; SelHiiaTtxwald, in Baden, 4a0O fL ; Bokmervald, between Bo- 
hmniB and Bavaria, 461S ft. ; Thr San, in Hanover and Pcnasia; S74D 
fl. Baieht of BDOw-linc in the Cori'athianE, about (iOOO ft 


The Scandinavian System traverses the Scaadinavian peninsula, from 
the Atlantic to the 6. of Bothnia, and from the North Cape to the Naze. 
Commencing at the Naze, in the south of Norway, it proceeds northward 
through that kingdom as far as the latitude of Trondhjem, then forms 
the boundary between Norwa^r and Sweden, and terminates at the North 
Cape in Lapland, after traversing a total length of about 1150 miles. In 
the south of Norwav its breadth extends about 200 miles, but north of 
Trondhjem only 60 miles. The chain is not continuous, but consists 
rather of a series of broad plateaux, separated occasionally by deep and 
narrow valleys, and very rich in minerals. There are three principal 
ranges — the Hardanger, or Langefield, in the south, the Dovrefield in the 
middle, and the Kiolen Mountains in the north. Each of these has nn- 
merous glaciers: Langeiuld — Skagesloestinden, 8670 ft.; Dovrq/kld — 
Sneehfitten, 7620 ft. ; JTiofeT^— Sulitehna (lat. 67°), 6200 ft Height of 
snow-line in the Langefield, 5000 ft. ; Folgefonden glacier^ near ifergen, 
6200 ft. 

The Sarmatian System is only so named by way of courtesy, as it, in 
fact, contains no real mountains ; but being the only elevated ground be- 
tween Scandinavia and the Ural Mountains, it possesses considerable 
hydrographical importance. The Valdai Hills, m the Government of 
Novgorod, attain an elevation of only 1100 feet, and form the water- 
pai'tmg between the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Caspian. 

The Uralian &^stem forms a natural boundary between Europe and 
Asia, and the water-parting between the extensive basins of the Voljga and 
the Obi. The principal cd&vd. (the Urals) extends from Orenburg, on the 
river Ural to the Arctic Ocean, and reappears in the lengthened insular 
group of Novala ZemUa ; length, 16S0 miles. It consists of round-backed, 
plateau-shaped masses of very moderate elevation, generally not exceed- 
isg 2000 feet, but rich in gold, platinum, and other metals. The highest 
summits are : Konjak-Ofski (lat. 59° 55'), 5397 ft. ; Obdorsk (lat. 67°), 
5286 ft. 

The Cancasian System extends in one immense chain from the Black 
Sea to the Caspian, forms the south-eastern boundary of European Rus- 
sia, and separates the basins of the Kuban and Terek on the north, from 
those of tne Eur and Bioni on the . south. Length, 750 miles ; mean 
elevation, from 8000 to 9000 feet. The culmlnating-point of the system^ 
and in fact of Europe, is Mount Elburz, near the centre of the chain, 
18,571 ft. above the sea, and 2790 ft. higher than Mont Blanc, the highest 
summit of the Alps. Mount Kazbek (long. 44° 20'), 16,523 ft. Height 
of line of perennial congelation, 11,000 ft. ; limit of the cereals, 7000 ft. 

9. Volcanoes. — The volcanoes of Europe, active or extinct, 
are very numerous. Of the former, upwards of twenty are 
enumerated, aU of which, except Mount Vesuvius, near Naples, 
are situated in islands ; but tne latter occur more frequently 
in the interior of the continent, as the mountains of Auvergne 
in France ; the Eastern Pyrenees in Catalonia ; the Eifel in 
Prussia ; the Westerwald, between Nassau and Westphalia ; the 
Vogelsberg, between the Main and Weser ; and many others in. 

The principal acHve volcanoes, which are for the most part con- 
fined .to the basin of the Mediterranean, are : Mount Vesuvius* in 

* This celebrated volcaso, the only existing active one on the continent. 


EUROrE. 71 

Saplea i Mount Etna* in Siuliy ] Strooiboli, + Vuknno, anj Vn]- 
eanello, in tlie Lipui Islands i Mount Heclo,! und eeveral others, ixi 
Iceland ; Monnt fieeren in Jan Usyen, midway between Iceland and 
Spitzbergen ; Sajytcheff in Hovaia Zemlia, the most northern of 
known volcanoes. To volcania agency must ako be referred the 
Oejsets, or intermittent boiling spnnga of Iceland. The Azorea are 
all of Toloiuuc origin, and contain muny recently-eitinct ToleenoeB ; 
Bs aJsomany of the Cyclades, and the S.Vf. of the dsland Sardinia. 
"Die earthquake diatrict of Evirope eitenils from the Caspian Sea to 
the Azores, the central line of concussion being more or leaa pandlel 
to the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathian and Caucasian Monntaiua. 

10. Plains and Table-Lands,— Notwithstanding the highly 
mountainous character of Western Europe, by fai the greater 
portioa of the snrfnoe of tie continent ia occupied by plains 
and elevated plateaux or table-landa. 

The most important Plains are : the Great Plain of Central and 
Eaatem Europe, extending from the Str. of Dover to the Urals and 
Caqiian, and from the Arctic Ocean t^ the Black Sea, — this plain has 
a area of 2,GOD,000 square miles, being about two-tliirds of the en- 
' re continent ; the Hungarian Plain, traversed by the Danube and 
iss, SOO miles long, and from 800 to JOO feet above the sea-level; 
n of the Lower Danube, between the Eaatfim Caipathiana and 
Belkana ; Plain of Bohemia, in the basin of the Uppi» Elbe ; 

1 of Lorobaidy, between the Alps and Apennines, end watered 

by the Po. The principal Table-lands are : tie Plateau o£ Central 
Spain, of great ejttent, and about 2500 feet high; the Plateaul ol" 
Langres, Orleans, and Auvergne, in Central France ; the Plateau of 
Bsvaria, about 2000 feet high ; and TransylTania, embosomed in the 
chain of tha Carpathians, 

11. Water-parting and Eiver-Easinfl. — All the rivers of 
Europe beloo" to one or other of seven Rreat baaina, — the 
Arctic and AtLintJc Oceans, the North Sea, the Baltic, Mediter- 
ranean, Black, and Caspian Seas, The devated ridge which 
HepoiateA one basin from another is called the Waler-parting, 
and that which divides the seven basins into two principal 
groups ia denominated the Great Water-parting. 

Commencing at the south-western ertremily of the continent, neat 
the StcMt of Gibraltar, the latter pursues a general N.E. direction, 
till it arrives at the northern terminatiDn of the Ural Mountains, 
ihaa cutting Europe diagonally into two great sections or slopes, now 
uBOflUy called If'aUnhedt — the one inchning to the N.W., and the 

bmled th4 two cUi% Bercnliinsuiu DDd PompeU. wltb tlieli inhsbltiiDta, during 
an eropHini io lis yeat 78 n.D, 

• Tho Inigeat Bid Biort fsraoDB yoleano la EnmpB; slity enniHoni are re. 
oorded aa hufiiia taken place dorlng the historto period, the fast In ISM. 

i Ccnutuitly buTDicg, anil eoDietmies culled. In conaeqiiccoii, tlie llghttmuBe at 
ths MsUtunoeaa. 

I tti lut gnat emptiOD Qa 131S) test tlie nebeg as fEir aa the Oilmtra, eOd 




other to the S. E. By glancing at a map of Europe, it will be seen that 
all the great rivers follow one or other of these two directions.'* 
Hence the seven basins may be reduced to two grand basins, one of 
which will include all the rivers finding their way to the Atlantic 
and Arctic Oceans, with their branches the North Sea, the Baltic, 
and the White Sea ; and the other, those flowing into the Mediter- 
ranean, with its branches the Adriatic, the Black Sea, and the Cas- 
pian. For though the two last-mentioned seas are at present separated 
by a slight elevation, it is certain they were united during llie Ter- 
tmry ages. 

12. River-Basins and Capitals. — The following Table 
shows the total and direct lengths in English miles of all the 

Erincipal rivers of Europe, the areas of their basins in Eng- 
sh square miles, and the capitals of the states and provinces 
embraced in those basins. Tne rivers are arranged under the 
seven oceanic basins to which they respectively belong, and in 
the order in which their mouths would occur to an exploring 
expedition, which, setting out from the northern extremity of 
the Urals, should skirt the coast westward, southward, and then 
eastward, till it arrived at the western extremity of Mount 
Caucasus. The capitals of independent states are distinguished 
by Small Capitals, those of provinces by Roman letters ; and 
when the name of the state is different from that of its capital, 
the former is added within parentheses. 

The River-Basins op Europe. 

Kame of Rtrer 
or Estuary. 


Length in 




Iieiigth of 

Basin in 



Area of Basin 

In Square 


Capitak of States and Prorincc 
In each Basin. 

1. Basins inclined to the Arctic Ocean, 

Petchora, . 
Alten Fiord, 













Arkhangel, Vologda. 
Altengard (Finmark). 

* But let us trace the Great Water-parting more exactly. Commencing, as we 
have said, near the Rock of Gibraltar, it follows the crest-line of the Sierra 
Nevada, Pyrenees, Cevennes, C6te d'Or, Vosges, and Jura Mountains ; passes 
north of Lake Geneva to the Bernese Alps and Mount 8. Gothard ; sweeps round 
Lake Constance, which it keeps on the left, around the source of the Danube, 
separating its basin from that of the Rhine, Elbe, and Oder; passes between the 
basins of the Vistula and Dniester, and of the Dtina and Dnieper, then north 
and east through the Valdai Hills, and around the head-waters of the Volga ; 
pursues its course between Lakes Onega and Bielozero, turns south-east around 
the sources of the Northern Dwina and Petchora, whose basins it separates from 
that of tlie Volga ; and then, proceeding northward along tiie Uialian Ghatn, it 
finally anivea at the Arctic Ocean. 





BMln in 



Aremof Baaln 
in Square 


Capital! of Stat«8 andProrinoM 
in eacli Baiin. 

2. Banns inclined to the A tlantic and North Sea, 

Trondhjem Fiord, 
Christiania Fiord, 
GK>tha^ . 

L. Malar, . 
Dal, . 

Neva and Gulf 
of Finland, . 

Niemen, . 

Pregel, . 
















Ghristlakia (Norway). 
Goteborg (Gothland). 

8. Basins inclined to the Baltic, 






















Btoobiholm (Sweden). 
Hem5sand (Norrland). 

Helsingfors (Finland), 
Revel (Esthonia), Pskov, St 
Petebsburo (Russia), Nov- 
gorod, Petrozavodsk (Olo- 

Riga (Livonia), Vitebsk. 

Grodno, Suwalki (Augus- 
towo), Wilna. 

EOnigsberg (Prussia Pro- 

Plock, Warsaw (Poland), 
Radoin, Lemberg (Galicia), 

Stettin (Pomerania), Bres- 
lau (Prussian Silesia), Posen 
(Prussian Poland), Troppau 
(Austrian Silesia). 

ScHWERiN (Aiecklenburg- 



4. Basins inclined to Nwih Sea. 








Aalborg (Jutland). 

Gluckstadt (Holstein), 
Hamburg, Magdeburg 
f Prussian Saxony), Dessau 
(Anhalt), Dresden (Sax- 
ony), Neu-Strelitz (Meck- 
lenbui^ - Strelltz), Berlin 
(Prussia), Rudolstadt 
(Schwartzburg Rudolstadt), 
Greitz (Reuss Greitz), Al- 
TEKBURQ (Saxe-Alt.), SON- 
•DERSHAUSEN (Schwarzburg- 
Sonder.), Gotha (Saxe- 
Coburg - Gotha), Weimar 
(Saxe - Weimar), Prague 

Bremen, Buckeburo 
(Schaumburg-Lippe), Mein- 
iNO£N(Saxe-M6in.}, Olden- 
burg, Hanover, Bruns- 
wick, Detmold (Lippe- 
Det.), Abolsen (Waldeck, 
Cassel (Hesse-Cassel). 



or Bstoaiy. 


Length in 




Length of 




Area of Basin 

in Square 


Oapttab of States and ProTinOM 

Basins inclhied to North Sea (continued). 

















Miinster (Westphalia). 


Zwoll (OverysselX 

Amsterdam (Nether- 
lands), Utrecht, Amhem 
(Guelderland), Cologne 
(Rhenish Prussia), Wies- 
baden (Nassau), Carls- 
RUHE(Baiden), StrasbouTg(i) 
(Alsace), Vaduz (Liechten- 
stein), Nancy (LomdneX 
Darmstadt (Hesse-DarmA 
Stuttgart (Wtirtembeig), 
Bern (Switzerland). (^) 

Bois-le-duc(N. Brabant), 
Maestricht (Dutch Lim- 
burg), Liege, Namur, Arlon 
(Belgian Luxemburg). 

Middelburg (Zealand^ 
Antwerp, Bruges (W. Flan- 
ders), Ghent (E. Flanders), 
Brussels (Belgium), Has- 
selt (Belgian Limbnrg), 
LUle (French Flanders^ 
Arras (Artois), Mons (Hahi- 

Basins inclined to the Atlantic (No. 2 continued), 

Somme, . . 115 90 .. Amiens (Picardy). 

Seine, . . 414 250 28,500 Rouen(Nomiandy), Paris 

(France), Troyes (Cham- 

Vilaine, . . 125 80 . . Kennes (Bretagne). 

Loire, . .530 350 44,500 Angers (Anjou), Tours 

(Touraine), Orleans (Orle- 
annais), Nevers(Niveniai8), 
Le Mans (Maine), Limoges 
(Limousinl Gueret (La 
Marche), Poitiers (Poitou), 
Bourges (Berry), Moulins 
^Bourbonnais), Clermont 


RocheUe (Aunis), Saintes 
(Saintonge), Angouldme 
31,000 Bordeaux (Guienne), Tou- 

louse (Languedoc), Auch 
(Gascogne), Foix (Foix). 

(1) For the akcpf brerlty, the old prorlnees of France and Spain are those here employed, but the 
new divisions WiU be found in the corresponding tables under those countries. 

(S) The capitals of the Swiss cantons wHl be found in the Biver-Sjpstem of Central Europe.— (See 
under " Axutria.") 


Garonne, • 












— ■•L-KJi'— 


J .-Briiwrf h the 


0. 2 cmitiftMfiii). 


Nerrfod, ; '. 




Bilbao (BaaqnoProvlTicea), 

Saloa, . . 




X\abo. . 


Ri-d'EMB, . 

Brags (Hinho). 

Do™, . . 





MondBgo.. . 

Colmbra (Belra). 

TagM. . 




Lisbon 'VortBgal), M*- 



™Esora *S™tjjD). 

BadajoB (9p. EatiemB- 









— Bojttti isciiji 

d to the Me 



BtgDB, . . 





Bbro, . . 




Pamplona Nn.aiT8), 



Bhone, . . 

Avignon. LjonfLyonnala). 

DUDMBou^gne], tauni 

Florence (Tusiiany). 

TFberl : '. 

Home (K.\f Italy). 


Po. . . . 




TnaiB (Pledinuct), Uo- 
dt^a,Parni., Venice (Vene- 




tla), MUan (Lombarty). 
MoBtsr (HerlEgovina). 

ttu.' ; 


METllzi. '. 







Duiiiba, . . 


Sniatria (BulgariB). Bel- 
Bitds (aervla), PBterwar- 
Aeia <MtlitBr]- FrontiurX 

Cieranwiti ffiuckowlna. 

Agrani (Crogtlo), BosnM- 

Beral (Bosnia;, laybaeh (0- 

lyria), KlBDHnbonr (Trail- 


eyHBEla). EmK (SEla. 



Kame of River 


Length in 




Length of 

Basin in 


. MUea. 

Area of Basin 

in Square 


Capitab of States and ProriooM 

Basins inclined to the BlcLck Sea (continued). 

Danube (cont.) 

voniaX Grfttz (Styria), 
Brtlnn (MoraviaX Inns- 
brQck (Tyrol), Munich 
(Bayaria), Salzburfi;, Temes- 
\7ar (Banat and Servia). 
Kamienetz (Podolla), 

Dniester, . 




Elichenev (Bessarabia). 

Dnieper and Bug, 

• • 



Kherson, Ekaterinoslay, 
Kiev, Mogilev Smolensk, 
Poltava, Tchernlgov, 
Koursk, Jitomir(VoIbyma), 





Tcherkask (Don Cos- 
sacks), Stavropol, Khar* 
kov, Veronej. 

Kuban, . 



• • 

Ekaterinodar (Black Sea 



ns inclined to the Co, 






Astrakhan, Saratov, ^ 
mara, Simbirsk, Kasan, 
Nijni-Novgorod, Kostroma, 
Jaroslav, Tver, Perm, VI- 

atka, Penza, Riazan, Kalu- 

ga, Orel, Vladimir, Tam- 

bov, Moscow, Tula. 










Teflis, Erivan, Shemakha 
(all in Transcatusasia}. 

13. Lakes. — Lakes being for the most part mere expansions 
of the rivers that drain them, the most natural way of treating 
them is to group them in the order of the river-basins to which 
they belong. 

Clyde Basin — Loch Lomond, the largest lake in Scotland, drained 
by the Levon ; area, 46 sq. m. Leven — ^Windermere, largest lake in 
England, 10 m. long ; area, about 5 sq. m. Dee — Lake Bala, the 
largest in Wales, 4 m. long. Bann — Lough Neagh, in Ireland, the 
largest in the British Isles ; area, 153 sq. m. Dioinu — Eubinskoe, 
in Vologda, North Kussia, drained by the Sukhona. Onega — Lakes 
Latcha and Voje,'in Olonetz. Vygh — Vigo and Sego, in Olonetz. 
A'cm— Kunto and Niuk, in W. of Arkhangel. .Smfo— Kovdo, 
l*iavo, and Imandra, in Arkhangel. Varanger Fiord — ^Enara, drained 
by the Patajoki or Pasvig, in N. of Finland. Olommen — Lake Mio- 
Bou, in S.E. of Norway. G^o^Aa— Wener, in S.W. of Sweden, 2020 
sq. m. ; and Faemund, in E. of Norway, drained by the Clara. Mo^ 
fa/a— Wetter, E. of Lake Wener. Arboga — Malar and Hielmar, in 

liURora. 77 

UiG E. of Sweden. Dal — Siljan, in the centre of Sweden. Indali 
— StoTsion, N. of Lake Sman. SkeU/lea — Stoi and Horn, united, 
in N. of Sweden. Lulea — Storo-Lalea, in H. of Sweden. Totmh 
— Toraes, in N.W. of Sweden. Ulca — TJlea, in the centra of Fin- 
land. Borgo A — P^uii, in the S. of Finland. Neva — I^doga. {ths 
largest in Europe, area, 7150 aq. m.), Saima, Oriveai, Pielis, Knopio 
or KalBTesi, nmeii, Onega, VoMoicro, all in Finland and Oionete. 
Karova — Peipus, or Tchoudsltoe, between Livoaia and St Peters- 
bnTg. Prtgel — Mailer See, in Eoat Pruaaia. Vistula — Spirding 
See, in East Prosaia, drained by the Pische, an nffiaent of thcKarew. 
StBr — Schwerin, in Mecklenbnrg-Sehwerin. Elbe— iiiintz, inMeok- 
lenbnrg-Strelitz, drained by the Havel. Jihiiw — Boden See, on tha 
Rhine ; Tbnn and Brienz, on the Aar ; Zurich and Wallenatadr, 
on the Limmat ; Lucerne and Zng, on the IJeusa ; Bienne and tSea- 
chStel, an tho Thiele ; all in Switzerland. Shone— heman or Geneva, 
bet. Switzerland and Savoj ; Annecy, in Savoy, Fo — Garda, drained 
by the Mincio ( Como, by the Adda ; Maggiore and Lugano, by the 
Ticino. Daniiis— Balaton or Flatten Seo, drained by the Sio ; and 
Nenaiedl, by the Eaabnitz : botb in Hungary. San — Manytch, in 
Caacasaa, drained by the Wanytch. Volga — Seiigher, in Russia, 
near the Valdai Hills, foi'ming the source of the Volga. 

14. OUinaite. — The climate of Europe is greatly milder than 
in other continents under the same latitude ; bnt it presents 
Blrikmg diversities in different pait^, arising mainly from the 
following causes ; — 

lat, Ila Pimfion relative to lAe AtlavMc. — The prevailing winds 
are ftoai the W. and S. W. , and hence pass over tliat ocean before 
arrfviDg here ; acquiro its temperature ; become laden with its 
Tnoistnre ; and, striking the shores of the continent, powerfully 
affect the climate of W^em Europe. 2d, This Effect is greatlv in- 
er^^ed by the warm ocean-cuTrent called The Golf Strcwm, which, 
setting out from the Galf of Mexico, at a very high temperaturii, 

Sroceeds along the coast of North America, crosses the Atlantic in a 
r.E. direction, arrives at the western shores of Europe, and imparts 
to them a temperature and climate greatly milder than they would 
otherwise possess. 3d, The Etexation of the land above the sea-level. 
The DiTeclvm of the elope, as indicated ' " " ■" ■ 
K of Enropo (deacribed at p. 72). Eth, 
sereial conntriea in regard to great mountain-chiiins in their vicinity, 
tth. The Latitude of the place, or its distance from the equator. 
7th, Pradmity M oUier ptcaliar Climafic Regions. — For enample, 
the south of Europe is considerably affected hy-tho proximity of 
Afi^ca, which renders itt summer climate oppresBive ; while North- 
ern Bnrope ia continnally exposed to the chilling winds of the Polar 
Seaa and of Siberia. 

Ollmatlo Zones.— If the Northern Hemisphere be divided into six 
Tfothermal Zones (viz., the Ei^uatoriol, Warm, Mild, Coot, Cold, and 
Polar Zones), which, as reganls cUmate, are greatly more important 


than 2071^ of latitude, it will be found that no part of Europe lies 
^vithin either of the eostrevie zones, that is, tne Equatorial and 

The Warm Zone, which is bounded by the isotherms of 77** and 59** 
Fahr., and whose average annual temperature is 68°, includes nearly all 
the Spanish peninsula, the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, and 
Crete, all Greece, and Italy south of Rome. The Mild Zone, between 
the isotherms of SO** and 41", and with an average annual temperature 
of 50** Fahr., comprises all Central Europe (including France and the 
British Isles), the Faroe Isles, Scandinavia and Russia south of a line 
drawn through Bergen, Christiania, Stockholm, Riga, Moscow, and Oren- 
burg. The Cool Zone, between the isotherms of 41" and 82", and with 
an average annual temperature of 36" Fahr., includes nearly all Iceland, 
together with a broad belt of the continent lying between the Mild Zone 
and a line passing through Hammerfest, the mouth of the river Tomea, 
Arkhangel, and Tobolsk in Siberia. The Cold Zone embraces all the 
remainder of the continent together with Spitzbergen, is bounded by the 
isothermal curves of 32° and 5", and enjoys a mean annual temperature of 
18" Fahr. 

Rain. — The Quantity of Rain varies greatly in the different 
countries, but most of the variations can be traced to known laws: — 

(1.) It decreases as we proceed from S. to N. At the equator, 96 inches 
fall in the year; in Italy, 45; England, 37; in North Germany, 22^; and 
at St Petersburg, 16 inches. 

(2.) It decreases as we proceed from the shores of the Atlantic east- 
ward. On the coast of Portugal, the amount is 118 inches ; on the west 
of Ireland, 47 inches ; but at London, 24 inches ; Paris, 21 inches ; East- 
em Europe, 15 inches. 

(3.) In Western Europe, and as far E. as Moscow, the rain- winds are 
from the S.W. ; but farther E. and N. they come from the contrary 

(4.) In the Warm Zone it rains most in winter ; in the Mild Zone, south 
of the Alps and Carpathians, most in autumn ; in all the remainder of 
Europe, most in summer. 

(5.) The number of rainy days decreases as we proceed from the west 
to the east side of the continent : thus, in Ireland (west side), rain falls 
on 208 days ; Netherlands, 170 days ; west of Scotland (Cape Wrath), 
250 days ; east of Scotland (Edinburgh), 165 days ; whereas in the north 
of Germany and Gulf of Finland, it falls on 152 days ; Poland, 168 days ; 
basin of the Volga, 90 days ; in the interior of Siberia, 60 days. 

(6.) The number of days on which snow falls increases from south to 
north : thus, at Palermo, in Sicily, on 1 day ; Rome and Florence, 2 ; 
Venice, 6 ; Milan, 10 ; Paris, 12 ; Copenhagen, 30 ; St Petersburg, 171 
days. At Gibraltar snow is rare, and Malta is never visited by snow- 

The average amount of rain over all Europe is 34 inches. The rainiest 
localities in Europe are, Coimbra, in the vallev of the Mondego, where 
the extraordinary amount of 118 inches falls annually; the Alps ; 
Bretagne ; Cornwall ; the south of Ireland ; and the north-west comer 
of Scotland. In regard to the variation from the tme north of the mag- 
netic needle, the whole continent, except a small part of Russia, has a W. 
declination, at present— while in Asia it is £. 


15. Geology. — The foUowing condenseJ. epitome of the geo- 
logy of Europe has heen carefully prepared from the "Geological 
Map of Europe," edited by Sir Roderick I, MiirchiBoii and Pro- 
feasor Niool, and forming Plate IV. of the ntw edition ot 
Johnston's ' Physical Atlas.' * 

CrrBtalUne Strata, or MetajnorpluE Eocka, prevail efipoaially in 
North-western Euiopo, wliera they coter the whole anrface of Scan- 
diuavia and Finland, with the eieeption of two entenaive tracts in 
the centre and north of Norway. The other principal localities nrs 
Sootknd, K of the Grwnpians ; the N. and N.W. ot Irelandj the 
centre andW. of France; Bohemia; Tmuaylraima ; the E. side of 
^rkey, Greece, Corsica, and Sardinia ; and the f;reat monntalu- 
nnKea of the Continent, especially the Alps, Mount CaucamiB, and the 
Uials. Wherever crystalhne strata greatly abonnii, they are pene- 
trated throngh by Ghahitic Kuces ; as in Portneal and Gallcin, 
Bretagne, the Grampians, the LoEFoden lales, Bohemia, basin of the 
Dnieper and Bii°, Corsica, Saiilinia, &c. Trap Boceh chiehy 
abouiid in Icelsnil, the Fari3e Isles, Sky and Mull, County Antrim, 
Wales, Sweden, Finland, the Urals, and Lombardy ; and Volcasic 
£ocKS in Naples, the Pontifical States, Sicily, Sardinia, Central 
L france, aad the Carpathiana. 

I , Lower FalEBDsolo Btiata— containicg the petrified remains of the 
r earliest plants and animals yet discovered — occnpy the two largo 
tracts in Norway above referred to ; an extensive belt S. of the 5. 
of Finland, and a tract in the extreme S, of Sweden ; the S. of 
Scotland, Westmoreland, nearly all Wales, and the W. of Irelaud ; 
BretagiiB ; large areas in Southern and Central Spain ; the Julian 
and Camic Alps ; some parte of Bohemia ; and a very long, narrow 
belt in the Urals, extending tium the river Ural to the Aictic 

Upper TaJieoiolc Strata— emhracing the Devonian, Carboniferous, 
and Permian systems — have their largest development in Riiaaia, 
where they extend, without a break, from the Baltic to the Urals, 
and from the Arctic Ocean to Yoronej, in the centre of the Don 
hwio, and occupy another large tract in the basin of the Donetz, na 
affluent of the Don : they thua cover nearly a half of all Knssia, but 
eoatain no coal, save along the Donetz, where mines are wrought to 
a cousiilerable extent The next most important tract occnpied by 
this series ia in the bBsina of the Khlne, Moaclle, and Menae. within 
fte kingJoma of Prussia and Belgium. Thay are Tery extensively 
developed in tlie British Islea, eapecially in Ireland, where they cnrer 
four-fifths of the cooutry ; and in the larger island extend in a broad 
belt from the Firth of Forth to Devondiire (a tract which is ex- 
tremely rich in the valuable minerals, coal and ironstone), and hue 
the coast irom Aberdeenshire to Caitlmess, extending to the Orkney 
The Seoondary Ssiiea, or Mesozoic Croup, immediately overlies the 
• For till PjlBontologjr of the dllTotent gsolugio sysWun uifl tormatioiiii, we 
■q ide itodant to paces 41-S2 above. 


Palaeozoic, but differs from it widely in the character of its fossilsi 
It embraces the Triassic, Oolitic, and Cretaceous systems, and occu- 
pies a very large portion of the surface of Europe S. of lat. 65°; but 
rarely occurs ]N . of that parallel, except in three detached tracts in 
the N. E. of Russia (in the basins of the Petchora and Vychegda). In 
the S. of Russia it occupies extensiye areas in the basins of the Ural, 
Volga, and Don, as well as of the Pripet and Desna, affluents of the 
Dnieper. In Turkey and Greece it occupies the greater part of the 
territory S, of the Danube and Save, and the island Canma ; South- 
ern Italy and Sicily; in Spain, a broad belt commencing at Gibraltar, 
and extending first N.E. and then N. to the Bay of Biscay; the "W. 
of Portugal ; the greater part of France E. of Bretagne and N. of 
the Gironde ; nearly all Germany, from Hanover to the Danube ; 
and more than a half of England, especially the E., centre, and S. 
Secondary strata also cover the Northern Carpathians, and large por- 
tions of the Alps and Pyrenees. 

The Tertiary Series, like the Secondary, prevails almost exclu- 
sively to the S. of lat. 55°, while the Palaeozoic and Crystalline strata 
are found chiefly in the N. of Europe. Tertiary strata extend, with 
few interruptions, in a broad zone, which, beginning at the North Sea 
and Baltic, proceeds in a S.E. direction to the Black Sea and Cas' 
pian, and extends in breadth from the Niemen to the Carpathians. 
In Asia they cover the immense basin of the Obi, and the equally 
large continental or internal basin of the Caspian. To the W. and 
S. of the great belt above referred to, they cover, in whole or in part, 
the basins of all the great rivers, as the Danube, Po, Ebro, Tagus, 
Garonne, Seine, and Thames — the last two including the celebrated 
Paris and London basins. The other localities where the Tertiaries 
prevail must be learned by inspecting a good geolo^cal map, as no 
description can convey an accurate impression of their actual position 
and extent. Such inspection cannot fail to result in the conviction, 
that Central and Southern Europe remained submerged under the 
ocean for many ages after the northern portion existed as dry land, 
and that during those ages the Black Sea and Caspian were united. 

16. Minerals. — ^The mineral treasures of Europe are of the 
highest importance, not so much on account of the precious 
metals — ^in which it is inferior to other continents — as for the 
abundance and utility of its more common minerals. Our 
limits will only allow us to specify the principal localities 
where the most important minerals occur. 

Metals. — Gold is chiefly found in the Ural and Carpathian Moun- 
tains (where more gold is obtained than in all the rest of Europe), 
especially at Kremnitz in Hungary, and in the Russian governments 
of Perm and Orenburg, where the mines yield 72,000 lb. annually. 
Other localities are, Transylvania, Salzburg, Piedmont, Ireland, and 
the sands of the Danube, Rhine, Rhone, Garonne, Tagus, and other 
rivers. Mercury^ chiefly at Almaden in Spain, and at Jdria in 
Camiola. Silver — ^British Isles (Cornwall, &c.), Germany, Hungary, 


SoTway, BoLemio, TransjlTania, Turkey. Cflj^ier— Coruwall, Devott- 
iMre, Angiesea, Cork, Waterford, UraJ Mountains, Hungary, Styrin. 
Norway, Prussia, Andalucia, Pyrenees, and Chesay, near Lyou. 
rill— Comirall, DevanshirB, Saxony, Bohemia. Zead—hesdhUla in 
Scotland, Cnmwall, the Sierra Hevado, the Eaatem Alps, Sasony, 
and Bohemia. Zinc — Nowhere pleutiful, bot chiefly found in the 
Riesengehirge, Cobalt — In Germany, almost eielosiyely. AnCijiumii 
and .sSmuH-— Hare, but chiefly in Gennaiiy. Arimic — Schemnitz, 
in the Carpathians. Iron — Widely distributee!, and generally wher- 
ever the coal-measures are found ; but most abundant in Great Brit- 
ain, the Cereniioa, Vosgea, Jura, Eastern Alps, Mountains of Norway, 
the Riesengebirge. 

RreoiouB Btones.— iJiamondB in the goremment of Perm ; jasper, 
eholeedony, agate, and garnets, in Scot&nd and Germany ; topaa in 
the Urals, Scotland, England, Bohemia, and Saxony ; the opal in 
Hungary ; rubies in France. 

Inllanmiable UlneralD. — Cool— Generally wherever the Upper 
Palffiozoic strata are found, especially in England, the S. of Scotland, 
Ireland, Belgium and N. of France, Germany, Prussia, Anetria, S. of ' 
Bu^ia. Sulphur — In volcanic regions, as the Solfataraa of Naples, 
Sicily, Iceland. Amber — On the Pruaaian shores of the Baltic. 
pBirofewm — In W^les, Italy, and WaUachia. 

lUueral ielte.— Common Salt— In England, Germany, Hungary, 
Poland, Spoin, Moldavia. Brine Springs very numerous in loenlitiea 
where Secondary strata prevail ; Epsom Salts at Epsom in England j 
Borai in Hungary; Saltpetre in Spain, Naples, Hungary, and Eus- 
sia ; Alum in the crystalline rocks of Sweden, Norway, Britain, and 
in the volcanic formations of Sicily, Lipari Islands, tmd the Azores. 

17. Botany. — The flora of Europe does not probably contain 
a single mdigenous plant peculiar to itself. TMa striking fact 
is BufBciently accounted lor \iy its geogi«phical poaitiou ; for 
not only is it in close proiimity to Northern A&ic4, but the 
entire continent is a mere prolongation of Western Asia. Of 
the twentj'flye Phjto-geographic Regions into ivhioh Schouw 
ilivides the vecetation of tie globe (see p. 54), Europe embraces 
a portion of tte first three — viz., the Arctic-AlpiuB, the Nordi 
European, and the Mediterranean Bcgion& 

The ArctlC'Ab>lne Begloii, which is also caUed the region of ^oa!ei 
a-iul Saxifragei, naturally divides itself into two proviueea — tho Polar 
and Alpine; the first embracing the north polar lands of iHnrope, 
Asia, and America, between the limits of ice and the region of trees; 
and tho second, all the higher elevations of Europe and Asli south of 
the polar circle, which eitand from tho line of porpetnal congelation 
to the first appearance of trees. Both provinces are chamcteriaed by 
a profusion of lichens, mosses, and soxiirages ; hy the total absence 
- ' — BB properly so called, though numerous slmiba, especially the 
V and dwarf-birch, make their apiiearanco iu the Polar pro- 
s, and junipers, alders, willows, rhodudcndions, whortlcherriei^ 


and cranberries, in the Alpine. Dwarf perennial herbs, with large 
flowers of bright colours, are also abundant ; but annual plants are 
rare, and tropical families are wholly wanting. The mean annual 
temperature of the polar provinces, wh^ch corresponds with the Cold 
Zone (described at p. 78), is 18° Fahr., and hence cultivation is im- 

The North European Region, also called the region of the UmheUv- 
fercB (mean temp. 29° — 46° Fahr.), embraces the wide space between 
the Arctic Circle and lat 45° — or the Mild and Cool Zones described 
above — ^being the whole of Europe and Asia K. of the Pyrenees, 
Alps, Black Sea, Caucasus, and Altai Mountains, not included in 
the former region. It is characterised by the prevalence of the 
natural orders UmbeUifersd, Cruciferse, Graminese, Caricese, Fungi, 
and Cichoracese. The predominant trees are tiie Conifer» and 
Amentacese (or the cone-bearing and catkin-bearing families), as the 
fir, yew, and cypress, willow, poplar, hazel, birch, plane, alder, oak, 
and beech ; the pastures are luxuriant, and the forest trees lose 
their foliage in winter. 

The M^terranean Region, or region of the LaUaitB wnd Ccuryo' 
pJvyllecB (mean temp. 55° — 73° Fahr.), embraces all the remainder of 
Europe, together with Asia Minor, Syria, Africa N. of the Sahara, 
the Azores, and Canaries. It is specially marked by the predomin- 
ance of the orders LabiataB and Caryophyllse ; by some representa- 
tives of tropical climes, as palms, terebinths, and laurels ; oy many 
evergreen treeq and shrubs; by the families of the second region 
becoming less numerous, their place being occupied by a greater num- 
ber of woody plants ; and by the existence of a winter flora. The 
pastures, however, are less luxuriant than in the former region, and 
are interspersed with copses of the heath tribe. 

Food-Plants. — Among Food-Plants the cereals are cultivated 20** far- 
ther N. in Europe than in America ; their northern limit being nearly 
coincident with that of the Cool Zone described under the article Climate. 
Seven distinct species are cultivated, each of which requires a climate 
peculiar to itself ; but the zones of territory occupied oy them merge 
mto one another like the seven colours of the rainbow, and, like the lat- 
ter, preserve the same invariable sequence. Beginning at the N., the 
order is as follows : — Barley, rye, oats, wheat, millet, maize, and rice ; 
the four last of which extend southward to the tropical regions. No 
species of grain can be brought to maturity in Iceland ; but b^ley grows 
in the Far5e Isles, and on the continent as far N. as Hammerfest and the 
mouth of the White Sea. Rye is largely cultivated in the N. of Europe, 
especially in Russia, Germany, and part of France, where it forms the 
principal food of the people ; and it is estimated that it sustains one- 
third of the population of Europe. Oats are extensively grown in Scot- 
land, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and other places between the lat. of Paris 
and 65° N. Wheat extends over a very wide area— from lat. 64° in Nor- 
way to the tropic of Capricorn ; in Great Britain it is grown with ad- 
vantage as far north as the Moray Firth ; millet is raised in Bretagne, 
Tuscany, and a few other localities S. of lat. 45''; maize in Eastern and 
Southern Europe, especially Hungary, Spain, and N. Italy. Few Euro- 
pean countries afford the requisite heat and moisture for the successful 


eollivation of rice; but It is grcmi in Spain, Greece, and Italy. Of olhtr 
Axxtp^uuti grcwn in Europe, the princiiialaretlie potato, cablHige, turnip, 
backwliBat, iie awset potato, and the various leguminona plants, as 
pease, beona, lentils, and curoba or St John's bread. The potato can be 
raised Dt a considerably higher latitude tbsii nuy of the cereals, and it 
forms the highly-ralishHl food of millions of the people from Iceland to 
Greeee. Fmit Traea are numerous, especioll; to the S. of the Alps and 
Pyrenees. The Tine eirtenda N. to lat 60° — 53°, but the beat wines are 
produced between 30° and 45°. Farther north its place is in it great 
measure supplied by the various kinds of orchard fruits, as apples, pears, 
cherries, ploms, and walnuts ; and in still higher latitudes by the goose- 
berry, currant, rasp, and strawberry, and by malt Uqnora. The principal 
fruit-trees — figs, almonds, pomegranates, olives, lemons, oranges, peaches, 
apricots, mulberries, citrons, stone-pines, and date palnia — are conflned 
to the Warm Zone (p. 78). 

16. Zoology. — The Fauna of the globe is neually daasified 
into six zoological kingdoms, and subdivided into fourteen pio- 
vinces, of which one kingdom, including thiee provinces, em- 
braces all the animals belonging to this continent. The three 
Itrovinces referred to are the Northern, Middle, arid Soutkerti, 
the respective limits of which harmonise pretty closely with 
those of the three botanical regions described at p. 81.. The 
Isothenn of 41° divides the nottnem from the centra province, 
and the latter is aeparated from the southern by the Pyrenees 
and Alps. 

The following table presents a synopsis of the Fanna of Europe as pre- 
sently knovm — its Uammals, Birds and Keptiles— the Grst column 
showing the name of the order; the second, the total number of 
apeciea ; the third, the total European species ; the fourth, tifth, 
uid Btitb.thentimbers found in theNorthem, Central, and Southern 
provinces reapectivaly. 






Camivora (Fleab-eating), 
Mnrsupialia (Ponched Animals), 
Eodentia (Gnawing Animals), . 
Edentata (Toothless Animals), 
PachydeTmata (Thick-sldnned), 













Total number of Species, 













Bap&cea (Birda of Pray), .... 

Oscmes (Sonesten) 

GallinaceB (SamiuiCMnia Birds), . 

Hatatorea (SwimiJiers), .... 

Total nnmber of Species, , 















Tratnaines (TortoiBM), .... 
Saniia (Lirardal, 

asafSi?-: : : : ; 

Total nnmber of Species, 
















—It will ba seen ftvm the above that while tha entira 
nnmber of Enropeaa Mammam ia coiupanttivel; email, two orden — 
the PoutAtd and Toothleu—an entirely absent ; while other two— the 
Fosr-iatided and Tkiri-iHnjud — are each represented by one sotitai? 
species— viz., the Barbary Ape, b Qnadrumaiious ommal mhabitLDe the 
rock of Gibraltar, and the wild boar, a deniien of Central and SouUiam 
Enro[)6. Of the remaining orders, that of the Camraora ia by far the 
most important, not merely on account of tha great number of speciea it 
contains, but also because niort of them are hostile to man, and bava in 
all ages been the objects of his pnrauit, — either on account of the dangers 
to which they subject him, or the commercial value of their sldns and * 
other products. The order is represented in Enrope by five femiliea, the 
names and principal species of which are the following : — The Cheiroptera 
or bat family, including the common, the horse-shoe, and the bull-diwhat ; 
the Insectlvora, or hedgehogs, shrews, desmans, and moles; the Plan- 
tigrada, or bears, badgers, and gluttone ; the Di^tigrada, or polecat, 
ermine, weasel, and beech-marten, dog, wolf, foi, jackal, and civet, the 
lyni, and wildcat (the lion and tiger are nowhere fonnd In Europe) ; 
the Piunipedja or Amphibia, or the otter, common seal, and walrus. 
The Rodtniia erabiace the squirrel, beaver, lat, mouse, dormouse, ham- 
star, mole, water-rat, vole, and lemming, porcupine, hare, rabbit, and 
the pigmy lagomys. The Raminantia are rapreaented by the camel, 
deer, reindeer, elk, antelope, Tockgoat, wild sheep, and buffalo. The 
Ctlacea include the common Greenland whale, the great northern rorqual, 
the spermaceti whale, narwhal, sea -unicorn, porpoise, and commma 

Bmla. — Europe contains a greater nnmber of birds than any otbw 
Mologicol kingdom, with the exception of Tropical America. The M- 



IP priucipa! species in enah of the sii onlers : Bii-da of Pity 
hiBpriBD vultures, hanl^, ai)daw]a. Clhuhers iuclude swifts, goatsuclieraj 
cuckoos, woodpeckers, kuiglisliere, stid hoopoes. Songtla-i—Vtn night- 
ingale, blaokhinJ, thrush, linnet, and goldfinch. OaWtnacsoiu Birdt — 
the pigeon, capercailzie, red-grouae (the only species of hird peenliar to 
the Bntish Men), ptarmigan, partridge, and pheasunt. Wading Birds— 
■torks, herona, snipes, ploTera, cranes, rails, hustardii, runners, and 
flunlngOBS, fiisimmsri— the duok, swan, goose, grehe, loan, auk, and teni. 
SaptilBB. — European reptiles are all uf iiisi^itluant siie as compared 
with the gigantic crocodiles, alligators, and boas of the other loological 
provinces. Onl^ six species of Torioiie are fonnd, and these are Dearl]' 

I'Dooflned to the islands of the Mediterranean ; but the marsh tortoise is 
*lnlld as far N. as the middle of (iarmany, the leathery tort^.ise on hoth 
^es of the English Channel, and the hawk'a-bill turtle, according to Dr 
JiBming, in Shetland. The £izan/» comprise the dianieleon, gecko, iguana, 
.true Itaird, ajid skink— the last two of which are found in the British 
Idea. SerpiaU are very few in number, and include only two venomoua 
apeeies, both of which belong to the genus viper. All the really formid- 
wle species are unknown in this continsnt. There are twenty-three 
qwciea of Frogs, of which eight are found in the Bcitish Isles. They are 
found in higher latitudes than any other order of reptiles, extending as 
br north as the head of the Gulf of Bothnia. The European species com- 

n EaCB, which is by far the most numerous, derives 
its Dame from the region of the Caucasus and Annenis, the ancient 
centre from wliich all the existing varieties of men have sprang. 
Tbia region is situated in the centre of the Old World, and in the 
North Temporato Zone ; is surrounded by the Black Sea, the Caspian, 
the Ked Sea, and Mediterranean ; is connected by its noble rivers 
with the Persian Gnlf and Indian Ocean ; enjoys a climate of 
rare aslnbrity, a soil of f^at richness, and a vegetation of almost 
unrivalled luxuriance. Its inhabitants have ever constituted the 
highest type of humanity, and near it were located all the most 
iUnstrions ontions of ancient and modem times. The Caucasian 
race now extends from Iceland and the Atlantic to the Ganges and 
BrBhniBpntra. and from the Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer ; 
it embiBces Europe, South- Western Asia, and the Korth of Africa, 
;ind comprehends lie greater part of the posterity of Japheth and 

The Hoaeollaii Race consists of the remaining tribes of the two 
great families now mentioned : they people all the remainder of 
Asia, together with certain isolated localities of Europe, which they 
entered at a much later period, and generally in the character of 
tnuideiing hordes. The following are the principal Mongolian tribes 
that belong to this continent :— The Finns (inclnding the Finns 
Proper, Lapps, Quinians, Esthonians, Wogula, Permians, Tchu- 
waaches, Mordwins, and Tcheremesses), eitending from the Cra! 
Mountains to the Gnlf of Bothnia and the river Niemen ; the Sak- 
DIZDZS between the White Sen. and the river Kara : the Magyaiu or 


Htmgariaus, in Hung^ary, allied in form and language to the Finns ; 
the Tabtars, inhabiting the region north of the Black Sea and 
river Kuban ; the Kalmucks, N. of Mount Caucasus, and between 
the mouths of the Vol^ and Don ; and the Turks, in Rumelia, who 
form a connecting-link between the Mongolian and Caucasian racet, 
more closely allied to the Tartar branch in appearance, but to the 
Caucasians m language. 

II. Languages. — ^All the languages presently spoken in Europe 
belong to two great families — ^the Indo-European and Finno- 
Tartarian. Nations belonging to the Caucasian race speak the 
former, those of Mongolian origin the latter. The Indo-Euro- 
pean tongues spoken in Europe are subdivided into four groups 
or classes — ^viz., the Celtic in the W. ; the Teutonic, in the N. 
and N.W. ; the Greco-Latin, in the S.; and the Sclavonic, in the 
centre and E, All these, together with the remaining branches 
of the Indo-European famify presently spoken in Asia, are de- 
rived from the Sanscrit, an ancient, copious, and highly-refined 
language, spoken at a very remote penod. by a Japnetic nation 
who invaded India from the nortn-west, driving the original 
inhabitants either to the extreme south of the peninsula, or to 
the mountain-fastnesses of the interior, where tney continue to 
speak their original barbarous tongues. The original seat of 
these invaders has not been definitely ascertained ; but a kin- 
dred tribe, who spoke the closely-allied Zend language, were 
the earliest inhabitants of Bactria (Persia) ; and boSi were pro- 
bably nearly allied to the ancestors of the Celts, Teutons, Sclaves, 
and Hellenes, who, before the dawn of history, penetrated into 
Europe in separate bodies and at diverse times — ^thus origi- 
nating the four groups of lan^ages above enumerated. All 
these languages are polysyllabic, mghly inflexional, systemati- 
cally refined, copious in their vocabulary, phonetic (not ideo- 
graphic) when >vritten, are read from left to right, and bear 
many other indications of a common origin. 

Celtio Languages. — Of the four groups now enumerated, the Celtic 
appears to be the most ancient. It differs very considerably from the 
Sanscrit, and more from each of the other three groups than tbey 
differ from each other. Celtic nations formed the vanguard of the 
great Japhetic army that, before the dawn of history, migrated west- 
ward, and became the earliest inhabitants of Europe. For the 
most part they entered that continent on the north side of the 
Mediterranean ; ascended the Danube and Save ; settled in lllyria, 
the Tyrol, Switzerland, Belgium, France, and the British Isles ; 
though some of their number migrated westward along the south 
side of the Mediterranean, and entered Spain by the Strait of Gib- 
raltar. This migration occupied many centuries, and before it was 
concluded the main body became divided into two great sections 




(the Gatl and the ST^/inrt), wlio, iu the coarse of ages, cnme to apeak 
langoasea unintelligible to ench other, thoogh closely allied both 
fzlossanftllj Dud gr(imniB.ticall7. These are the Gaelic and the 
ETDuic ; each of wMch, in the course of time, branched off inU 
Biree dialects (p, lOfiJ :— 

Oaelic ov Era Bnmck, laclndiog 
Irish, spoken in Ireland. 
Scottish Gaelic, in North and West of Scotland. 
Maox, in Isle of Man. 
Ej/mrit Branch, or Andntt Bntiih; 
Welsh, in the principality ot Wales. 
Cornish, in Corawnll (now extinct). 
Breton or Annoric, in Bi'etagne. 
Anamt ioco(t(ies.— Thougli the Coltio languages ore now conDned 
IU the British Isles and the north-western comer of France, they were 
jpohen at one time OTer a large portion of Europe. At tlie oomnionce- 
ntent of the Christian era, Celtic nnd Gothic nations divided all Western 
£QTope between them ; and were separated from each other by the 
Khine, which BtUl, in a great meaanre, forms the boundary between the 
races, though not between the languages. For a lengtboaed period both 
branches of the Celtic have been diaappeu^ng before the more highly 
cultiTated English and French. Yet they are highly expressive and 
ouphonioua tongues ; they conie down to us ait mouumeols of tho most 
Temote antiquity, and of late liave become objects of the deepest interest 
to philologislSj who discover in them most precious materials for iUus- 
tralmg the science of comparative gmmmar. From five to six millions 
ol penons preaently speak dialects of Geltio— viz. Irish, 3,000,000 at 
htmie, and I,000.<H>U abroad ; Scottish Gaelic, 400,000 !□ Scotland, and 
100,000 in the colonies; Welsh, 700,000 in Wales, and 50,000 in the 
ciUes of Bagland ; Armoric, 800,000 in France. 

Phi/nola/ttal and, Intetleeiual CAarmfsr.— The pnre Celt is of middle 
size and sjender make ; sallow complexion ; block hair, rarely curled, 
bnt turning grey at an early age ; grey or dark-brown oyea ; face and upper 
part of the aknll oval ; chest narrow ; legs slightly curved innards ; ftet 
anall; temt^erament bilicus, or bilious-nervous. Quick In perception, 
with great powers of combination and application ; sensitive, proud, 
irasdble, but easily calmed; fond of equality, society, and military 
glorr; polite, hospitable, brave, but superstitious ; incautious and iiu- 

Teutonic Langnages. — These bare all a cloae resemblance to each 
other, both in tiieir roots and inHi^ions, and are intimately allied to 
the Sanscrit. Anciently they were highly inflexional, like the Greco- 
Latin family, but nov employ auzUiaries for the conju^tion of 
- .Verb* and prepositions for the infiexions of noana. Though not so 
" " as the Greek, or even the Sclavonic tongues, they are bold, 

„ i, andcai>able of expressing all shades of thoaght. We first 

jd Teutonic nations in the region S. of the Caspian Sea in the eighth 
ntDT]'' before Christ. It was to this region that the ten laraelit- 
lll tlibes were transported by the King of Assyria, B.C. 721. In 
U likelihood the two peoples amalgamated. Then commenced their 
~ ■ t nlisTation westnard, so ably delineated by Sharon Turner in 


his • History of the Anglo-Saxons.' Possessed of indomitable energy 
and force of character, the Teutonic nations either subjugated or 
drove before tiiem such Celtic tribes as they came in contact with. 
In the fourth century they overthrew the great Roman Empire, 
and they have almost invariably been able to retain possession of 
the territories they have once acquired. Their deep and patient 
reflection has led to the most important inventions and sublimest 
discoveries of modem times, as the watch, gun, steam-engine, art 
of printing, and the law of gravitation ; and to this race belong 
the brightest names of modem science and literature, as Newton, 
Milton, Shakespeare, Bacon, Luther, Goethe, Humboldt, and Liebig. 
The Teutonic languages, like the Celtic, branch off into two main 

Oerman Branch, including 

German, in Germany, Switzerland, and United States. 
Dutch, in the Netherlands and Cape Colony. 
Flemish, in the North of Belgium and N. Brabant. 
English, in British Isles, British Colonies, and United States. 

Scnndmavum Branch, including 

loelandio, in Iceland. 
Faroese, in the Faroe Isles. 
Norse, in Norway and Denmark. 
Swedish^ in Sweden. 
Scotch, m Lowlands of Scotland. 

JSxtinct Langttages of this Class. — Gothic, Alemannic, Old Saxon, 
and Anglo-Saxon, the last of which is the parent and basis of the 
modem English. 

Ancient Localities. — Media, Germany, between the Rhine and Elbe ; 
the southern part of Scandinavia ; Bulgaria and Servla. The Teutonic 
tribes that most distinguished themselves in the Middle Ages were, the 
Franks, Burgundians, Alemans, and Visi-Goths, in Gaul ; Gfoths, Longo- 
bards, and Hemli, in Italy ; Vandals and Ostro-Goths, in Spain; Angles, 
Jutes, and Saxons, in England. 

Physioloffical Character. — ^Above middle size, and disposed to coipu- 
lency ; chest broad ; bones thick ; legs straight ; feet often huge and 
clumEHT ; great strength of muscle ; fair complexion, with flaxen, reiddish, 
or golden-coloured hair ; large blue eyes ; ruddy cheeks ; broad, high 
brow ; skull larger and rounder than the Celtic variety ; temperament 
sanguine and phlegmatic 

InteUecttud and Moral Charader. — Slow but accurate in perception ; 
great depth and penetration of mind, but not so sparkling and bnlliant 
as the Celt ; strong desii*e for personal independence and political self- 
government; cautious, reserved, and provident; hospitaole. but not 
very sociable ; fond of titles and social distinctions ; haughty, over- 
bearing disposition, and reckless of the rights of other nations ; sincere: 
forgetful of injuries ; skilful seamen ; fond of spirituous liquors ; great 
musical talent. 

Sclavonio Languages. — This family of languages belongs to the 
centre and east of Europe. With the exception of Hnngaiy, Mol- ' 
davia, and Wallachia, they extend without interrnptioii £ci>m thtt 




filack Sea to tlie. Baltio, and from the Adriatic to the Yenisei ; they 
(icaup7 more than a. third part of Europe, and are spolcea by about 
70,000,000 of people. Though not immediately doriyed from the 
Sanaciit, thej bear to it a very close affinity, and resemble it more 
neatly than any other Indo-European family, esceptthe Greco-Latin 
and Indian branches. They are distinguiphed by the lichneas of their 
TDcaholary, by their fjreat abundance of aynonyms, and by their 
numerans inflesiona, irhich are placed bnth at the beginning and end 
of nords. The laat-mentionEd property imparts to them a great 
facility of creating from each radical an extraordinary number of 
derivatiTes ; from uatiTe roots tboy easily form all tboae technical 
and Bciontifie terms n-bich the languanea of Weatem Europe derive 
Iromthe Greet and Latin. In the number of their declensions, tensea. 
Bad participles, they excel all other European languages ; and they 
posaesa such expressiveness and energy that they are capable ofre- 
preaecting every object of the imagination in a manner not inferior 
to the most highly 'Cultivated modern tonguee. The inferior eEtimate 
usually formed of their euphony and sonoronBuees mainly arises from 
the attempt to express in Itoman letters sounds that are wholly 
peculiar to the Sclavonic languages. Like the two former families, 
the Solavonio tongues are arranged under two brauehes. 
•SaK&-Eailxrji Brandt, including 

Husaian, in the great plain of North-Eaatem Europe. 

Ruasmak, in Galicia. Hungary, Volhynln, Podolia. 

Balgoriim, Senian, Dalmatian, CroatiaQ, Bosnian— all in the basin 
of the Lower Danube, and on the Drave and Have. 

Weodiah, middle of Lower Germany. 

JV'ortA- Weilem Branch- 
Polish, in Poland, on the Vistula and Siemen. 
Bohemian, or Tchelihian, in Bohemia and Muravla. 

A nia, Vaitdah, Fenrti, and FeiuSi, all of whom were descendanta of the 
ancient Sarmnts. In the stith century of our era they began to ascend 
the basin of the Danube, and to form aettlements on both aides of that 
river : since then they are frequently mentioned by tbs Byzantine histo- 
riam aa performing an important put in European history. 

fhytiologicai Character. — In stature stout, broad, and squat-built ; 
Deck short and thick ; bardy in constitution, with strong hooes and 
(todght muscular limbs ; coraplaiion sallow, forming a mean between 
tha Gothic and Celtio races ; eyes erey or hazel-brown, and deeplv set in 
tha head ; hair bristly, dark, of dinecent abades, and rarely cnrled; skull 
and faoQ square and angnlar ; chsek-bonea promiuent ; brow low, and tlie 
bail growmg far down on it ; temperament phlegmatic, or sanguine- 


Tntelleetucd and Moral Character. — Great mechanical, musical, and 
imitative talent ; frank and open when in the enjoyment of freedom, but 
cunning, deceitful, and revengeful when subjected; their statesmen be- 
come admirable diplomatists ; originally leading a nomadic life, they are 
still attached to the patriarchal form of government ; blindly obedient to 
their sovereign, who is regarded as a father ; extremely tenacious of the 
manners and prejudices of their ancestors. They are further characterised 
by a want of cleanliness ; by their love of lyrical, and especially elegiac, 
song ; and above all, by their invincible hatred of;the Teutonic race, who 
have oppressed them for a thousand years, as well as by their long- 
cherished aspirations after Pansclavism. 

Greco-Latin Langnages. — ^These comprehend all the languages 
derived from the ancient classical tongues of Greece and Borne. They 
are spoken over the entire south of Europe, from the Atlantic to the 
Dniester, and from the southern limits of Germany to the Mediter- 
ranean — ^with the exception of the northern portion of the Hellenic 
peninsula, the Basque Provinces, and Bretagne. All the larger 
islands of the Mediterranean, except Malta, are peopled by nations 
speaking Greco-Latin tongues. The origin of the Greeks and Latins, 
in common with that of tne Celts, Goths, and Sclaves, is lost in the 
darkness of the pre-historic period. Modem ethnographic science, 
however, leaves little doubt that the two nations referred to were, 
respectively, the earliest inhabitants of Greece and Italy ; that they 
stood to each other in the closest affinity, both of them being the 
immediate descendants of the Pelasgi, who appear to have formed 
the first great wave of population that broke on the shores of south- 
eastern Europe, and tnat permanently covered Asia Minor, Thrace, 
Macedonia, Greece, and Italy. This migration probably took place 
about 2000 B.C., but was succeeded by numerous similar migrations 
of the same stock of nations (including the Hellenes, who were no 
doubt nearly allied to, if not identical with, the Pelasgi) down to 1350 
B.C. In subsequent centuries other great bodies of colonists appear 
to have entered Europe from other parts of Asia, forming the ances- 
tors of the Celtic, Teutonic, and Sclavonic nations ; but the Pela^ 
formed, from the very first, the great bulk of the population of Itaty 
and Greece. The part of A^sia from which the Pelasgi set out appears 
to have been Korthem India ; for the Sanscrit, the ancient and sacred 
language of India, has a marked and very decided affinity to both 
Greek and Latin. The Greek, especially, is more closely allied to the 
Sanscrit than any other European tongue. In some respects, how- 
ever, the Latin sui*passe3 the Greek in retaining the features of its 
venerable parent, and it is in no way to be regarded as a descendant, 
far less a corraption, of the language of Greece. They are sister- 
tongues, deriving from their common parent every feature in which 
they resemble each other ; but exhibiting many differences, arising 
from the different fortunes of each.* 

* For the precise relation in which the two ancient classical tongues stand to 
each other, we may refer to Bopp's ' Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European 
Languages ; ' to Latham, * On the English Language ; ' and (what is more in- 
teresting and satisfactory than either) to the article " Language" in the * Fenny 


I Ortil, or Eattern BiimrJi— 

Ancient Greek— Spokan in Greeca fiom the Earliest times, and afl*r- 

vrarda in numerous other countries. 
Modem Greek or Romaic— Greece, the ArcMpalaEO, and parts of Die 
Tnrkish Enjpira. 
liOiin, or Western Bra-tek — 
^K ^cient Iiatin — Now a dead language, ivas tlie original langni^ of 

^h Ttaly, and afteroards spread over lie greater port of Uie Bmoan. 


Italian — Italy, part of Switzerland, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, &0. 

Spanish — Spain, Canaria, Cuba, Mexico, Spaniih Aiuriea, Philip- 
pine liUi, &c. 

PortngnaBB— Portagal, Madeira, Ainres, Brnat, io. 

French — ftance, (mannel Isles, parts of Belgium and Bwitzerland, 
Lovee Canadii, LouirUinfi, A Ipsria, W. ladies, fi^enj^h GuiaMa, 

Willachian— Wallachia, Uoldavis, Bessarabia, TnmsylTania. 

Aneient Lecalitia. — No other language, ancient or modem, has bean 
TO widely diffused ss tlie Greek, cseept Arabic and Englisli. Gm««, 
' na Minor, Macedoaia, Thsasaly, and Epims were its earlieat eeats : it 

w difioaed by the early Greek colonies along both eides of the Mediter- 

- ■ 1, m Cjrene, SyrBcnsB, Tarentum, and Srajrna ; was extended by 
nder and his enccessDis to a large portion of WEstem Asia, inclnd- 

ig AeitL Minor, Syria, and the cities of Palestine ; and was Epoken in 
manj parts of Egypt under the Ptolemies. The conquest of Greece hy 
the R(nnanB, B.O. 146, tended still further to its difioBlon, while luider 
tha C^eaari it was more erteneively oultivateil than at any fonuer time. 
Alter the fall of the Western Empire, and the extinction of learning in 
tlui West, Greek Lt«rature and plulosophy found an asylum in Constan- 
tbMipie, till that city was taken by the lurks, A.I). 1463 ; at which tima 
it erased to be spoken in its purity anywhere. It utill, however, re- 
mained a living languid in its original home ; and even to this day the 
modem Grcfllca can peruse with comparative ease the pToductions of 
Homer, Xenophon, and Demosthenes. In short, ithaaiemainedaliviug 
loJ^ni^ for the aatoniahing period of 3000 years. The Latin, in like 
manner, was the principal language of Italy from the earlieat times. As 
the Bomao power extended, it hecame more and mora widely diffused, in 
many cases mingling with and remoulding tho dialects of Uie conquered 
nstlonB, and thus originating the modem languages of Sonthem Europe. 
After the fall of the Boinan Empire It ceased to be a spokeu language, 
but during the lengthened period of the miridle ages it continued to 
maintain its supremacy as the langua^ of llteniture, philosophy, legis- 
lation, and religion. Since the eatabUshiiient of the papal hierarchy to 
■'■■-■- ant day, it has maintained its place as the liturgical languago of 
iah Church ; and it ifl stOl eitensively cultivated by every civUiaed 
m account of the treasures contained in the vast repoeitones of Its 

■n Lai^vagee helmrning to tkii Slaci. — The Romaic differs little 
re &oia ancient Greek tten some of the dialects of that language dif- 
)d tnm each other ; and the changes that have ariaon are more per- 
lUble In the grammar than in the vocabulary. Ttie mahi differences 
' '~"~g between the various languages of the Koman branch arise 



mainly from the different character of the languages spoken in these 
localities before the Latin was engrafted on the original stock. Italian^ 
Spanish, and French have diverged from the parent stem far more widely 
than the Romaic from the ancient Greek. The French has effected the 
widest separation, and the Italian and Spanish the least ; while the Por- 
tuguese may be regarded as almost a dialect of the Spanish, the two 
languages being radically identical. Though the basis of the Wallachian 
is altered Latin, about one-half of its words are derived from Greek, 
Turkish, and Sclavonlan sources. The Albanian is so different from every 
other member of this family that it seems doubtful whether it can claim 
a place among them. It contains the remains of a language now long 
extinct, but which probably formed a connecting-link between various 
families of tongues, more especially between the Greco -Latin and 

III. Religions op Europe. — These, thougli extremely nu- 
merous, may all be reduced to three classes, which harmonise 
in a very remarkable manner with the races and groups of lan- 
guages above described. The Caucasian race are Christians ; 
the Mongolian race. Heathens ; while the Turks, who form a 
connecting-link between these races, profess Mohammedanism — 
a religion which equally connects Christianity with Paganism ; 
and what is still more remarkable, Teutonic nations have em- 
braced Protestantism — ^that is, Christianity reformed from the 
abuses of centuries ; the Celtic and Greco-Latin nations profess 
Catholicism ; while those speaking Sclavonic tongues belong to 
the Greek Church. 

To the latter generalisation, however, there are some important 
exceptions ; because language does not strike so deeply into the roots 
of humanity as race does. Language shares in the fortunes of the 
nation that speaks it, and is subject to numberless vicissitudes; 
while the stamp derived from race remains indelible for ages. 
Accordingly we find considerable sections of the Celtic nations be- 
coming Protestants, as the Scottish Gael and the Welsh ; Austria, 
though speaking a Teutonic language, largely professes OathoUcism ; 
the Magyars, a Mongolian race, and speaking a Mongolian language, 
are to a large extent Protestants ; and the inhabitants of Greece, 
instead of belonging to the Roman Catholic, are stanch adherents 
of the Greek Church. The following table shows the estimated 
numbers belonging at present to the different races and religious 
denominations of Europe :— 



Celtic, pure and mixed . 
Teutonic do. 
Sclavonic do. 
Mongolian and Tartar . 
Jewish . . . . 
Gypsies, Ac. . 







Bonian Catholic . . 140,000,000 
Greek Church . . 68,000,000 
Protestant . . 68.600,000 
Mohammedan & Heathen 6,600,000 
Jews, .... 4,400,000 
Gypsies, &c. . . . 1,149,000 

Total of Europe, . 




■* The Britiali Empire ia the largest, the most powetfiil, and 

■ with one eiception, the moat populoua on the surface of the 

■ 'Carth. In extent of territorj it even exceeds the BusEion Em- 
r pire ; in point of popidation it is eeooiid only, to the Chinese , 

■while in wealth, civilisation, and moral influence, it has no 
rival. Its ma^tude, however, will be more eaaOy realised hy 
comparing it with the other largest states in both hemispheres 
According to the most recent statistics, the dates of which are 
giTen ill detail in the following table, the area of the BritiBh 
Empire, inclnding the Protected Statea of India, amounts to 

next largest empire is that of £iis^ia, which has an area of 
nearly 8,000,000 eq. m., and a population of 83,260,000 ; the 
area of the Chinese Empire is estimated at 4,423,000 sq. m., and 
the popniation at 435,000,000 ; while the fourth in size ia the 
United States of America, with an area (including Alaska) o 

■Ve include the Tributary States of India, the Empire embraces 
1 full sixth of the land surface of the globe, and a Sfth of tho 

Table of Bkitish PosaESSiONS. 




in ISTl. 

Britiah Isles or United 1 

nSiS. . *. 

Qibraliar, . 

Malta, .... 












Total in Europe, • . 



Aden and Perim. . 
Britah India [18721, . 
Protected St«tes, , 
Straits Settlemeuts, . 

Hong Kong, . 













124 193 



Total in Asia, 

1,476.B01 [241,703,168 


:■ •ForCTPnn,u™HdtoUieBritisJj»iJplreiElBT8,ieepp.S6(lMii«». 






Area in 


sq. m. 






Sierra Leone, 




Gold Coast and Lagos, . 




Cape Colony, includ-'\ 

ing British Kafraria, f 
Basntnland, Griqua* f 




land West, 1875, ) 

Natal, .... 




Mauritius, Amirantes, ) 
Seychelles, &c. . ) 

Port-Louis, &c. 



St Helena and Ascen- )^ 
sion, j 

Total in Africa, 
Dominion of Canada — \ 

Jamestown, &c. 





Canada, Nova Sco- 

tia, New Bninswick, 

Prince Edward Is- 
land, British Col- / 




tunbia, Manitoba, 

and N. W. Terri- 
tory, / 

St John's 



Bermudas, . 




British Honduras, 




West India Islands, 

Spanish Town, &c 



British Guiana, 

George Town 



Falkland Isles, 

Total in America, . 

New South Wales (1874), 

Stanley Harbour 








Victoria (1874), . 



South Australia (1874), 




West AustraUa (1874), . 




Queensland (1874), 
North Australia (unco- ) 
Ionised), j 





Tasmania (1874), . 

Hobart Town 



New Zealand (1874), . 




Aukland & Norfolk Isles, 



Fiji Isles, 

Total in Oceania, 

Total British Empire, 








Position and Boundariea. — The British IbIgb, or United 
Kingdom, of Great Britain and Ireland, form an extensive arclit- 
pelago in the North Atlantic Ocean, at a email distance &oni 
the western ahorea of Central Enrope, from whinh it is aeya- 
rated hv the Nortli Sen, the Strait of Dover, and the Englisk 
Channel. It consists of two large islanda^Great Britain, ajid 
Ireland — and of nboat 6500 smaller ialanda and rocks. Of 
these, 600 are contiguous to Great Britain, and 5000 to Ireland, 
At the date of the last general census, only 420 of them were 
fovmd inhabited — 175 of which were adjacent to Great Britain, 
and 246 to IteUnd. 

Fonn. — The general ontline is very irregiiUr ; hut omitting the 
Shetland, Norman, and Scilly Isles, it appi'oxiins.t«s to the form of 
a scalene triangle, vrith its longest side turned to the eRst, and its 
shortest to the south. The group, as a whole, is broken up into n 
unmber of smsllec ones, which aminge themselves, either singly or 
in clusters, aronad the larger islands. Thus, Great Britain is sur- 
roandfld by the Otkoey and Shetland lalea, the Outer and lunar 
Hebrides, Bute and Arran, Isle of Man. Anoleaaa, Seilly Tales, and 
Isle of Wight; while Ireland is in like mannar accompanied by 
Bathlin Island, Tony Island, Arraomare, AchU Island, Clare Islam!, 
Valencia, and Cape Clear. The east coast of Great Britain is singu. 
Inriy destitute of Islands ; and the arrangement into clusMrs is mors 
Dharaeteristio of the British than of the Irish Islands. 

Aisa and DtmenBtani. — Situated between 49" 13' and SO* iV K., 
and between 1° 46' E. and 10° Sff W. Ion., the entire archipelago oo- 
ciipieBlli''of laC and 12i°Ion. The trapezium formed by thepaial. 
lela and meridians that pass through its extreme points is thus 3D0 
milea lone, from north to Bouth, with an avenigB breadth of 490 
miles. The square content of this trapezium is about 392,000 square 
miles, but more than two-thirds of it is covered with water ; ana. the 
actual area of the land is only I22,BB0 square miles, or Jf of the 
area of continental Europe. Great Britain is the largest island in 
Europe, and the seventh largest in the world, being only exceeded 
by Anstralia, Berueo, Papua, Sumatra, Niphon, and Madagascar. 
Its length is 60S miles, breadth 280 ; area 83,826 sq. mOea, or. in- 
duding the adjaceot islands, 90,033 aq. miles = 58,000,000 imperial 
acres, or ^ part of Enrope. 

Extrems Points. — Unst, in Shetland, is the most northern part 

of the British archipelago ; Jersey, in the Channel Isles, the most 

■onthem ; Lowestoft Ness, in Suffolk, the most esstcm ; and Bias- 

Hint I., in Kerry, the most western. 

f The lODBBrt day in Jeisey is three hours shorter than m Shetlaud, 


where, at the summer solstice, it is 19 hours long. Here a "bright twi- 
light continues all night, and books of a small type may be easily read at 
midnight. The sun rises on the E. coast of England 49 minutes earlier 
than on the W. coast of Ireland. Greenwich time, therefore, which is 
now followed on all the railways of Great Britain, would be greatly at 
fault if extended to the sister island. 

Comparative Position. — The parallel of latitude which passes 
through Unst, in the extreme N. of the archipelago, proceeds east- 
ward through Christiania, Stockholm, St Petersburg, and Yakutsk ; 
and westward across C. Farewell in Greenland, and Mount St Elias 
in Alaska; the parallel of Jersey in the extreme S. proceeds east- 
ward to Paris and Vienna ; and westward along the northern boun* 
dary of the United States : while the central parallel of 55" passes 
over Londonderry, Newcastle, Copenhagen, Moscow, Tomsk, and 
Nain in Labrador. The central meridian (of 4° 23' W.) runs con- 
siderably to the east of the FarSe group, through Anglesea and Corn- 
wall, between Brest and Madrid, and 1** E. of Gibraltar. 

Population. — In 1801, the year of our first regular census, the 
population of the British Isles amounted to 15,942,646. By the 
census of 1871, the population amounted to 31,817,108, being one- 
tenth of the population of Europe, or 259 persons to each sq. m. 
Thus, while in the United States the population doubles itself in 
25 years, in the United Kingdom it scarcely doubles itself in 70 
years. This comparatively slow rate of increase arises from 
various causes, the principal of which have been emigration and 
famine. In the year last named, the population of Eneland was 
22,704,108; that of Scotland, 3,360,018; and that of Ireland, 

An immense tide of emigration is constantly leaving our shores. In 
1867 there emigrated from the British Isles, 195,953 — or 537 per day. Of 
these, 159,000 went to the United States^ 14,000 to Australia^ and 15,600 
to British America. Since the year ISlo, the number of emigrants from 
the United Kingdom has amounted to 6,302,345 ; while in the ten years 
1858-67, it averaged 162,000 per annum. The destruction of the potato 
crop in 1846-7, and the consequent famine in Ireland and the Hignlands 
of Scotland, had a mighty effect in reducing the population. In Ireland 
alone it is estimated that 1,000,000 of the people died of famine and 
disease in two years, while a million more emigrated. In Great Britain 
alone the population has more than doubled during the last half-oentury. 
In 1801 it was 10,578,000, including the adjacent islands; it is now 
26,062,721. This gives 289 persons to every sq. m., and 2f acres of land 
to every person. This dense population is equally divided between town 
and country, there being about 124 millions in each. The number of 
cities, county towns, and market towns in the island is 815, of which 580 
are in England and Wales, with an average population of 17,300 ; and 225 
in Scotland, with an average population of 8000. 

Climate.— As compared with other countries of the same latitude, 
the climate of the British Isles, though variable, is remarkably mild 
and salubrious. There is no country in Europe where a working 
man can prosecute his employment out of doors for a greater number 
of days in the year, or of hours in the day. Surrounded by the 
ocean on all sides, and having a branch of the Gulf Stream flowing 


■loug its western sbores, the Bemi iiiinual temporature is greatly 
liigher than its geographital position in tlie middle of tlie North 
Tetnpomts Zona would iudicato. Or the six isothermal nones inlo 
■which thfl meteorologist divides onr hemiBphBre — viz., the oqua- 
torial, WBm, mild, cool, cold, and friffid — the United Eingdoni is 
I ritnatad ia that one which, on the whole, is most desirable. 

1 bounded by 
mean annnal 
ipentnre of 49°. The mean teinperatnrfl of Unst, in ShetlBiid, Is 
.7, and of Penzance in Coruwail, o3°; thus showing a difference of 
in annnal temperature between the two estreraitiBs of the amhipelago 
7* Fahr., and a general average for the whole of iS".?. In no other 
— ' — either in the Old or New World, does so Sigh a mean tompeni- 

Sond with so hi^h a latitude. For Biample, Edmbureh, Mos- 
lin in Labrador, are situated nearly on the same panilie] : bnt 
-while the mean temperature of Edinburgh is 17°.13, at Uoacow it is 40°, 
Bud at Nsin 27°.S. Hence it appeals that the Britisli Isles possess a mean 
temparature of 7° higher than correapondiDg latitudes on the eastern, and 
of 90* higher than corresponding latitudes on the western coocinent. 
The winter teifiperatura is slil] more dissimilar, being at Edinburgh 
38°,16, at Moscow 15°.e, and at Nain 3°. 7. Our winter is therefore 33° 
Tiia. warmer t);an at Moscow, and Sfi" warmer than in the corresponding 
latitude of the eastern side of North America. 

The lutherm of SO*, which nearly expresses the mean annual tempei- 
mture of the British leles, in no part of the world attains eo high a fati- 
tnda aa in Ireland, where it ascends, in the centre of the island, nearly ■ 
to the paxallel otDublin, in lat 63° 21'. From this ^mt it rapidly de- 
icenda m its passage eastward and westward— in the tormer, passing near 
London 61° am, Paria 48° SO', Vienna 48° 13', Astrakhan 16° 13', and 
P«kin39°68'; and in the latter. New York 41° 6', and the mouth ufthe 
Colombia 46°. These places are, on an averse, 8^°, and one of them 
(Pflkin) no less than 13^°, farther south than Dublin. So great, indeed, 
is the inBuence of onr insular situation, of our mild westerly winds, and 
of the general drainage and cultivation of our soil, that the British Isles 
are fully as healthy as any country in the world, and onr vegetation un- 
rivalled under the same degree of latitude. Not only is our mean tem- 
Cture very high, but the ransi of Itmperatyri is very small ; the dif- 
ice between the temperature of the hottest and coldest mouths being 
only about 34°, while at Berlin it is 38°, and at Moscow and St Pete:«- 
bnrg no less than 57°. Hence we are exempted from those v' '"' 

iniurions to health and to animal and vegetable life, 
in Ireland the >— — ■ ' -■ "- " 

Accordingly, v . „ , . 

ur aa in Portugal, com will not ripen in Labrador under the same lati< 
tude, and only hardy kitchen vegetablea can be raised. Summer, in 
the British Isles, comprises the months of June, July, and Aof^st ; 
antnmn, September, October, November, and tiie first half of Decem- 
ber; winter, half of December, Januai?, February, and the half ol 
March ; and spring, the latter half of March, April, and May. July ia 
the hottest month. 

The Prevailing Tinds am westerly for nine months of the year ; but 
In March, April, Slay, and Nov. they are often easterly or nortiierly, and 
tW« aaason of the year is peculiarly trying to invalids, especially to 
tbrae afflicted with consumption. Tlie average taH of Tain over 
■Uie mtlre archipelago is above 40 in., but it ia much greater on the W. 


than on the E. coast of both Great Britain and Ireland — the mean fall of 
rain on tiie east coast of the former being 27.4 inches, and of the latter 
29.7 inches ; while on the west coast of the larger island it is 45.5, and 
of the smaller 47.4 inches. The average number of rainy days on the 
east coast is 165, and on the west 208. This great difference of climate 
between the E. and W. sides arises from the configuration of the land 
and the general prevalence of westerly winds charged with va^ur from 
the Atlantic. These winds, striking against the colder mountam-ranges, 
lose their moisture and originate nearly all the principal rivers in both 
islands. In some parts of Westmoreland and Cumberland, as much as 
100 inches of rain fall annually ; at Seathwaite, in the latter county, the 
fall amounts to 141 inches ; whereas at London, on the eastern side of 
the island, it is only 24, at Cambridge 20, Shields 26, Edinburgh 25, 
and Dubl^ 80.8 inches. The limit of perpetual snow in the S. of the 
archipelago is estimated at 6334 feet, on the central parallel 5034 feet, 
and in Shetland 3818 feet. 

The mean Height of the Barometer at London at sea level and at 
32^ Fahr. is 29.956 inches, at Glasgow 29.829 inches, and in Orkney 
29.791 inches. The barometric range is very great, especially in the 
N. of the archipelago, being in Orkney 3 inches. The varicUion or 
declination of ike magnetic needle is much greater on the W. coast than 
on the E. At London in 1580 the needle showed an E. declination of IV 
36' ; in 1663 it was at zero. From that year it gradually tended west- 
ward till it reached its maximum declination of 24° 41' in 1818. 
Since then it has steadily diminished, being 22° 30^ in 1850, and 20*16' 
W. in 1868. -Calculating from these data we learn that in our country 
the needle makes one complete oscillation of 49" 22' in 810 years. The 
dip or inclination undergoes a secular variation of a similar land. At 
London, in 1820, it was 70° 3', and in 1868, 67° 54', diminishing by 
about 2'. 6 annually. Lastly, the magnetic intensity, which is found to 
increase with the latitude, is at London 1.372; at the equator, 1.087; 
Naples, 1.274; Paris, 1.348; St Petersburg, 1.410; Spitzbei^en, 1.567. 

Geology. — By far the greater part of the surface of the 
British Isles is occupied by sedimentary and fossiliferous strata, 
ranging from the Silurian to the Tertiary. Igneous and meta- 
morphic rocks prevail mainly in Scotland — a country which is 
also characterised by the preponderance of Silurian strata, by the 
extent and importance ol its newer Palaeozoic rocks, embracing 
all the formations from the Devonian to the Permian, and by 
the absence, for the most part, of strata belonging to the Mesozoic 
and Tertiary series. 

England possesses in greatest abundance those formations of 
which Scotland is most destitute ; for while only a small portion of 
her surface is covered by the older Palaeozoic — viz., the north- 
western and south-western counties — the Secondary formations are 
widespread and highly developed, as are also the newer Palaeozoic 
strata, to which her unrivalled coal-fields belong. The Chalk and 
Tertiary series are mainly confined to the south-eastern counties, 
especially to the basins of the Thames and Ouse. The Oolite, Lias, 
and Trias occupy nearly all the remainder of the country, especially 
the north-eastern and central counties from the eastern frontier of 


° Wales to the Noiili Sea ; but tho north of England, from Dcrliy to 
Berwiuk, id covered with the Coal-measures and tho Ciirboaiferoiia 
limestone. WaJea conaists, for the moat part, nf Silurian and 
DevaDiBit Btrsta, hut tlie Coal-measures in the south Ota extensive 
tuid valnable. 

A. most intflroBting cin^aniBtAnee connected with the geology of Eog- 
Und and Wales, and one which will ^eatly facilitate the mastering of the 

details, is the order in which the diffen . 
ciidly in the broadest part of the kingdom. Supposioe a geologist (o set 
oat from the Cambrian rooks of the west want of PemlirokeahirB, and to 
lavel eastward till he arrives at the Tertiary deposits of Norfoll:, he will 
o passed in review all the systems and formations of the entire fos- 
IB series, and that, too, precisely in the order in which they are 
, ., d in geological treotiaea, or in which they would he seen were a 
■wmplEte geoloracal section of the earth's crust pi'Bsenlfld to his viewl 
^^iB order would ho precisely the sams should ho make another escuision 
Irom Berwick to London along the coast, or even in a direct line, save 
that a few of tho lower terms of the series would be wanting. Probably 
there is no coautry in the world, of equal extent, in which a siniilar snc- 
cesilon conld he fomid. 

Ireland ia essentially a Palaeozoic country. Carhoniferous lime- 
itone covers a large portion of the surface, and the Silurian nad 
Devonian the remainder ; only that sjiteDslve tracts of trap and 
granite prevail atone the coasts — the former covering the entire 
north-east of ITlater between the Lagan and Lough Foyle, and the 
latter the greater part of the counties Wicklow, Carlow, Galwav, 
and Donegal. Coal is found in many places, hnt the workable hedg 
are of inconsiderable extent, and the quality is oommonlj inferiort 
The geology of the British Isles presents an admirable epitome of 
the geology of the friobe ; and it has been more thoroughly investi- 

Ci than any other equally extensive portion oE the earth's sur- 
Details, however, would be nut of place here, more espe<;ial!y 
after the somewhat ample consideration given to the subject at 
pp. 41-S2 ; hut the prevailing character! ptics of the geology of each 
of the coanties will be found briefly indicated in the " Descriptive 
Notw" to England, Scotland, and Ireland.* 

Idmuls. — The minercils of the United Eingdom are a 
Bonrce of immBnae wealth, and, both in i^nantity and commerciail 
value, greatly surpasa those of any other countrj'. The chief of 
ihae are coal, iron, salt, limestone, building-Btonea, copper, 
lead, tin, silver, and zinc. 

i^onotnii; valne, is found 
; though some of them, 
in BQch small qusntltiea 

as, for eiarople, gold and quicksilve 

• Tia tarthet details we mast refer the stndent to the works of BLr Boderick 
Ifniclilsan, »r Clisrlea Lvi-11, Mr Hugh Miller. Dr Vug'- ^od Barectnllylo the 
huntiflil " Geological and Pileonlulugieal Hap of the BrlClBb IsLuida,'' edited 
tivDr Keith Johnitnn. from matecinls supplied by the IsteUunenl '" " 
Blwanl Furhes, forming Mate- " -- ''■ -' ■'-- — -" 


it deposits of eiceUeat coal were discovered at 

r Walettort ia vai. 


as scarcely to repay the labour of extracting them. Coad and inm are 
the two commodities that have contributed most largely to raise our 
country to the high eminence to which it has attained among neigh- 
bouring nations. The coal-fields are not confined to any special 
locality, but are distributed in all directions over both the main 
islands. In England they commence at Northumberland, and ex- 
tend through Durham, York, Lancashire, and Staffordshire into 
South Wales. In Scotland they form a broad belt across the country 
where it is narrowest, from the coast of Ayrshire to Fife-ness^ex- 
tending on the west coast from the Clyde to the Doon, and on the 
east from the Eden to the Tyne. Detached tracts also occur in the 
counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, and Dumfries. Ireland is not rich 
in coal. Her six coal districts are situated in the Carboniferous lime- 
stone which covers the great central plain, and do not yield more 
than about 55,000 tons annually. 

The total area of the Coal-measures in the British Isles is esti- 
mated at about 8000 sq. m. ; and it is calculated that, at the present 
rate of consumption (125 million tons per year), the supply will last 
for 1000 years. The number of collieries at work in 1873 was 4268, 
giving employment to 393,000 males. The value of the coal is im- 
mensely enhanced by its being associated with beds of iron ore. 
The ore could not be fused without the coal, nor without the aid 
of the mountain limestone, which acts as a flux and pomotes its 
speedy reduction. In other countries where the coal is not asso- 
ciated with those other deposits — as in Silesia and France — the 
value of the mineral is restricted to its employment as an article of 

ScJi occurs chiefly in the county of Cheshire, where vast beds of rock- 
salt and brine-springs occur. LimestoM is abundant in almost ever^part 
of England and Irekind ; sandstone and granite in numerous localities in 
Scotland; roofing -slate in Wales, Cumberland and Argyllshire; and 
excellent statttary marble in Donegal and Galway. Copper is most abun- 
dant in Cornwall, but occurs also in Staffbrdshn^e, Anjglesea^ Waterford, 
Cork, and Kerry. Lead is chiefly found in Derbysh&e, Wales, and in 
the two most northern counties of England ; in the Lowther Hills in Scot- 
land; and in the southern counties of Munster. Lead ore generally 
contains a small quantity of silver. Tin occurs only in Cornwall and 
Devon, where it has been worked for ages ; and these mines supply 
about H of all the tin produced in Europe. Mines of calamine, or zinc ore, 
are worked in Derbyshire. Antimony, manganese, arsenic, plumbago, 
fuller's earth, and numerous other minerals, occur in various parts of uie 

It is estimated that the value of the mineral productions of the 
United Kingdom for the year 1873 was nearly £60,000,000 sterling, 
more than £47,000,000 of which belong to the single article of coiu, 
124,600,000 tons being dug annually. The value of the iron ore for 
the same year was estimated at £7,573,000 ; of copper and lead, 
about £1,900,000; of tin, silver, and zinc, collectively, £1,580,000; 
and of other minerals, including building-stones, about £7,000,000. 

Botany. — The flora of the British Isles is wholly embraced 


■■ witiin ScIiouw'b secOTid pliyto-geogtaphio or Nortli European 
region, deacnbed above (p, 82). 

So clouly does the TcgEtation of th^se islands resemble that of the 
Dsi^tHiiiriiig continent, that, tcith two or tliree exceptions, it dees 
not oantaiii a single plant nhicli is not to be fonnd in one or other 
of the comttrica beyond the Channel. The exceptions referred to are 
the three-toothed cinqne-foil {Potmtilla trideniata), the jointed pipe- 
wort [EriocaMlon leptangulan), and a nater-wepd named Anasharsit 
attimulrun. Even these are probably not indigenous to the United 
Kingdom, but appearto have migrated aerosa the Atlantic from the 
Sew World. The British Isles cannot be regarded a9a"centre of 
vegetation " (p. 5S), but as having been colonised by a succession of 
TSffetable migrations from the continent of Europe. Edward Forbes 
and others regard these migrations as having commenced as early 
a* the epoch of the Middle Tertiary formation — when one nnbroken 
continent eitended from the Mediterranean to the British ehoree — 
and Bs having been continued tUl the present time. 

Our entire flora may, howevor, be divided Into four groups of plants, 
corTBBponding with the continental regions from which tliey are auppoaed 
to have migrated. Thna, we have — I. Tlie Oemumic gro^ip, which lorma 
the grand staple of our vegetation, and embraces our trees, shrubs, weeds, 
and common wild-flowers, all of which are equally abundant in Germany, 
the Netherliuids, Bel^om, and north of Fiance ; 3. The Samdiiia'eian 
pronn— fonnd chiefly m the Highlands of Scotland, and more spMingly 
In the mouataina of Cumberland, Walex, and Ireland, consisting of 
liaheni, mosses, gnisaes, some flowering plants of great beauty, and seve- 
ml berry -bearing sliraba, as the cranberry, bilberry, and clondberry — 
plants which are abundant in the mountains of Scandinavia and in the 
lowland regions of Arctic Europe ; 3. Tlio AnaorTcait group in the S.E. 
of Ireland and S.W. of England, where tbe vegetation la closely allied to 
that of Brittony and Normandy, the ancient jinmoriea,- 4. The H««rion 
group, in the S.W. of Ireland, where about 12 species of plants are found 
which are common in the mountains of Northern Spain, though occurring 
nowhere else in tiie British Isles,— as St Patrick's cabbage (Saxifrigu 
iHxJruKt), the Btraviberry-ti«e {Arintuj tinedo), and various species of 

Botanists vary considerably in their estimates of the total number 
of species belonging to our native flora, owing to the nncertatnty 
that attaehea to many species as to whether tbej are really native, 
or hava been introduced by man. Thus Professor Balfour, in his 
'Manual of Botany,' considers our indigenous species to amoant to 
4400, ofwhich 3230 are common to Englandand Scotland. He states 
the ntunber of flowering plants at 1600, and of the non-flowering 
or dyptogomtc (embrHcing alga or tea-tnetdi, femt, numes, liAtnt, 
mA/aiigi} at 2800 species. The ' Physical Atlas ' gives the number of 
oar flowering plants as 1371, of which 310 are monocotyledons and 
1031 dicotyledons. Of the £000 known species of ferns, about 00 
■re fonnd in the British archipelago, ond of the 1100 mosses wa have 
aboat 300. We have also nnmerous species of lichens, fungi, and 
Migai, though the statistics are less precise. 


Of forut-treet acknowledged to be of British origin, the principal 
are the oak, ehn, birch, beech, ash, alder, pine or Scotch fir, poplar, 
willow, yew, mountain-ash, maple, holly, and hawthorn. Of trees 
that are known to have been introduced by man from foreign coun- 
tries may be mentioned the chestnut, lime, walnut, Norwegian 
spruce, larch, weeping-willow, Lombardy poplar, mulberry, and 
cedar. Our principal /ruii-^rec* are the apple, pear, cherry, plum, 
peach, walnut, currant, gooseberry, strawberry. 

Agricnltiire. — ^British farming has attained to an unrivalled 
degree of perfection. The general study of agricultural chemis- 
try, and the consequent adoption of rotation of crops, together 
with the adoption of a thorough system of drainage, have mainly 
contributed to this result ; but the vast number of good roads, 
canals, and railways that intersect the kingdom in all direc- 
tions, and enable the agriculturist to convey the produce of his 
farm to the best market, has also very powerfully contributed 
to bring about the same result. 

Estimating the area of the entire archipelago at 122,550 sq. m., or 
78,000,000 acres, we learn from the Board of Trade Report for 1868 
that there were in that year 45,652,000 acres under cultivation, of 
which 11,659,000 acres were under com, 4,865,000 under green crops, 
5,690,000 under clover and "rotation grasses," and 22,164,000 under 
permanent pasture. In every 100 acres in England 42 are in pas- 
ture ; in Wales, 56 ; in Scotland, 23 ; and in Ireland, 64. The 
greater proportion of the inhabitants of Gi*eat Britain are engaged in 
manufacturing, mining, and commercial pursuits, while Ireland and 
Wales are strictly agricultural countries. The industrial pursuits of 
a country depend, to a great extent, on its geological character. Gen- 
erally speaking, the most ancient geological formations are the richest 
in minerals, while the more recent are the best adapted for agriculture. 
Accordingly, if we draw a line from the mouth of the Tees, in Dur- 
ham, to Leicester, and thence to Gloucester and the river Exe, we 
shall find that nearly all the mining and manufacturing districts of 
England lie to the W. of it, and all the agricultural districts to the 
E. In like manner, if we draw a straight line from Dundee to Dum- 
barton, and another from Berwick to Girvan, we shall have the 
limits of all the coal-fields and iron-mines of Scotland : all the great 
centres of commerce and manufactures, as also the principal harbours 
of the country, are found between these lines. 

The cereal crops of the United Kingdom consist of wheat, barley, 
bigg, and oats. The total quantity of com of all kinds annually pro- 
duced is estimated at 51,480,000 qrs. ; while the annual value of real 
property, as assessed under the Property-tax Act in 1864, was 
£323,000,000. Other cultivated plants comprise the potato, turnip, 
mangold, carrot, radish, beet, cabbage, pease, beans, hops, flax, 
hemp, vetches, clover, and rye-grass. 

Zoology. — The faima of the British Isles is wholly embraced 


'■^jthiii the middle province of the first or Eiiropean Zoological 
Kingdom— (see above, p. 57). 

L Thk VEf.TEBKiTi, oT Maminds, Birds, Eeptilea, tmd Fiihes. 
The Mammftlla of the DmtEd Eingdom are tepresEHted by on!j 
H^bor orders — viz., the Camivom, Ilodentia, Kntninantia, and Cetaeea ; 
^■Ae other funr being HboUy Hhaent— vis., the Qnadrumsna, Mar- 
^^Hnialia, EJentata, and FBchydennatB- The lasC-namad order il 
^Bhideed Tepreeeiited b; the horse, aes, and sciw ; bnt as the; are no 
H^Jnnger'ioaDd here in tbeir wild rtate, ire do not tahe th«m into 
•saount. The orders actually represented embrace 60 Epecies; bnC 
if we deduct the bate uid the mariire iDBnunalB, not muie than 40 
^Mcies will remain— a mere JraKment of oot maiomalian fuunn dar- 
ing like epoch of the Boulder Cluy, irhen, in addildon to the eating 
~ jea, these ialanda contained the elejihant, Thinooeros, hippopota- 
1, tiger, hyiesa, the great ellt, the gigantie deer, two apeuiei of 
ctrer, andtl^e species of bear. Sevenil species — as the heaver, bear, 
't, wild ox, and wild boai' — have been dtingiiished during Hit 
mistil era by the cutting down of the forests, the cultivation of 
le Kiil. and the destnietirB efli<cts of the chase ; while not a, few 
ot^iera have became vaty rure, a9 the badger, polecat, and. sgnirreL 
The Camivrrra are repreBaiitad by the foi, dog, weasel, ermine, foo- 
nuut, martin, polecat ; the hedirehog, mole, £rev, and badger ; the 
Otter, seal, and walrus ; and by D Bpecies of bat The badger is 
WfonndK. oftie Wedouian Canal, nor the mule N. of the Pent- 
^d Filth, or in Ireland. The Jlodentia embrace the squirrel, hare, 
Abit, dormouse, 3 speciefi of mouse, 2 of rat, and i of arvicoU. 
*ie Evmiiumlia are 3 Bpeciea of deer — the red, roe, and fillow deer i 
it, and sheep. The Cetacea embrace the porpoise, gram- 
>w, and variona species of whales and dolphins. 
_ li are comparatively numerous in the Biitiah lales ; for wHle 
H total number of spedea heloncinK to Europe is onlj4S0, no fewer 
jmh ST* are found in the United Euigdom, of which 23(1 are known 
I Ireland. £ach of the mi orders is lorfrely Tepreaenled. The 
' faerta, or Birds of Fi'ey, include the golden eagle and earue, 
B luurk, kits, faluoD, and varions species of uwL Tbe Climben 

Oallinaeeout £irdt include the red-BTOuse (peculiar to 
s ouuntiy), the ptarmigau, blackcocl, partridge, common qitail, 

• — • • — ■■-"cBon. The capercailzie, or cocli of the wood, 

_ 1, has been reintroduced reeeatly Irom Koi- 
aniy. The ]>Gacack, turkey, common fowl, Guinea hen, and pheas- 
ant, are all of foreign origin. The Woden are represented by the 
fanrtard. oraik, crane, plorar, snijw, heron, and stork ; and the Saitii' 
aura by tbe eormotaut, eannet, gull, petrel, duuk, and guoBe. 
, OftiieTSBpeciflsofturopBauRajitQBB. only IJ occur in tbe Brit- 
'"fc lales. Of the ftrnr orders boloupng to this doss, the first, or 
K order, has DO repreeeutative iu oui arcliipelitgo, asTe that the 


hawk's-Lill tortoise has been occasionally seen in the Hebrides, and 
the leathery tortoise in ComwalL Of the Sauriaru there occur only 
3 species — viz., 2 lizards and 1 skink ; but numerous other species 
belonging to the order — some of them of most gi^intic dimensions 
— existed here in the geological eras, as the crocodue, megalosannu, 
iguanodoD, ichthyosaurus, and plesiosaurus. Of the 15 European 
SerperUs only 3 are found in the United Kingdom — viz., the bund- 
worm, snake, and adder or common viper, the last-named .of which 
is alone venomous ; and of the 23 European Batrackians there occur 
only the eft, toad, and frog. 

Fishes. — Of the twenty-five provinces of marine life into which 
the late distinguished Professor Edward Forbes proposed to divide 
the waters of the globe, the British seas form a part of the third, or 
Celtic province. This province is confined to tne European side of 
the Atlantic ; embraces the Baltic, North Sea, English Channel, 
Irish Sea, and the entire western shores of the British Isles ; and 
is bounded on the N., W., and S. by the Boreal, Virginian, and 
Lusitanian provinces, respectively. Its population is of a very 
mixed character, owing to numerous colonists from the regions lying 
to its N. and S ; but it is distinguished as being the great field of the 
herring fisheries, and for the thorough investigation which its fauna 
and flora have received at the hands of British, Danish, and Swedish 
naturalists. Of the 8000 fishes already known to the ichthyologist, 
the seas, rivera, and lakes of the United Kingdom embrace 263 
species. Fishes are usually divided into two orders — ^the cartUagin- 
Otis and the osseous ; the former embracing only a few British species, 
as the sturgeon, ray or skate, shark, dogfish, lamprey, pride, ha^, 
and sailfish ; and the latter a very great number, including the ssd- 
mon, trout, char, herring, pilchard, pike, carp, gudgeon, cod, ling, tusk, 
whiting, sole, turbot, fluke, halibut, eel, perch, mackerel, and minnow. 

II. Invertebrated Animals. — Our limits forbid our enlarging 
on the invertebrated fauna of the British Isles ; and we can only 
state a few of the more interesting facts, referring the student for 
details to works on natural history. 

MollUBca. — This division of the Invertebrata consists of animals 
having bodies composed of soft parts, without any internal skeleton, 
some of which are protected by shells, while others are naked ; 
having white, cold blood ; breathing organs, lungs, gills or branchiw ; 
and of limited senses and instincts. They are usually divided into 
five classes — viz.. Cephalopoda, Pteropodky Gasteropoda, Acephala, 
and Brachiopoda. These are subdivided into about 200 genera, and 
probably embrace 20,000 species (see p. 56). Of the shell-bear* 
ing molluscs, 892 species* (or 232 univalves and 160 bivalves) fre- 
quent the British seas ; the most plentiful genera being Trochus, La- 
cuna, Patina, Bissoa, Pullastra, and Acidia. Though greatly inferior, 
both in size and beauty, to species inhabiting tropical seas, our 
shell-bearing molluscs are often highly ornamental ; others, again, 
are largely used as articles of diet, as the oyster, mussel, cockle, 

* Now about 520 species (see p. 21). 



'lielk, and limpet. The yudibranchiaia, or molloscs destitute of u 
shall, are also very mtmenms in the Celtic prorince. 

ArttimlBtB, or jointed animals, aleo comprisa five classea — viz., 
^nnulata, Crtistacea, Cirrhnpoda, Arachnides, and Tiaccta ; the Gret 
of which ia represented by the earth-wiirm aud the leetih, the secouit 
hj the crab and lobster, the third by the barnacle and balauus, the 
tonrth by the spider and mite, and the Sfth by the dragon-fly, bee, 
bntterfly, niuth, fly, and gnat. The number of British insects al- 
ready known exceods 10,000 species, oae-third of which extend ta 

The Badlata, so called from harinz their limbs or members 
branching oiT front a common centre. Tike the apokea of a, wheel, 
also comprise Gve classes — viz., EchinodsTiaata, Entoxoa, Aixclepka, 
P^tmn, and Infiaaria, which are represented respectively by the 
Starfish and sea-nrchin, the tape-worm, the medusa, the loopbyta 
or coral inseat, an3 the Broall microscopie animals named animal- 
cules, which embrace the lowest forma of animal life, and enlist in 
eouutleas numbeis in vegetable infusions. 


The Celts -ware probably the original inhabitants of the neighbonr- 
In^ continent, more especially of its western aide ; and, at a period 
prior to the dawn of histoiy, migrated into Britain, and formed its 
earliest inhabitants. The ereat Celtio family, before arriving at 
their ultimata destination, became divided into two main sections, 
the Oael and tlie Kymri, who «-ere mutually hostile, and apoke 
widely-different languages. The Gael seem to have been the earliest 
settlers In this island, but to bavs been speedily dislodged by the 
more powerful Kymri, and driven into Scotland, Ireland, the 
BebriJea, and the Isle of Man, — thus forming the ancestors of the 
Scottish Highlanders, the Irish, and the MaoK. The Eymri occn- 
pied S. Brilaio as far north as the Grampians, and became the an- 
cestors of the Welsh and the Cornish. The Kymri more resembled 
the inhabitanta of Ceitio Gaul in their laugn^e than the Gael did ; 
md some of our most eminent ethnologists maintain that the ancient 
Picta and Caledoniana were Kymric tribes, though others insist on 
their Gothic origin (p. 86). But the great bulk of the population 
bclonjfa to the Tentonlc Race, partly to its Gothic, and partiy to its 
Scandinavian braiiL-h. To the farmer beIougt.'d the Anglo-Saxons, 
whosa original home wra the country lying S. of the Caspian, and 
sftorwards Germany, between the Eyder and the Weser, and who 
began ta invade the east of England in the year A.s. 449, contin- 
uing their inctirsiona for a ccntiirv afterwarda. Tliey overcame the 
Ceitio tribes that then occupied the land, and drove them into the 
mountain-fastnesses of Wales and Ceniwall. The nest invaaiou of 
I firitaiu took place about the beginning of the eleventh century, and 

■eigned over the A 


1017 to A.D. 1036. The last invasion of our shores was also by a 
Gothic tribe — viz., the Normans, who, under William the Conqueror, 
established their rule by the battle of Hastings, A.D. 1066, and 
changed the Anglo-Saxon language of the population into the mo- 
dem English. Gothic tribes, therefore, form the great bulk of the 
present population of England, of Scotland south of the Grampians, 
of the N.£. coast of Scotland, including the Orkney and Shetland 
Isles, the N. and E. of Caithness, and Ulster. They have, moreover, 
largely commingled with the Celtic race in all the remainder of the 
British Isles, so that it is now very difficult to find an unmixed 
Celtic population anywhere. The following is an approximation to 
the relative proportions of the two races as they exist at present in 
the British Isles : — Of Celtic blood, pure and mixed, 11,470,000 ; Teu- 
tonic blood, pure and mixed, IS, 200,000 ; completely intermingled, 

Languages. — ^The lan^ages presently spoken in the British Isles 
are five in number — Irish, Welsh, English, Lowland Scotch, and 
French. The two first belong to the Celtic Stock, and represent the 
most ancient language in Europe. The Scottish Gaelic and the 
Manx are mere dialects of the Irish ; and the Armoric of Brittany, 
and the now extinct Cornish of Cornwall, are nearly identical with 
the Welsh. But the Irish and Welsh branches are widely different, 
though their affinities are so numerous and close that they must be 
referred to the same stock. The English and the Lowland Scotch 
belong to the Teutonic Stock of languages — the former to the Ger- 
manic, and the latter to the Scandinavian branch. 

The three Teutonic tribes above alluded to — ^the Jutes, Saxons, and 
Angles — who invaded Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries, all spoke 
dialects of the same language. The Union of these dialects resulted in 
the formation of the Anglo-Saxon,— a language which maintained its 
purity till about a.d. 1258, when it began to amalgamate with the Nor- 
man French, which had been introduced about two centuries previously 
by William the Conqueror. The result of this amalgamation was the 
modem English, less refined, indeed, in its structure than some other 
tongues, but more widespread, and containing more literary and scien- 
tific treasures than any other, ancient or modem. It is essentially a 
compound language, and borrows freely from all sides, but still preserves 
to a great extent the lineaments of its parent The Anglo-Saxon is the 
groundwork and substratum of the English ; and however extensive, 
therefore, our knowledge may be' of the Greek and Latin, we can never 
thoroughly understand our own language without an acquaintance with 
the Ano;lo-Saxon and other kindred Gothic tongues. The Lowland Scotch 
is no dialect of the English, and is not, like the latter, descended from 
the Anglo-Saxon, but is a parallel and sister tongue. Its tme parent is 
the Norse — a Scandinavian and not a Gothic language. In Caithness, 
Orkney, and Shetland, the geographical names are nearly all Norse ; and 
throughout Scotland generally the language of the people is more akin to 
the Icelandic than to the Saxon. Instead of being regarded as a mere 
comiption of the English, it has all the qualities of a regular and cul- 
tivated language, and is possessed of a highly -fascinating literature, 
French is spoken in the Channel Isles, — the only portion of Normandy 


BBUgloiiB Bellaf. — Cliristianity i^ profeased, nndel' some one or 
other or its ToniiH, by nearly nil the popnlation or the British Isles ; 
lint in no other country, with perhaps the eseeption of tlio United 
SUtea, ia the religious community divided into so many socta. Ko 
fewer than 146 dcnominationa exist in Britjiiu alone ; snd for the 
entire kingdom there are at least 150. Perfect freedom of ojiinion 
on all aabjBcta, and mora especially complete toleration of all 
Tarieties at creed, are tha main caiiaes that originate this nnparalleled 
mnltiplieation of sects — tha great and standing rBproact of Pro- 
testantism. The 150 denominations may, however, he reduced to 
two great diTisions — viz., Protestanl.a and Roman Catholics. The 
proportion of the population belonging to each of these divisions ia 
■s follows:— Protestants, 23,817,000 ; Roman Catholics, 6,490,000. 
The Protestants, therefore, are to the Eoman Catholics as 4^ to ], 
tile Utter being found chlellj in Ireland, where they amouat to 
■4,490,000. The total Eoman Catholic population of Great Britain in 
1M8 was about 3,000,000. 
I' The principal Protestant denominations in the British tales are, the 
■ftuBcapBlians, Presbyterians, Iniiependenta, Baptists, and Methodists. 
Btnie general cenaua of ISTl does not furuiah religious statistics for Eng- 
Pltad Bnd Wales. Hera Episcopacy is establiBhed by law, and the Quetii 
' la the Buprema governor of the Church. There are two arthbiahopa— 
vii., of Canterbury und York, the foriuer of whom is Primate of all Eng- 
lani He enjoys tlie privilegs of crowning the sovereign of tha realm, anil 
of being the usual channel of communication with the Crown on constitn- 
tioDsI questions affecting tha interests of the Church. The province of 
Cantarbury embraces 21 dioceses, each of vihicli is presided over by c 
bishop. These dioceses are,— London, Winchester, Lichfield, Eieter, 
Worceater, Lincohi, Norwich, Rochester, Gloocesler aud Bristol, Oiioi'd, 
pBterborougli, Ely, Canterbury, 8t David, iJath and Wells, Llandaff, 
Salishury. Chicbester, St Asaph, Hereford, itnd Basgor. The provinio 
of York contains 7 dioceses, — Manchester, Chester, Ripon, York, Dur- 
liam, Carlisle, Sodor and Man. Preshyterianism is established in Scot- 
land. The Scottish Church has no hierarchy — all the clergy are on an 
ttjOBllty, and the body ia governed by kirfe-eessions, presbyteries, pro- 
yinctol synods, and by the General Aaaembly which meets annually in 

it up 

,a'nd"i623' parishes. '"pi^"irioua"to 1843, the 
Establisiierl Cbutcb etobraced the great bulk of the population ; but in 
that year it great disruption took place, in consequence ol the interference 
otthe civil courts with the apWtnal privilcEcs of the members, especially 
inthe matter of election of ministers. The body thus formed is kuownaa 
the Free Church of Scotland, which in doctrine, discipline, and govern- 
meat does not differ essentially from the Eatabliahed Church, oicopt in 
the matter above refBrred to. The Eatahlislied Church end the Free 
CSiurdh have each about a third of the population. The United Preaby- 
— ■—-iiin Chnreh ia also very numerously attended, embracing 600 coagrega- 

.D8 and about 1 80,000 membara— nearly a fourth of the entire population. 

M only other religious bodies of Importance are the Scottish Episcopal 


Churcli, the CoDgregationalists, and the Eoman Catholics. Tn Ireland, 
the hitherto Establ^hed Church is a branch of the Church of "RnglftTid^ 
presided over by two archbishops (Armagh and Dublin) and 12 bishops. 
It embraces, however, little more than a seventh part of the popu- 
lation (being, in 1871, 683,295), and consequently, as the Church of the 
minority, it was disestablished and disendowed by Act of Parliament 
in 1869. Those in communion with the Roman Catholic Church were 
4,141,933 ; Presbyterians and other Protestant Dissenters, 618,018. 

Form of Goyemment. — ^Th.e Government of the United Kingdom 
is a limited monarchy. The legislative authority is vested in the 
Sovereign and Parliament, which consists of a House of Peers and a 
House of Commons ; and the concurrence of these three estates is 
necessary to the enactment of new laws, or the repeal of tliose already 
existing. The crown is hereditary. The House of Peers consists of 
about 490 members, including lords spiritual and temporal, and is 
composed of princes of the blood- royal, 2 archbishops, 24 English 
bishops, 20 dukes, 19 marquesses, 110 earls, 22 viscounts, 214 barons, 
with 16 Scotch and 28 Irish representative peers. The House of 
Commons consists of 652 elected members, of whom 487 are for Eng- 
land and Wales, 105 for Ireland, and 60 for Scotland. This gives 
1 member to each 50,000 of the population. Parliaments are sep- 
tennial, but generally expire sooner, and members of the House of 
Commons are elected for a single parliament. Any l^islative mea- 
sure may originate in either House, but the House of Commona^pos- 
sesses the exclusive privilege of originating money-biUs, and voting 
money out of the revenue. In this single privilege lies the palladium 
of the commonwealth ; for though the monarch may declare war with 
a foreign power and levy armies, the war cannot be prosecuted, nor 
the army paid, but by the consent of the representatives of the 

Army and Navy. — The extent of the British empire renders it 
necessary to kee^ up a large naval and military force ; but owing to 
our insular position, our unrivalled navy, the equity of our laws, the 
purity of our religion, and tl^e happiness and contentment of our 
people, there is no European nation that maintains so small a stand- 
ing army, in proportion to its population. In 1853, before the com- 
mencement of the Russian war, the royal navy numbered 545 ships 
of all classes, which carried 18,080 guns, 58,000 seamen, and 18,616 
maiines. The army numbered 214,421 men, exclusive of militia; 
and the annual cost of both army and navy was £24,000,000. In 
1872 the total strength of the anny amounted to 196,065 men and 
officers, of whom 62,864 were in India, and 28,333 in the colonies. 
Besides these, we have 128,900 militia, costing £952,700; volunteers, 
199,000, costing the Government £414,000. Our naval force in the 
same year amounted to 398 vessels, including 54 armour-plated 
ships, 4 floating batteries* 44 ships of the line, and 82 frigates ; num-« 
ber of marines, 63,300. The total cost of the army was £14,280,400, 
and of the navy, £9,996,641 ; total, £24,227,041. In 1814, during 
the wai* with France, the expense of our army and navy cost the 
country £71,686,000. Our principal naval arsenals and dockyards 





homo are those of Deptrord, Woolwich, Cliatliam, Shetrnpsa, 
Portsmouth, Devonport, Pcmbrolce, uid naulbawliae; and Bhroni!, 
those of Gibndtar, Malta, Halifax, Bermuda, Antiguo, Jamaica, 
Aacensiou, Sieira Leone, Cape Toith, Trincomalee, Singapore, and 
Hong Eong. 

KULnfactnrea and Commorce. — Britain stands Qririralled amojip 
the nations both m the ejitent of her commercB and the Tariety of 
her manufactures. Several causes concur in rendering her commerce 
■nperior to that of other counlriea. By referring to a teiTestrial 
globe, it nill be eoeu that her melTopalia stands almost exactly in the 
centra of the land-surface of tlie globa. But this favonrable position 
would he of little avail were it.not that she is BurrcnudBd by eeoa on 
all sides, and thus placed in circumstances to prosecute her commerce 
in all directions without encountmng any physical obstacle. In 
additioQ to her insular position, she further enjoys tiiB ndvantaga of 
numeiouB eicellelit harbours, canala, roads, railways, and navigabla 
riyera, by which her indostrial products can be readily and cheaply 
conveyed to the Beahoard, But perhaps the greatest physical advan- 
tage that Britain enjoys over other conntries consists in theuunTalled 
extent and variety ot her mineral treasures — especially thoae of coal 
and iron, nhich are usually found i]i close juxtaposition, the one 
affording the material of her manufacturing machiueir, and the 
other the means hy which that machinery can he wrought with ad- 
vantage. Accordingty, all the great manufacturing centres of the 
kingdom ara situated in or near the great coal-Sdda (see above, 
nncSr "Minerals"). Onrtwo moat important manufactures ore those 
of textile fabrics and of metallic goo^ A large proportion of the 
population depend directly on these for support. The inoollen manu- 
fictare, though the oldest in the kingdom, la now second in import- 
ance to the cotlan, of which upwards of 10 millions of cwt. are annu- 
«lly imported, in the form of cotton wool, then wrought up into a 
"" st variety of fabrics, and eiported to all parts of the world. 

Export! and ImportB. — Our imports are chiefly of two claases — 
* ' " people, and raw material for our mannfaotnring ii 


The home supply of the former is annually decreasing ii 

in to the population, partly owing to deficient harvests, ant 

ly from less land being devoted to the growth of cereals, pasture 

, dnriug the lost few years we 
have been obliged to import about one-half of the entire food of our 
people. In 1873 alone we paid for foreign com no less than 
25^000,000. Five-eighths of this supply came from distant conn- 
tries (chiefly from N. America and Russia), and three-eighths from 
tlw nearest polls of Europe. Our total imports for IS73 amotmted 
in Talne to £371,257,668, of which £290,700,000 were from foraigu 
cenntries, and £81,010,617 from British poaaesaions. Of foreign 
eomitries the United States stand firat, that conntiy having sent tts 
to the value of £71,000,000, chiefly cotton ; then come Francs 

1^3,800,000), Kuaaia (£20,000,000), Egypt (£1*,000,000, including 
ansit), China and Netherlands, £12,000,000 each. The six prin- 
pal articleB of import are cotton, com, sugar, wool, timber, and tea. 


In the same year our exports amounted to £311,000,000, of 
which £250,060,000 were to foreign countries, and £61,000,000 
to our colonial possessions. The foreign countries to which 
we export most are Germany (£27,000,000), United States 
(£35,800,000), France (£17,600,000), Netherlands (£16,700,000), and 
liussia (£9,000,000). The principal articles of export are cotton, 
woollen, and linen goods, metallic goods, machinery, coals, and 
appareL Speaking generally, one-thim of our exports and imports 
together is carried on with our own possessions abroad. From India 
we get rice, cotton, silk, sugar, jute, indigo, tea, spices, and fine 
woods; from the West Indies, sugar, tobacco, coffee, rice, and mm; 
from the Australian colonies, gold, copper, and wool ; from our N. 
American possessions, gold, timber, fui-s, fish, and oil. Our mercan- 
tile marine greatly exceeds that of any other country. In 1869 the 
number of British vessels that entered our ports was 25,074, carrying 
8,761,899 tons; and of foreign, 17,611 vessels, carrying 4,123,878 
tons; total 42,685 vessels, and carrying 12,776,777 tonjB. In the 
same year there left our shores 29,629 British vessels, and 19,582 
foreign, with a total tonnage of 14,345,317. 

Finance.— The estimated revenue for 1870 was £72,855,000, the chief 
items of which were customs, excise, taxes, stamps, property and income 
tax : the expenditure was £68,223,000, of wMch the interest on the Pub- 
lic Debt amounted to £22,454,000 ; army and navj', £24,227,000 ; and 
the expense of the expedition to Abyssinia, £5,000,000. The National 
Debt amounts to the enormous sum of £737,400,000, or upwards of £23 
stg. for every man, woman, and child in the United Kingdom. It com« 
menced in the reign of William III. (in 1689), and from that period, 
owing to our numerous wars with foreign States, has been constantly in- 
creasing. In 1697 it amounted to about £5,000,000 ; at the outbreak of 
the American War of Independence, in 1774, itdid not exceed £128,000,000; 
at the conclusion of that war it amounted to £250,000,000 ; while at the 
termination of the French war it amounted to £848,282,477. Notwith- 
standing its decrease during the lost 50 years, it is still half as laige as 
the combined debt of all other European Stat^, except France. 

Inland Commnnlcation, in proportion to area, is also greatly 
superior to that of any other country. Our turnpike roads, canals, 
and railways, form a perfect network of communication, which ex- 
tends to the remotest parts of both the main islands. On the first 
January 1875 there were 16,449 miles of railway open for traffic in 
the United Kingdom, of which 11,622 were in England, 2700 in 
Scotland, and 3127 in Ireland. The total cost of construction 
amounted to £610,000,000, being £37,078 per mile. The number 
of passengers annually conveyed by them exceeds 360,000,000 ; and 
the total receipts for passengers and freight amount to upwards of 
£60,000,000 annually. So great is the safety of railway travelling, 
that only one traveller out of every sixteen millions is killed, and 
one out of every half a million injured. Our turnpike roads now ex- 
ceed 35,000 miles, all of which are kept in excellent repair, and 
about 150,000 miles of cross-roads. Asides these we have 1800 
miles of river-navigation that have been opened by artificial means, 





s of navigable canala. Dui-ing the Inst twenty jeors, 
,000 miles of tsIegrapli-Tirea huve been down, tlius 
connaoting bj instantaneona canunimicatiQa all the cities, tawiia, and 
great maritiiiie ports of the United Kingdom, and connectint; the 
countrj by Bubmarine cables with the continent of Europe, India, 
and Amerieo. On the Eth February 1870, tlte GoTertuneiit took 
into its oivn hands all the telegrttphs of the conntry. These amonnted, 
in 1874, to 107,000 miles; while on the Continent there are 100,000 
miles, and 70,000 in America. Another mighty engine for furthering 
thfl interests of commerce and for promoting! the intelligence of Uie 
people is the Post-Offiee, which lias its btanciiea and Tauiiliciitions in 
all comeis of the land. The number of letters transmitted in 1S70 
VBS 600,000,000, or 28 letters per annum for Svery individual of tha 
population. Mr Rowland Hill's pennj-poBta^ scheme for inland 
letters came into operation in 1340 ; and a unifarm rate of sixpence 
now suffices for carrying letters to the most distant of the British 
oolonics. Books can be tranamittfid by post to any jiort of the 
kingdom at the rate of fonrpence per lb. , and to the colonies at three- 
pence or fonrpence per 4 oi. 

Hlrtortcal akBtoh.— The British Tales were peopled by the Goal 
and Kjmri long before the dawn of authentic history. It was not 
till B late pei-ind that the Oreeka and Romans obtained any know- 
ledge of them; but in early times the PhienicianB visited the Scilly 
laUnda and the coasts of Cornwall for tin. Ailstotle, the disciple of 
Fbto and tutor of Alexander the Great (h.c. 342), is the first to re- 
Mrd the existence of " two large islands in tbe ocean, named Albion 
and Erin." The Komana knew nothing of thetn personally till the 
Gillio war of Julius Ctesar, who twice invaded Biitain (h-c. 5S, £4). 
Casar's stay -was of limited duration, and accompanied by no import- 
ant result ! and the Ramans made no farther attempt to cononer the 
ialandfor 100 years. In the reign of Claudins they again landed, 
and permanently sabdned the conntry south of the Thames. la the 
year 61 A.n. the Britons, under Bosdioea, sustained another decisive 
defeat ; and the conq^uest of south Britain was Snally completed by 
Agiiuola (a.d. 78-84). In order to protect his newly-acquired terri- 
tory from the iucursiona of the northern Colta, he erected a series of 
forts between the Firths of Clyde and Forth, calling the country 
lying to the south of it Britannia Rama'aa, and that to the north 
Caledonia, or Britannia Barbara. The Eomans, however, gave up 
the northern conquests of Agricola in the lei^in of Adrian (a.h. 
121), and caused a wall to be built from the Solway to the month 
6f the Tyna ns the extreme limit of the Roman province. 
Early in the fourth century the Caledonians, who now appear under 
the names of Picta and Scnts, broke through the wall, and Gothic 
tribes began to infest the coasts ; but the declining power of the 
Kmpire wag nnahle to afford the province any effectual assistance, 
nnd in the rei;^ of Honorius all the Roman troops were withdrawn 
^m the island (a.d. 418}. About 30 yeoi's after the departure nf 
the Romans, the Jntea, Saxona, and Angles, successively invaded 
•onth Biitain, and drove the Kymri into Wales (a.d. 449). These 


Gothic nations divided England into seven parts, each of which had 
its own chief ; and their government is called the Saxon Heptarchy, 
which began in 582, and maintained its ground till the Danes under 
Sweyn invaded the country in 1013. The Normans, from France, 
subdued the country half a century afterwards ; the battle of Hast- 
ings was fought in the year 1066, and the Anglo-Saxons were reduced 
to a state of slavery. 

Of the subsequent history of the British Isles we can only enume- 
rate a few of the most important facts. Ireland was subdued by 
Henry II. of England, a.d. 1172. Richard I., King of England, 
engaged in the Third Crusade in 1189. The Afagna Charta was 
signed by King John in 1215. Wales was subdued and added to 
England by Edward I. in 1282. The first House of Commons was 
summoned to convene in 1265, and there has been a regular succes- 
sion of parliaments since 1293. Wickliffe's translation of the Bible 
was executed in 1880, and Caxton introduced the art of printing 
into England in 1471. In 1468 the Orkney and Shetland Islands 
were bestowed by the King of Denmark on James III. of Scotland. 
In 1525 Tyndale's translation of the New Testament was publi^ed 
at Wittemberg, and nine years afterwards in England. The Refor- 
mation began in Scotland under Patrick Hamilton in 1528, and in 
England in 1536 ; in 1584 Virginia was taken possession of for Eng- 
land by Sir Walter Raleigh ; and in 1588 the Spanish Armada was 
destroyed by the English. In 1603 the crowns of England and Scot- 
land were united in the person of James VI. ; and Barbadoes, Bri- 
tain's first colony, established in 1604. A civil war in Britain ter- 
minated in the execution of Charles I. in 1649, and Oliver Cromwell 
became dictator for eleven years. In 1662 the Royal Society was 
instituted ; in 1665 the plague broke out in London ; and Newton's 
Philosophy was published in 1687. The celebrated Revolution took 
place in 1688, and William III. was called to the throne. The 
legislative Union of England and Scotland took place in 1707 ; and 
the first and second rebellions in Scotland in 1715 and 1745 respec- 
tively. The American War of Independence began in 1774 and 
terminated in 1 783. The war with Revolutionary France commenced 
in 1793, and terminated by the battle of Waterloo in 1815. The 
legislative Union of Great Britain and Ireland took place in 1801, 
and was followed the same year by the first regular census of tiie 
British Isles. Coal-gas was first used for lighting apartments in 
1792 ; the Surrey tram-railway, the first in Britain, was constructed 
in 1801; and in 1812 Henry Bell's diminutive steadier, **The 
Comet," the commencement of European steam-navigation, was 
launched on the waters of the Clyde. The Catholic Emancipation 
Act was passed by the British Legislature in 1829, and the Reform 
Bill in 1832. In 1842 the Tariff Reform was begun, which has 
resulted in Free Trade ; and the first Industrial Miibition of all 
nations took place in London in 1851. In 1854, Great Britain, in 
alliance with France, declared war against Russia, in consequence of 
its encroachments on Turkey ; and in 1855 Sebastopol was taken by 
the allied armies of Britain, France, Turkey, and Sardinia. In 



ZSLS, OuiLq waE aunexed to British India, and in the year lollon'in); 
the great rebellioa broke out, by ths Sepojs, aX. :&leerut, ehooting 
their officers and massacring all Buropeiuis, In 1S68, the rebellion 
Laving been Bupprassed, the Queen of England became Empress of 
India. A treaty of conunerca between Great Britain and TrancB 
•aaa signed in 18CI0, and peace was established with China. The 
iUnBtrions Prince Albert died in 1S61 ; in 1862 the second Interna- 
tional Eibibitinn was opened in London ; in this year great distress 
was eiperieneed in the maimfncturing districts of England, America 
having ceased to enpply nswith cotton, owing to the civil war, and to 
the Boulhem porta of the Uniou being blockaded by the U.S. Navy. 
In 1863, the Prince of Wales married the Princess Alexandra of 
Denmark, and in the year following the Ionian Islands were finally 
ceded by Great Britain to Greece. The year 1885 was marked by 
the death of Lord Palmeraton and of Kicliard Cobden, by the com- 

Imencoment of Fenianiam, and of the cattle plagne in England, and 
liy the Jamaica insurrection. In 1867, thenewHeforra BUI, which 
KTMtly extended the franchise, received the Royal sanction ; in 1808, 
'r Bobert Napier, with a British farce, captured Magdala and 

I the Disraeli M 


rescued the Abyssinian capti^ 
Mr Gladstone oecnme Prime 
was disestablished ; while, in 1S70, Oavemment 

. of the various Knes of electric tele^^aph throughout the king- 
dom, and obtained the sanction of Parliament to a measnre regnlat- 
urc of laud in Ireland. 


Position and Boundaries. — EngLind, including Wales, fonne 
the south part of Great Britain, and is situated between lat. 49° 
sa" and 55° 47' N. ; and between Ion. 1" 46' E. and b° 43' W. ; 
thus occupying 5° 49' of lat, and 7° 28' of Ion. It is hounded 
on lie N. by Scotland, from which it is separated bv the Tweed ; 
on the E. by the North Sea ; on the S. by the English Channe!, 
which separates it from France ; and on the W. by the Atlantic, 
St George's Chaimd, and the Irish Sea. 

Form, CaaEt-Uue, and Extreme Points. — In fona it approaches 
to a scalene triangle : the base, from Land's End to South Foreland, 
is 817 miles ; the cast side, from South Foreland to Berwick, 316 
miles ; and the west mde, from Berwick to Land's End, 42S miles. 
LiEBTd Point fonns the extreme soath of the meinland; Lowestoft 
Jfess, in SoSbUc, the exireme east ; Berwick the extreme north ; and 
I'b End in Cornwall the eitreme west. The perimeter of the 
igle above mentioned isl087 miles; but when the principal ia- 



dentations of the coast are included the sea- margin is at least 2000 
miles, affording 1 mile of coast to every 29 sq. m. of surface. The 
principal indentations are on the W. side, especially the Bristol 
Channel, Cardigan Bay, Morecambe Bay, and the Solway ; those cm 
the E. side are the Humber, Wash, and the estuary of the Thames. 

Area and Population. — The area is 58,320 sq. m. ; being 50,9^ 
for England, and 7398 for Wales ; and amounts to a little more than 
I of the area of the entire island, which is, in turn, -^ of the area of 
Europe. In 1871 the population was 22,704,108; or 21,487,688 for 
England, and 1,216,420 for Wales ; while in the year 1801 it only 
amounted to 8,892,536, and in 1821 to 12,000,236. It has thus 
nearly doubled itself in the half -century. The population per sq. m. 
is 389, or 422 for England without Wales, which is thinly peopled. 
England is, therefore, one of the most densely peopled countries in 
the world. The most populous counties are Middlesex, Surrey, Lan- 
cashire, and Yorkshire. There are 9036 persons to every sq. m. in 
Middlesex, and 1560 in Lancashire ; while there are only 85 in West- 
moreland, and 60 in Radnor. 

Political Divisions. — ^England is divided into 40 counties, 
and Wales into 12. The English counties are most conveni- 
ently arranged into 7" eastern, 10 southern, 7 western, and 16 
midland coimties. 

In the following table, which includes all towns above 1000 inhabitants 
(680 in number), the population is given in every case where it amounts 
to 5000, as also the river on which the town sfcrnds. Towns between 
1000 and 5000 are put in small type, while the rivers on which they stand 
wiU be found in the River System of England, p. 138.* 

Seven Eastern Counties. 

Northumberland. — Newcastle, 128,+ Tynemouth, including 
North Shields, 39 (Tyne), Morpeth 5 (Wansbeck), Ahiwick 7 (Aln). 
Berwick, 13 (Tweed). 

Hexham, Haltwhistle, Bellingham, Blyth, Wooler, Otterhum. 

* Durliam. — ^Dubham 14, Sunderland with Wearmouth 98, Biahop« 

* The student's attention is particularly requested to the order in which the 
towns and rivers are given. It is as nearly as possible the same as that in 
the extended table, entitled "Table of Rivers and Towns" (p. 187). The 
capital of the county, however, stands firsts and is followed by all the large 
towns standing on the same river as the capital, beginning at the mouth and 
proceedmg upwards, or beginning as near the mouth as the boundary of the 
county will allow. Should the capital stand on a tributary river, all the other 
towns in the county on that tributary are placed immediately after it ; and then 
those on the main river, beginning at its mouth ; and, lastly, those on the other 
tributaries, in the order in which they stand in the River System at page 188. 
Thus all the towns in any county belonging to one river-basin are enumerated 
before those belonging to any other river-basin are entered on. The name of 
the river is put within parentheses. — The order of the small towns is precisely 
the same as that of the large. 

t The numerals following a city or town denote so many thousands : thus 
Newcastle 128, signifies that the population of Newcastle amounts to 128, OOU : 
n. means near the river the name of which follows. 


AucUimil e (Weat), S. Shields 45, Jatrow 18, Gatesbead 49 (Tyne), 
Stocktoa 28 (Tees), Darliugton 28 (Skame), Haitlepool 13 (E. coaal). 

Cliester-la-StraeC, WolMUgliam, BBnmrd Caitle, HDUBbton-la-Spring. 

Torlolilra.— YOBK 44, Goole 9, Selby 5 (Ouse), EipoD 7 (Ura), Hull 
122, Beverley 11 (HullJ, Doucaater 19, Sheffield 240 (Don), Bamsley 
23 (Dcarna), Eotherham 8 (Kotber), Pontefraot 5 n., Lofda 259, 
Bradtonl 146 b., Eeighley 15 {Aire), Wakefield 28, Dewslrary 25, 
Halifax 65 (Calder), Hudderafield 70 (Colne), New Maltoa 8 (Der- 
went), EoareaborougliQ (Nidd), Tbirsk 6 (Codbeck), Scarborough 24 
(east coast), Wbitby 13 (Eek), Middleaborougb 39 (Tees). 

North and South Cave, Great Drifflold, Kilham, Howdan, Bingly, 
Skipton, Aldborangli, BorDUg-b bridge, Mosham, Eawea, Leybum, Thome, 
Ponuimtone, Soaith, CaetleforU, Fooklineton, Market-Weigh ton, Piukar- 
ing, HsImaW, Kirthy, Tadoiialar, WBtbarby, Otlay, Eaaiagwold, Her- 
roiste, fiednJe, Richmond, Reetb, Tickbill, Bridlington, GuiBborougb, 
3MU^ Btoke^ey, Northallerton, Sedbergh, Ouiseley, Yeodon, Batley. 

UneoIiuUre,— Ijncoln £7, Boston 16, Spaldine 7, Stamford 8 
(Withara), Louth 11 (Ludd), Great Grimsby 20 (Huniber), Gains- 
borough 7 (Treat). 

SlBttford, Mnrkot-Eaeen, Crowlnnd, Bourne, Wainfleat, Splkby. Alford, 
Barton, Epworth, Brigg, Caiator, Crowlo, Homoaatle. 

Hoifolt— NoBwioH 80, Yarmoutb 42 (Yare), Lynu-Eegis IB 
(Great Quae). 

Wells, Wymondham, Hincrbun, Aylesbani, Ifortb Wolsbam, Harles- 
ton. Dim, Attlaborougb, Thetford, Cromer, Holt, Downbam-Market, 
SwaffhaiD, Walton, Dereham. 

SaffifllE.— Tpswicb 43 (Orwell), Sudbury 7 (Stour), Loweatoft II 
(east ooaat), Eye 2 a. (Waveney), Bury St Edmuttd'a IS (Larke). 

Baoolea, Woodbridge, Stow-market, Long Molford, Haverhill, Had- 
Imgb, FnuDlingham, BaleaiTortb, Buaga;, Brandon, MildenhalL 

Euex. — Chelmsfobd 6 (Chelmer), Maldon 6, Saffroo-Walden 6 
(Blackwater). Colcheater 26, Halstead 6 (Coliie). Harwich, 6 (Stour). 
now, Tbaited, Brentwood, Coggeaball, braintree, Fillmry Fori, 
i, Eppiug, Waltbora Abbey, Romford. 

Ten SoirraEiu) Coukties. 

Sent.— Maidstosb 26, Sheemeas 12 (in the lale ot Sheppey), 
Chatham 36, Rocheater 18, Tuabridge 6, Tunbridge Wells 14 a. 
(Medway), Polkeatono IS (aouth coast), Dover 28 (Strait of Dover), 
Deal 8 (east coast), Bamsgate 21, Canterbuiy 21 (Stour), Maigate 12, 
Fftvernham 7 (north coast), Gravesend 21, Woolwidi 42, Greeuwiob 
168, Deptford 28 (Thamea), Dartford 5 (Darent). 

Hytbe, Sandwich, Asbford, Herae Bay, Whitstahle, Baveu Oaka, 
Westerham, Sydanbam, Bromley, Tentarden, Cranbrook, Milton. 

BiUHDE. — Lewes 11 (Ousel, Chichester 8 (Lavant), Worthing 6. 
^ghton 90, EaatbouroB 6, Hastings 29 (aouth coast), Midhurat 7 
(Wnt Bother), Horsham 7 {Adur]. 


Bosuor, Little Hampton, Arundel, Petwortli, Newliaven, Cuckfield, 
Hailsnam, Rye, Battle, East Grinstead, New Shoreham. 

Surrey. — Guildford 9 (Wey), part of Deptford, Southwark and 
Lambeth (parts of London), Kichmond 17, Elingston 15 (Thames), 
Croydon 27 (Wandle), Reigate 16 (Mole). 

Godalming, Famham, Chertsey, Epsom, Leatherhead, Dorking, Ejgham, 

Berks. — ^Reading 32, Newbury 7 (Kennet), Windsor 12, Abing- 
don 6 (Thames). 

Hungerford, Lamboum, Maidenhead, Wallingford, Hurst^ Woking- 
ham, Wantage, Great Faringdon. • 

Hampshire or Hants. — Winchester 15, Southampton 54 (Itchin), 
Christchurch 9 (Hampshire Avon), Lymington 3 (tne Solent), An- 
dover 5 n. (Test), Portsmouth 113 (Portsmouth Harbour), Peteisfield 

6 (Rother). In the Isle of Wight are Newport 8, Cowes 5 (Medina), 
Ryde 11 (north coast). 

Titchfield, Odiham, Ringwood, Fordingbridge, Romsey, Whitchuroh, 
Bishop's Waltham, Farebam, Havant, Alton, Basingstoke, Kingsdere. 
In Isle of Wight — Osborne, Ventnor. 

THlts. — Salisbury 13, Devizes 7 (Avon), Trowbridge 13, Malmes- 
bury 7 (Lower Avon), Westbury 6 (Were). 

Wilton, Mere, Melksham, Marlborough, Highworth, Amesbury, War- 
minster, Bradford, New Swindon, Calne, Chippenham. 

Dorset. — Dorchester 7, Poole 10, Wareham 7 (Frome), BridportS 
(Brit), Weymouth and Melcombe-Regis 13 (Wey), Sherborne 6 (Ivd). 

Shaftesbury, Lyme Regis, Blandford, Beaminster, Wimbome, Stur- 
minster-Newton, Cranbome, Stalbridge. 

Somerset.— Taunton 15 (Tone), Bath 53 (Lower Avon), Frome 10 
(Frome), Wells 6 (Axe), Bridgewater 12 (Parret), Yeovil 8 (Yeo), 
Weston-super-Mare 9 (Bristol Channel). 

Glastonbury, Shepton-Mallet, South Petherton, Crewkeme^omertou, 
Milverton, Wellington, Milbome Port, Ilminster, Chard, Wincanton, 

Devon. — Exeter 35, Exmouth 5, Tiverton 10 (Exe), Plymouth 
68, Devonport 50 (Plymouth Sound), Tavistock 9 (Tavy), Dart- 
mouth 5 (Dart), Teignmouth 6, Newton Abbot 5 (Teign), Torquay 18 
(Tor Bay), Barnstaple 12 (Taw), Bideford 7 (Torridge). 

Topsham, Crediton, Cullompton, Totness, Ashburton, Chudleigh, St 
Mary Ottery, Honiton, Sidmouth, Colyton, Axminster, Ilfracombe, Hart- 
land, South Molton, Torrington, Hatnerleigh, Brizham, DawUsh. 

ComwalL — Bodmin 5 (Camel), Camborne 7, St Agnes 7, St Ives 

7 (W. coast), Penzance 10 (Mount's Bay), Falmouth 5, Truro 11, Red- 
ruth 8 n. (Falmouth Harbour). 

Helstone, St Just, Stratton, Marazion or Market-Jew, Peniyn, St 
Austell, Fowey, East Looe, St Germans, Saltash, Callington, liskmrdy 


Seven Webteeh Counties. 
-MoNMOUTU 6 (Wye), Newport 27 (Oak), Tredegar 9 

Chepstow, Abergavenaj, UEk, Pontypool. 

HerelOra.— Heueford 18 (Wye), Leomioster 6 (Lag^. 

KoAS, Brorayard, KiogtoDi Ledbury. 

Saloi) or SliropahlTB. — SHHEwaBuav 23, Eridgenorth 6, Madi- 
Wenlock 20 n., Madeley 9 n. (Severn), Ludlow 6 (Teme), Welling- 
ton 6 n. (Tern), Osweatry 7 (Ferry). 

Market-Dmyton, Sbiffool, Wem, WhitchTirch, Broselay, ElleBmere, 
Hawport, Bishop's CbhUBj Ironhriiige, Dawley. 

CSeBllre.— CHESTEK36(Dee), Birkenliead 66, Runcorn 10, Stock- 
port 63, Hyde 14, Staley Bridge 21 (Mersey), Nautwich 6, Crewo 8 

Malpaa, Neaton, Now Brighton, Middlewich, Sandbaoh, EnuUford, 
T&rporley, EoUington, MiddlBwich. 

LancMblre. — Lancastqh IT (Lunc), Ulverstone 7 (Morecambe 
B»y). Preston SS, Clitheroe 8 (Ribble), Elaokburo 76 n., Over- 
Darwen 14 Q., Aocrington 14(Darwen),Burnley32, Colne 0, Paddi- 
luun 6 n. (West Calder), Wigaa 30, Leigli 11 (Douglas), Ctorley 15 
(Uhor), Onusfcirk 6, Preacot 7 (Alt), Liverpool 493, Warrington 
32, AHhton-nuder-Lyne 32 (Mersey), St Helens IS (Sankcy), Man- 
cheater and Salford 481, Bury 42, Endingden 7 (Irwell), Oldliani 
83 (Medlock),Middloton 10 (Irk), Bolton 83, Famworth S n.,Eindley 
S (Crole), EooMale 45, Baeup U (Eoehe), Todmorden 12 (Calder). 

Dalton, Kivkham, Lytlinni, Fleetwood, Widnes, Blackpool, TjldeBle}-, 
Cburohj Ileotwood, Muuh-Wolton, Great Harwood, Heywood, Droylsdeu, 
Newton in Makor&eld. 

WeEtmoreland.— Apflesv 3 (Eden), Kendal 13 [Ken). 

Kkkby-Stephen, Kirk by -Lonsdale, Orton. 

Cumherland.— Cabosle 31 (Eden), Pewith 7 (Eamont), WJiite- 
haven 18 (west coast), Maryport (EUen), Workington 6, Cocker- 
month 7 (Derwent). 

IWigton, Brampton, Longton, Keswick, Egremont, Aldetone. 
f Sixteen Midlasd Coitnties. 

I Derby.— Dehbt 60, Belper 10 (Derwent), CheaterfieU 11 (Eother). 
eioaaop 19 n. (Etkerow). 

Matlock, BakewolljTidBBWell, Bull "" 

fidd, UaitiugtoD, AifretoQ, Clay Croi 

MottB or Mottlngham. — Nottik 
UanaGeld 8 (Idle), Workaop 7 (Byton). 
~ ~ it Ketford, Southwell, Bingham, Kirkby-in-ABbfield. 
r ttaSOrd.— Staffoes 14 (Sow), Btirton-on -Trent 16, Newcutia 

1 87, Newark 12 (Trent). 


under-Lyne 16, Stoke-upon-Trent 131*(Trent), Leek ]0 (Chturnet), 
Lichfield 7 n., Wednesbury 15 n., West Bromwich 17 n., Walsall 
46 (Tame), Wolverhampton 68, Bilston 24 n. (Smestow). 

Tamworth, Eccleshall, Rugeley, Stone, Tutbory, Uttoxeter, Cheadle, 
Penkridge, Cannock, Brewood. 

Leicester. — ^Leicester 95, Loughborough 11, Hinckley 6 (Soar). 

Melton-Mowbray, Ashby-de-la-Zouche, Market-Harborough, Lutter- 
worth, Market-Bosworth. 

Rutland. — Oakham 3 (Wreak), Uppinriiam 2 (Welland). 

Worcester. — ^Worcester 33 (Severn), Evesham 5 (Upper Avon), 
Bromsgrove 5 (Salwarp), Kidderminster 19, Stourbridge 8, Dudley 
44, Stourport 10 (Stour). 

Bewdley, Upton, Droitwich, Pershore, Tenbury, Great Malvern, Hale- 
sowen, Eedditch. 

Warwick. — ^Warwick 11, Rugby 8 (Upper Avon), Leamington 15 
(Learn), Coventry 39 n. (Sow), T^uneaton 5 (Anker), Birmingham 
344 (Rea). 

Stratford, Alcester, Henly-in-Arden, Atherstone, Coleshill, Solihull^ 
Sutton-Coldfield, Kenilworth, Bedworth. 

Northampton. — ^Northampton 41, Peterborough 17, Welling- 
borough 6 (None), Kettering 5 (Ise). 

Daventry, Oundle, Rothwell, Brackley, Towcestcr, Ncueby, Father' 

Huntingdon. — Huntinodon 4, St Ives 3, St Neots 3 (Great 

Ejlmbolton, Ramsey, Godmanchester. 

Cambridge. — Cambridge 30 (Cam), Ely 6 (Great Ouse), Wis- 
beach 9 (Nene). 

March, New Market, Whittlesea. 

Gloucester. — Gloucester 18, Tewkesbury 5 (Severn), Bristol 183 
(Lower Avon), Stroud 39 (Stroud), Cheltenham 45 (Chelt), Ciren- 
cester 6 (Chum). 

Thombury, Minchin-Hampton, Lydney, Coleford, Berkeley, Wotton- 
under-Edge, Stow, Bisley, Tetbury, Dursley. 

.Oxford. — Oxford 32 (Thames), Banbury 4 (Cherwell), Wood- 
stock 8 (Glyme). 

Henley, Bampton, Thame, Deddington, Bicester, Witney, ChippiDg- 

Bucks or Buddngham. — Buckingham 4 (Great Ouse), Great Mar- 
low 6 (Thames), Aylesbury 6 (Thame). 

Eton. Olney, Newport-Pagnell, Stony Stratford, Chesham, Slou^, 
High Wycombe, Amersham, Ivinghoe, Wendover, Princes-Risborou^ 

Bedford. — Bedford 17 (Great Ouse), Luton 10 (Lea). 

Potton, Biggleswade, Leighton-Buzzard, Dunstable. 

Herts or Hertford. — Hertford 7, Ware 5 (Lea), Bishop-Stort- 
ford 5 (Stort), St Albans 8 (Cohie), Hitchen 6 (Hiz). 

* Inclndlng Hanley, Bnrslem, and LoDgton. 



H idloea 3 (Sev 
^k. OaiOtgui.- 

■fcveo). Ten 
^B CamiarUu 

Bamot, Watford, fleniBl-Raaipslod, BertLampstead, TAag, Baldock. 

Middlesex. — London 3252 — inoluding tha City, WeatminBter, 
Maryleboae, Finsbury, Tower HamletB.Southwark, and Lambeth — ■ 
Brenifowj, the county town, 9 (ThameB). 

HonnElow, Twickenhnm, Hampton, Stainei, Totteohara, Enfield, 0i- 
itnidfTS, Harrow, Fulbam. 

L TwELTB 'Welsh Cockties. 

PUnt— Mold 3 (Allen), Holywell 6, Flint 4 fDee), Rhyl 3 (Clwyd). 

Toma behceen 1000 and 2500.— Rhyddlao, St Asaph, Unnordsn. 

Deabl^— Dehbioh6, EathinS {Clwyd), Wresham 9, Llangollen 
S (Dee), Abergele 3 (comt). 

Obziibxvoil — Carsartoh 9. Bangor 7 (Menai Strait), Oonway 3, 
LlanrwHt 3 (Conway), Pwllheli 3, Llandudno 2 (Coast). 

An^eRBS.— Beauuahis 2 (Aleuiti Strait), Amlwch 3 (i^. coast), 
Holyhead 6 (Holy L) 

Merlonett—DoLOELLT 2 (Maw), Eala 2 (Dee). 

■antEOmar?. — Mohtooueby 1, Wekhpool T, Kewtowu 6, Lltm- 
idloea 3 (Severn). 

- -■ Camjiqan 4 (Teify), Aberystwith 7 (Yatwith). 

-Pkmbp.okk 14, Haverfordwest 7, Milford 3 (Milford 

_. _ j), Teoby 4 (S.E. Coast). 

OBMoartlien.— Caemabthbn 10, Llandeilo 6 (Towey), Llanelly 
11 (S. Coast). 

eiaanarsiui.— Cabdifp 40 (Severn), Swansea 52 (Tawy), Neath 9 
(Neath), Merthyr-Tydfil 97 (Tatf). 

BroClnuick.— Brecon 6 (Dak), Haj; 2 (Wye). 

Sadnor. — New EiUHoa 2 (SomergiU), Preateign 2 (Lngg). 

DBBcriptlTe Botes, — By thecenaos of 1871 there were in England 
and Walea fourteen towns having upwarda of 100,000 population — 

(London, Liveqiool, Mancheater, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, 
Bristol, Greenwich, Bradford, Newcastle, Salford, Hull, Portamonth, 
and Stoke -upon-Trent) ; twenty between 100,000 and 50,000 (Sun- 
derland, Leicester, Brighton, Praaton, Mertbyr-Tydfil, NottioE- 
ham, Oldham, Bolton, Norwich, Elackborn. Huddersfield, Plymoutfi, 

ffoivorhampton, Halifas, Southampton, Bath, Stockport, Swansea, 

"erby, Devonport); forty-eight between 60,000 and 20,000, eighty 
itween 20,000 and 10,000, and one htmdred and twenty between 

Kl,000 and 6,000. 

The Sevek Eastern Coukties. 
NoRranMBERLASO, the m 
ths Twood on the JJ. and II 
limeatona in the N. and W., millstone erit and the ooal-meEaures in the 
S.E., extending southnard to thaTeea In Durbani, and forming tho most 
eelebrstod coal-field in the world, and the source of immBneo woalth to 
Oie mining and mannfHOturing population of the N.E, of the kinijdam. 
Tha Tyna flovra tlirough tLe centre of tbia precioua mineral deposit, and 


the towns in its basin are all prospering. The Cheviot breed of sheep is 
celebrated. Newcastle, on tne Tyne, 10 miles from its month, is the 
centre of the coal trade in the north of England, and the fifth commer- 
cial city in the kingdom; being only excell«i by London, Liverpool, 
Bristol, and Hnll. There are 50 coal-pits within a distance of 8 miles of 
it, yielding upwards of 3,000,000 tons annually, and large manufactories 
of steam-macninery and glass. It is the birthplace of the poet Aken- 
side, and of Lord Chancellor Eldon. Tynemouth and Shields are the 
seaports of Newcastle. Morpeth, on the Wansbeck, with manufactures 
of woollen goods and leather. Berwick, on the north side of the Tweed, 
famous in the annals of border warfare, was long independent of both 
kingdoms, and still enjoys the privileges of a county. Ottetbnrn, a 
village of Northumberland, near which, in 1388, was fought the battle 
of Chevy Chase, between Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and Earl 

Durham, between the Tyne and the Tees: Millstone Grit, coal- 
measures, permian, and trias. Famous for its rich coal-deposits, and the 
Teeswater breed of short -homed cattle. Lead, iron, and grinding- 
stones are largely exported. Surface mountainous in the W., and covered 
with heath. A large portion of the land belongs to the bishOT)ric of 
Durham. Durham, on the Wear, the seat of one of the four ^glii^ 
Universities, contains a celebrated cathedral, a castle built by William 
the Conqueror, and has valuable collieries in the vicinity. Sunderland, 
one of the principal ports of England for the shipment of coal. Ship- 
building is extensively carried on j has an immense cast-iron bridge over 
the Wear, whose single arch is 237 feet in span. Bishop-Aucidand, 
the residence of the Bishop of Durham, whose See was the wealthiest in 
the kingdom till lately, wnen the revenue was reduced from £22,000 a- 
year to £8000. Gateshead, a suburb of Newcastle, on the opposite side 
of the Tyne ; a great fire in 1854 destroyed much life and property. 
Stockton and Darlington are united by one of the earliest constructed 
railways in the kingdom. Hartlepool — steam navigation to Hambuig, 
Rotterdam, Antwerp, and Scotland. 

Yorkshire, the largest, and one of the most populous, counties of 
England (area 5981 sq. m., pop. 2,436,113), lies between the Tees and 
the Humber ; consists of three divisions called Ridings {thirds, in Anglo- 
Saxon) — viz., the North, East, and West Ridings, which all meet at 
York. It embraces all the geological formations, in rc^gular succession, 
from the mountain limestone in the W. to the chalk and tertiaries in 
the B. The West Riding is the chief seat of the mining and manufac- 
turing industry of England, the coal-measures being more accessible 
there : its fine broadcloths and other woollen fabrics are unrivalled 
throughout the world : cotton, flax, and silk mills are also very nume- 
rous. The North Riding is principally oolitic, and is chiefly famous as 
a grazing country. The East Riding is, for the most part, cretaceous 
and tertiary, and comprises the hilly district called " the Wolds." York, 
on the Ouse, near the centre of the county, where the three Ridings con- 
verge, is, in point of ecclesiastical rank, the second city in the kingdom, 
— ^the Archbishop of York being the highest ecclesiastical dignitary next 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury ; and the cathedral, called York Min- 
ster, is the finest structure of the kind in England. Goole, at the conflu- 
ence of the Ouse and Don, and at the termination of the Aire and Calder 
navigation. Selby, the birthplace of Henry I. Ripon, where a conference 
took place between the English and Scottish Commissioners, with a view 
to adjust the diflerences between Charles I. and his Scottish subjects, in 


■W4D- flail, or Kingfiton-npon-Hail, Ie tbe fonrtb comTnerTxal city in 
aigland ; in ISSS, 3ir3B fihii-a eulCTsd, carrj-iiig abont 700,000 tooB— iu 
Bnnual erfiurts excaad £12,000,000 Btorlinj^ Iwing the great outlet for 
the DUiiinfiLctiuH of the West Riding. Baverl;, cBpitol of the Eaet lad- 
ing, eontiuae a beautiful iniiieteT, dutjng from the ISOs century — vhiDli, 
like Bolyrood, Ima the privilege of aanetniiiy. BonDarter, ou the Dotj, 
fianDOEfaritfliuiniuiJ rw^^E- fiheffleld, aoted lorcntleT^'Bnd platedgaode, 
'in which it in necand only to Binuinfliani. SBriiBle;,Dnthe r>Ganie,tbB 
chief Best of the linen trade. BotTiBTbnni, at the coiiSuenoe of the I>Dii 
and Bother, hu mauufuctun^ of all kinds of inin goods, including cim- 
naat, machinery, t.c Fontefraot {Fom&etl, vjth a famnus castlt dl-» 
ID mins, where Richard IL died. LeedE, Bradfcird, HKlifos, and Httd- 
ihrnr^pMi vttli the other tcwM in the buain of the Aire, are the principal 
■est of the woollen trade, for wlikh the "West Riding ie no celeteited. 
IiBBdB alone has 106 woollen miUs. Xradfinrd has coIlegsE for Ba,ptiBt£, 
IndepGiidBntf, and Wesii^yanE, and ie the jiruicipik] eest •.tt tlie warEtei3- 
jBm iDBmifnciure. EnBreBboron|rh ; in the Tiainilj is the far-famed 
" di o pjuu g-wall, ' ' of strongly pfltrilying qnalitj'. Bcaxborongi and 
■■nSgate, fimiouB for their mineral wate™, which are Jiiglily luiSicinal. 
WlStij, an important Beaport tovm, on the Esk, the hiitlij^sce of Cop- 
liiin Oook, tbe navigntnr. 

iJUUXajmBmE, betrceea the Hnmber and the Wseb, contsinB aU the 

- - ' ■ 1 f ormationfl in regular eucoeBsion, from tbe lina in the W. to Iba 

n the E. and S,; it oonsiete of three widely differei^t districte — 

aiDon in the W., the aaidi in tbe N.E., and the feat in liie B. 

d E. TbafiKi ore a yeit of tbe oelebmt«d Bedford Level— on inmiBUsB 
[p pBTtiaOy drained two centuries ago liy tlie Ead of Bedford, and 
Bw TflBiftinder lecentlj by tbe Rritinh G-DvemmBnl — -and form tbe best 
}mtiu«-land in £u^lBiid. Tbe wo^tfi ore a line of chalk downs, nbich 
oxtSDdt from namboroncb Bead to tbe coast of DoiTCtshire. The viimn 
■n now moatl}' cultiTHted, LincDiiL, tbe uBpital, on tbe Withsm. is noted 
for its beantihJ catliedral, wbich ccntaiiu' a pLgaiitie hell called Turn 
Of Lincoln. At the time of the Conqueat, tbe "■ itimio was naTlgnWe for 
laree -reaselB np to the town, and Lincoln formed then one of the prind. 
dbT Bea]iorte in tbe kingdom. BoBtus has a fine chorcli, with a tower 
that lerveB be a ligbthouBe for the nayigation of tbe "Wash. ' ' " 
was a place of aome coLBequBUce even in Baion ttir— "*~ 
lonfl] Bend large quantltiea of com to London. GrBai uruueoj nus a 
fine barbonr and cilGiialve docks. GaiaBborDagli. on the Treot. with 
BDaaidernble irJand trade, eiporls hardware and maunlactnred goods. 

SOKltiLK, batweentheWaah and tlie Wavenej. — Priiidpally crelaoenns, 
bitttertiEty in the E.; ooaat-lino low, sncface level; ami, a ligbt eandy 
Inus, well fitted for barley at^d tnmips, which coiistitnte tbe principal 
CTop« ; eitaiuyvE nianufactnreB of wooUen and sHk fabrics ; great nuni- 
Imn of tnrkeys and geeiie art reared for the London market. Horwinb. 
aa the Tare, Qie fin^ city in the £. of England, was tbe birthplace of 
Ut £amufl] Clarke and of Ambbisborh Poj^m'. long famous for its woraUd 
mamifactareb. first introdaeed \<y the Flemings in Ibe eiiteentb centur;-, 
sod now for ii« bominsineE and crape ; has a liuge cathedral, with a epire 
Klg fset h 'gb. Tanmniiili, aJao on tbe Xars, noted for its hacriDg- 
fiahBiy, tbe most important in £uglaud, and for he roadstead, lying 

f^weeD the coent and a dangerous amdlmnk in the viciuity. Ijim-Begu, 
Eing'a-Lviui, on the Oisat Onse, here lOOO feet broad. 
Jtraroii,' between the Waveneyaiid the Btonr— Chalk in thf "W.. ta- 
TS in the £. ; soiface level, nod soil well cultivated, pioduuiDg wheat. 


barley, beans, oats, turnips, "hemp, and hops. Lpswich, with extennTO 
iron and silk manulactures, is the birthplace of Cardinal Wolsey. Sud- 
bury, on the Stour, sent two members to the House of Commons, but 
was lately disfranchised for bribery. Lowestoft, the most eastern town 
in the British Isles. Bury St Edmund's has a large com and cattle 
market, which lasts for three weeks. 

Essex, between the Stour and the Thames. — Almost wholly tertiary; 
surface flat and marshy in the S., but richly wooded and beautifufiy 
diversified in the centre and N. ; soil rich, and famous for its wheat crops. 
Chelmsford, at the confluence of the Chelmer and Cann, and on the Great 
Eastern Kailway. Maldon exports fish and agricultural produce. Saf- 
firon-Walden, so named from the saffron plant, formerly cultivated here. 
Colchester, on the Colne, crossed here by seven bridges ; its manufac- 
tures of silk are declining. Halstead, with manufactures of silks, 
velvets, satins, and straw-plait. Harwich has the finest harbour on 
the east coast of England, and steam communication with Rotterdam. 

The Ten Southebn Cou^TIES. 

Kent, between the Thames and the Rother. — Tertiary in the N., chalk 
and greensand in the centre and E., and the wealden, a fresh-water 
deposit, in the S. ; surf'ace hilly — two small ranges traverse the county 
from W. to E. — but the S. low and level, containing Romney Marsh and 
•'the Weald ;" soil and climate excellent, and agriculture in a highly 
advanced state, with products more varied than any other English county; 
wheat, barley, and hops of very superior quality, and numerous orchards 
of cherries, plums, and filberts. Maidstone, on the Medway, the chief 
seat of the hop trade. Sheemess, Chatham, Woolwich, and Beptfordv 
with royal dockyards and arsenals. Tunbridge Wells, with medicinal 
waters, a fashionable resort for the Londoners. Hythe, Dover, Bomney, 
and Sandwich, four of the five Cinque Ports (Hastings in Sussex being 
the fifth). Eolkestone, the birthplace of Harvey, the discoverer of the 
circulation of the blood. Dover, on the Strait of Dover, is only 21 miles 
from the French coast, and is the chief point of communication between 
England and the Continent. Deal, near the Goodwin Sands, maintains 
a numerous staff of pilots for steering vessels tlu'ough the Downs. Sams- 
gate, Margate, and Gravesend, convenient resorts for tbe population of 
London. Canterbury, the ecclesiastical cap. of England, was a place of 
some importance in the time of the Romans, and afterwards the cap. of 
the Saxon kingdom of Kent. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the 
primate of England, and, after the royal family, ranks as the first peer of 
the reiJm. weenwich is celebrated for its naval hospital, and its royal 
observatory, from which the longitude on all British maps and charts is 

Sussex (" South Saxons "), between the Rother and Chichester Harbour. 
The wealden in the N. and E., greensand, chalk, and tertiary in the W. 
and S.; surface diversified; "the Weald" is level, moderately fertile, 
and from time immemorial famous for its forests ; the South Downs — 
a range of chalk hiUs — traverse the cretaceous portion from W. to E., 
terminating at Beachy Head. South of the Downs there is a considerable 
tract of fertile soil belonging to the tertiary formation. Climate mild, 
and harvests early, but agriculture in a rather backward state ; hops ex- 
tensively raised in the E. The breeds of cattle and sheep are in high 
repute. Chichester, on the Lavant, in the S.W. of the county, occupy- 
ing a fine situation at the foot of the South Downs^ is the birthplace of 


.11 Collins. Brighton, a romantic nnd benutifnl town, the gayest 

of English watering- places, wilh an estensivt uiarine promenade. Hart- 
iaga, the prindpul of the CinquF Ports, the scene or s famons battle, in 
1066, between Harold 11., the Inat Saion kdng, and William the Con- 
qneror. laWM, where Siniun do Montfort and the bttrans defeated Henry 
III. in 1264 Eastbonma, a rspiiUj rising watering-place. 

SUBBET, between Snaaei and tho Thames.— Weald in the 8., greensand 

>nd chalk in the centre, sod tertiar; in the N. The North Downs run 

from W. to E.; the W. largely covenid with heath, biit rertila soil in the 

tertiary part, A large pDrtionnndBTtillage, and hops esteusivoly raised; 

another large portion hiid ont as kitchen-gardens, for supplying the nietra- 

''■ polls with yegetablea ; woods eiteiisite, butngricnltnre backwari Gnild- 

% on tha Wey, and 17 milea from London, has considerable tralEo in 

__-3, maJt, and coals. Qeptibrd, partly in Kent, with large naval araenal 

■jIUid docbyarda. Sontliwark and Lambeth now form parts of London ; 

K.JB the latter ie Lambeth Palace, the residence of the Archbishop of Can- 

Iwbnry. Eidunond, with a celebrated park, lathe burial-place of Thorn - 

m tha poet, and of Kean the tragedian, Kingston, where the lirst 

rmed force in the Parliamentary war assembled. 

■n i._.._gg^ Hampahire and the TluiTues- Coral-rag in the N., 

„ chalk in the centre, and tertiary in the B. A tract o( 

cbatk downs eifenda through the centre ; Windsor forest and park in the 
E.; aoil lertilo; agricnltnre backward; niannfactnrea nnimiiortant, hnt 
exteneiTB trade in iaricultural produce. Beading, the birthplace of 
Arohbiabop Laud. 'WlndMr, celebrated for its palace and park; the 
former, the most magnllicent regal palace in the lEingdom, was founded 
by the Conqueror, aud is the favourite residence of tho sovareigu; the 
tatter, containing Windsor Forest, is SB miles in circumference. 

EAHia, chiefly included between Chichester Harbour and the Hamp- 
■hire Avon. Chalk in the K., tertiary in the 8. The North and South 
Downs traverse tho county, and tha south coast ia deeply indented ; for 
the most part well wooded, with eitonsive forests of oak and birch ; soil 
good, ami panerally well cultivated, producing excellent hops; its cider 
and bacon in high repute. The Isle of Wight, which ia tertiary in the N. 
and greensand and weald in the S., is considered the garden of England. 
■WlnchBitBT was long the capital of England; here many of the SflKcn 
princei are interred. Soathamjiton, the entrepfit for some of tha greatest 
oe«an steam lines in. the world : here the maila are made up and de- 
■patched to the East and West Indies, China, and the Mediterranean. 
Udorer, one of the largest cattle-markets in England. Fortsmoath, tho 
headqnarlers of the British royal navy, with ertensive dockyards and 
mnenal ; the harbour unequalled in the kingdom, and the fortress con- 
^ered impregnable. Newport, the capital of the Isle of Wight. 

Wilts, N.W. of Hants and 8, of the Thames. Oolitic inN. and W., 
cretace<yns in the 5. and K The centra ia occupied by the elevated tabla- 
land of Salisbnry Plain, in which nearly all the rivora of tho county rise; 
Hril highly fertde, eapecially in the eitreme N. and S., hut the central 
plateau produces only scanty herbage ; the most remarkable nhjects here 
■re tbe far-famed Dnddical remams of Stoncbeugo and Avebury, oti 
which mueh antiquarian reaearoh has been espended. Sftlisbury, with a 
magniflcent Gothic cathedral ; the spire, the highest in Britain, rises to 
aMigbt of W4feet, Be viiei, Bradford, Trowbridge, Chippennum, and 
VonbniT, have extensive niannfaetnres of woollens and line cloths. 
'" " ' ■ StoMlieage, and Million Eeotory, the birthpUce 



Dorset, on the English Channel, for the most part between the Hamp- 
shire Avon and the Lyme. — Cretaceous in the E., and oolitic in the W, 
Surface level in the N., but traversed by chalk hi1l« in the centre, where 
numerous flocks of sheep find pasture. Dairy produce highly important, 
and large commerce in rortland and Purbeck stone, coarse marble, and 
potter's clay. Dorchester, a place of great antiquity, with the remains 
of a huge Roman amphitheatre. Poole, a large seaport, lai^ely engaged 
in the Newfoundland fishery. Bridport ; shipbuildmg, cordage, fiBning' 
nets, and sailcloth. Sherborne, the residence of Sir W. Raleigh. 

Somerset, between Dorset and the Bristol Channel — Greatiy diversi- 
fied, and embracing all the formations from the old red to the oolite. 
Coast-line and surface in*e^lar ; the Mendip and Qaantock hills divide 
the county into three divisions ; fertile along the rivers, and there dairy 
husbandry is pursued with great success, but in other jparts there are 
extensive wastes, as Exmoor in the W. Coal, calamine, iron, lead, and 
fuller's earth are obtained : the principal manufactures are wooUens, 
silks, linens, paper, glass, and iron-wares. Many antiquities. Tannton, 
where Judge Jefi&eys held the bloody assize after the battle of Sedgemoor. 
Bath, on the Lower Avon, long the most fashionable watering-place in 
the kingdom, is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. Frome, long 
noted for its ale. Wells, with a noble cathedral, erected in the thirteenth 
century. Bridgewater, the birthplace of Admiral Blake, is noted for its 
high tides. Weston-super-Mare, from an insignificant village, has risen 
into a favourite watering-place. 

Devon, between the English and Bristol Channels. — The centre and W. 
carboniferous, and the seat of some of the most valuable mines in Eng« 
land, especially copper and tin ; the S. and extreme N., Devonian; New 
red and greensand in E. ; surface greatly broken, but generally fertile, 
except Exmoor and Dartmoor. The climate in winter is very mild, the 
average temperature being 44*. Most kinds of grain are raised, and the 
county is famed for its cider. The red Devon breed of cattle is highly 
valued. Herring, pilchard, mackerel, and dory fisheries important. 
Exeter, a fine old town with a beautiful cathedral, with manufactures of 
paper, gloves, and lace. Plymouth and Devonport, closely contiguous, 
are principal stations of the royal navy ; noted for a naval arsenal, and for 
a stupendous breakwater which cost £1,200,000. Tavistock, the birth- 
place of Sir Francis Drake, and of William Browne the poet. Torquay 
(Torke^), on Tor Bay, the resort of numerous invalids. Barnstaple has 
considerable trade in timber with Canada and the Baltic. 

Cornwall, in the extreme S.W. of the kingdom. — Devonian for the 
most -p&Ttf interspersed with i^eous rocks, but carboniferous in the 
N.E. ; surface rugged ; soil indifferent ; scantily timbered ; climate mUd, 
salubrious, but very humid. Its tin mines are the most celebrated in 
the world, and have been wrought from remote antic[uity. The metalli- 
ferous district extends from Dartmoor, in Devonshire, to Land's End; 
but the richest mines are in the S.W. of the county. Copper is also 
abundant ; and lead, silver, zinc, iron, manganese, antimony, cobalt, and 
bismuth exist in many localities. Bodmin, on the Camel, engaged in the 
manufacture of coarse woollen stufl^. Camborne, Bedmth, and Mara- 
zion, with valuable copper-mines. St Ives and St Agnes,, famous for 
their unriv^ed tin mines. Penzance, Tmro, and Lannceston, are called 
the "Stannery towns," being those to which the miners carry their 
blocks of tin, in order to be stamped by Government agents. Falxnontii, 
a &vourite resort of our fleets in time of war, and a mail-packet station. 



^H MoNuonTH, between tLe Wye and the EoiDiiey. — UeToaian for tlie 
^f most part, but carboniferons in tie estreme W. and E. ; surface pic- 
^ tnnBijael j varied vpith faill and dale, snd Hnely woDdsd ; coal, ironstouc, 
and luneBtaue abundant ; Hannel the cbief manufacture ; man; Britiiin 
and Bonian Teuioina ; the "Welsh lan^age and manners prevalent; and 
in general the coim^ may be considered aa rather Welsh than English. 
Koninontli, on the Wye, the birthplace of Heniy V., and of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth the amialist ; with extensive manufactures of bar-iron, tin- 
]ilatea, and paper. Seirport exporU cool, iron, and tin, which are coii- 
Teyed hither from South Wales ; large trade in shipbuilding and iton- 
foundriet. Tredenir, noted for its eoal-minea aad ironworks. 

Heeeeoed, in the basin of the Severn. — Almost wholly Devonian ; sur- 
face beautifully diversified, and presenting sotne of the Uneat scenery in 

ancT admirably aikpted for agriculture; climate remarkably healtliy ; 
iqtples, lions, and oak bark are important arliclea of commerce ; and tho 
breeda of iheep and cattle are celebrated for their excel] eacB. Heretbrd 
(Her'.e-ford) on the Wye, the birthplace of David Ganick, tho comedian, 
uid of Nell Gwynn, the favourite miatresB of Charlca IL IieominBter 
JLem'-Bter), famed for the quality of its cider, and for manufactures of 
leather, gloves, bata, and woollen. 

SalOe, in the basin of the Severn. ^ — Silurian strata, containing lead 
minei in the S.W., new red sandstone, with rock-salt, in the N., and 
Devonian beds and coal in the remainder ; snrface mountainous in the fi., 
comparatively level in the N. ; Sua meadow.huida near the Severn; hops 
and orchards in the S., coal snd iron in the £., lead in the W., and salt 
in the N. The manofacturea are, chioa ware, flannels, carpete, linen, 
gloves, and paper. Agood deal of cheese is made, and large flocks of 
turkeys are reared. Sfirewabury, on the Severn, where a bloody engagB- 
ment took place, in 1JU3, between tho troops of Henry IV. and the 
Pecciea, in which Hotspur was killed. Bridgenortb, eite^isively engaged 
in the carpet manufacture. BrDseley, noted for its iron-foundries (luiown 
at tbe Colebtookdale works) ; a suapenslon-hridge over the Severn here 
WBB the fliBt erected in England ; near it is Colebiookdale, famous for its 
petroleum or tar springs. 

CHraHiHB, a maritime county between the Mersey and the Dee. — Nearly 
all of new red aandstone, containing an ineihaustible supply of roeis- 
salt ; euiface level, well wooded, and etuddcd with many sniall lakes ; 
(Oil, clay or sandy loam; climale moist. The county is noted for its 
dairy produce, and especially for its cheese. Coal, copper, lead, rock- 
utt, and cobalt are among its mineral products, and the principal manu- 
&otares are cottons and silks. Chester, on the Dee, exports cheese in 
large qmotitics, and is the burial-place of Matthew Benry the commen- 
tator, and of the poet FamelL Biikenliead, a now town on the estuary 
of the Mereey, opposite Liverpool, fast nsing into importance. Stock 
port has coal abundant in the vicinity, and t^e manufactures of cotton, 
silk, machinery, brass, and iron goods. Etaley Bridge, extensively en- 
gaged in the cotton inannfacture. Blaocleafield employs 10^000 bands in 
■iUi-weaving. Crewe, on the London and North- Weetem Bailway, is ■ 
great railway depAt. 

LuiCABalEiE, a maritime county between the Mersey and Uorecambe 
Bay. — Mainly carboniferons, but new red sandfitone in the W., lined 


with post-tertiary deposits ; mountainous in the N. and along the K 
border, elsewhere generally level ; climate mild but very humid ; i>astare- 
l^ids more extensive than the arable ; potatoes extensively cultivated, 
and horticulture largely pursued. Copper, ironstone, and lead ore pre- 
vail extensively ; but the county owes its celebrity, wealth, and popular 
tion to its manufactures and commerce. It is the grand seat of the 
cotton manufacture, which has increased since 1770 with a rapidity alto- 
gether unparalleled in the history of industry. Woollen, fla^ and silk 
ifactories are also numerous. During the last hundred years the popula- 
tion (now 2,818,904) has increased eightfold. A complete network of 
rdlways, and several important canals, afford means of rapid conveyance 
to all parts of the kingdom. Lancaster, on the Lune, with a superi> 
aqueduct over the river. Liverpool, a large and flourishing city, and the 
second commercial port in the kingdom, is situated on the estuary of the 
Mersey, about four miles from its mouth, and 32 miles from Manchester, 
vnih which it is connected by railway. It carries on a vast maiithne 
trade, especi^y with the United States, importing thence cotton wooL 
and exporting cotton cloth. In 1869, 23,938 ships entered and deajed 
the port, with a tonnage of 9,277,714 tons. In 1860, before the 
American war began, the cotton imported into Liverpool amounted to 
1,417,000,000 lb. Liverpool is the chief outlet for the manufactures of 
lAucashire, Staffordshire, and the west of Yorkshire. Manchester, on 
the Irwell, across which it communicates by six bridges with Saluid, 
which may be regarded as its suburb ; united population, 480,000. It is 
the great centre of the cotton manufacture, and probably the greatest 
manufacturing city in the world. The other principal " cotton towns " 
in the county are Preston, Blackburn, Burnley, Wigan, Chorley, Ash- 
ton-under-Lyne, Oldham, Bury, Middleton, Bolton, and Rochdale. 
Westmorlai9T>, between the Pennine Hills and Morecambe Bay, is 
only very partially a maritime county. — Cumbrian strata in the W., 
Silurian in the centre, carboniferous in the E., and Permian in the N. ; a 
country of mountains, lakes, and picturesque scenery ; climate humid ; 
soil various, and agriculture improving ; cattle of large 8i2e, sheep nume- 
rous, their wool being sent to the Yorkshire woollen manufactories ; great 
flocks of geese raised for exportation ; slate is quarried in great quanti- 
ties, as also granite, marble, copper, and lead ; char, and other lake fish, 
extensively exported. Appleby, on the Eden ; the castle held out long 
against the Parliamentarj' army under Oliver CromwelL yfti><la.|^ on 
the Ken, one of the oldest manufacturing towns in the kingdom ; its 
cloths, manufactured by Flemish weavers, were famous in l£e time of 
Richard II. 

Cumberland, a maritime county in the extreme N.W., between the 
Pennine chain and the Irish Sea. An extensive area of Cumbrian strata 
in the S., with igneous rocks interspersed ; carboniferous, Permian, and 
triassic in the centre and N. ; sui&ce rugged and mountainous, inter- 
spersed with beautiful lakes, presenting the most magnificent scenery in 
^gland. Climate extremely moist : Seathwaite, where 183 in. of rain 
fell in 1861, and at the Stye 224 in. in 1866, are perhaps the rainiest dis- 
tricts in Europe. In consequence of this extreme moisture, agriculture is 
chiefly confined to stock-breeding ; and green crops attain to great perfec- 
tion, especially Swedish turnips. Principal minerals are silver, copper, 
lead, iron, and coal. Near Whitehaven are extensive beds of coal and 
hffimatite, and at Borrowdale there is a mine of plumbago. The chief man- 
ufactures are cottons, coarse linens, checks, and woollens ; and the lakes 
yield abundance of char, trout, pike, and perch. Carlislei an episcopal 


Fmudth haa 

eUand BiDiy under Prince Clinrles. 
f cottcm, linea, Bud wuDlleD gDnda. 
of coaJ, mtd of t.he inm-ore called 
ouf wsf under the sea. KarTport 
' --' CockEniumtk, the 

Lnve cnnaiderable trade i 
1 tiie potit 'WordswDTtli. Stewiek mmmlBCtiLres bIa<:k-!BBd 
the plumhaf-D miueb of Barrowdole. Heie Southty the poet 

The Sixteen Midlasb CorKTiEB. 

a central connt; in the bssm of the Trent. Ouofl; carbonifer- 

[lew red eaudstone in the S. Stufoeii momitiiii^aB in the S., 

fi ihe Pennine nrngB ifirminatet in the Peak of Derby ; elsewiierE 

ThePeak district ahcmnds in rtimontic BceneiT, in nBtiir&l corioaj- 

ud-mines. Climate bracing and fialnhrioDH; soil reddiflh 

D th£ S., when grmn and great goantitiue of choeae are 

is Ehigularly rich in niinerBle ; coal, lead, iron, 

ir^Bpar are urought to a great erlHnt. Collieries 

. IS ; principal maiiuiBctures. eilk, uouon, metallic 

porcalBiu. DerW, on the Derwent, at tlie ertreniity of a 

, Td on the Sidlaud EaCwiij, is t'HVnurablj situated for ibbud- 

s and CniilB — nolBd for its ailka, porcelain, marble aud fiuur-Bpar 

Bdiier, vith lar^ Dotton botories and pottcriea. Chener- 

ind bIUe nmnulactures ; with mines of ijva, cool, and lead iu 

r. eloB»i^,near the Peak of Derby, is the ciaeS seat of tlie 

D niBnufactnre lu the comity. SatloGk and Burton, celebrated for 
aineial watera, VirkEwortlh, viUi an extensive and valuabie lead- 

— a Duntrol county in the liotdn of the Trent, Cuol and Pemuan 

., liss in ri, £,, and millatone pit in the remainder, Burtace 

I; climate remariiably dry, prDbably owing to the Derbjaliire 

Is intoru^ititig the uiuist B.'W. wiucU ; soil eilliei' d^ey or h^i^ and 

' ; agriciUture wall advanced ; minoralB abnndant, eapeoi^y Goal 

' is tiie prinuq^al seat ol the cuttnn hosiety, and OT laoe- 

.. . -DttiiiglUBn, on the Trent, is tlie pieat oantte of liiB 

s roanafactBrE. B'ewark. where CkarlaB I.^after liu defeat at fiaaeby. 

"eld. mandhcirnree uf 

Voiksop, in H difr- 

, a central cciinly iu the basins oE the Trent and SevcnL , 

I; corliDuiferauB, hut new red t>uud»toue iti the oeutre ; Buiiiics 

,he centre, iilly in the S., mooriaud iu N.K Cbninte chilly. 

io tlie ekcation ; much tain in some parts ; iHo-thirds of the aor- 

Itirautd, Imt farming lass iuipurtant than the mininc ojnnatiouE, 

lb thit county holdE the third muk in England. Xoeie are twu 

limlile coal-fields, one in the K., called the potteiy coal-field, 

«tiie great numbar uf potteries that liavebseu eatabLslied on it; 

I othBT in the B., called the Dudley coal-field, celebrated for the 

n ^jts semus of coal, and for the eicelleuce and lichuess of its 

_H. BesideB coal, the moEt importuut mineral pj'oduct is tiiu 

7 clay, which 1ms made the county so celebrated for its eartheo- 

~ ~ ■ p tlie Bow, the birthplace ol Isaac Walton. Bnrtaa- 

lor iti ales, haa a bridge cier the stet iBckooBd the 


longest in England, with thirty-seven arches. Newcastle-under-Lyiie. 
noted for its hats — near it Etmria, the famous pottery establishment of 
Josiah Wedgwood. Stoke-upon-Trent, Haalev, and Bnnlem, with 
some other towns in the vicinity, are ctdled '* The Potteries," owing to 
their immense manufacture of earthenware. Lichfield, the birthplace of 
Samuel Johnson. West Broziwich, WalsaU, and Bilstoxiy wita gresfe 
ironworks. Wolverhampton, noted for its furnaces and hardware mnliB. 

Letoester, an inland county in the basin of the Trent. Some coal in 
the W. ; new red, with igneous rocks, in the centre, and lias in the K 
Surface undulating— a fine grazing county, noted for its sheep, horses, 
and cattle^ and for Stilton cheese. It is the principal seat of the woollen 
hosiery manufacture. The principal minerals are coal, iron, and lead. 
Leicester (Les'-ter), on the Soar, the principal seat of the woollen hosiery 
manufacture. Longhborotigh, nosiery of all kinds. Hinckley, cotton 
and worsted stockings. 

Rutland, the smallest county in England (area 152 sq. m.), in thA 
basins of the Trent and Welland. Lias in the western half, and oolite in 
the eastern. Surface undulating and diversified with parks j the eastern 
half chiefly under tillage, and western half under pasture ; soil everywhere 
loamy and rich ; great attention is paid to the rearing of sheep and oxen. 
Oakham manufactures silk shag for hats. Uppingham, a small town on 
the Welland. 

Worcester, in the basin of the Severn. New Bed in W., lias in centrBy 
and oolite in the E. ; some coal found in N. Surface generally level, but 
having the Malvern Hills in S.W., and the Bredon Hills in S.K Soil 
fertile, well watered, and richly wooded ; wheat and hops extensively 
raised, and orchards numerous. Principal minerals are coal, found at 
Dudley, building-stone, and clay. The Kew Bed at Droitwicn contains 
brine-spring. Manufactures, carpets, elass, ironware, gloves, porcelain, 
needles, and fish-hooks. Worcester (Woos'-ter), on the Severn, a hand- 
some and very ancient city, noted for its porcelain, reckoned the finest in 
England, ^dderminster, producing the finest carpets in England. 
Stourbridge has manufactures of glass and earthenware. Dudley, in the 
** Black Country," has a famous coal-field, part of which has been on fire 
for a century ; is one of the principal seats of the iron trade. Stonrport 
is the seat of a busy trade in com, coal, and timber. 

Warwick, in the basins of the Severn and Trent. Lias- in S., new red 
in the centre, carboniferous and Permian in the N. Surface elevated, and 
diversified by gentle hills and vales ; climate mild and salubrious ; soil 
generally very fertile and well cultivated, and a great part of it in per- 
manent pasture. The most valuable minerals are coal, limestone, sand- 
stone, blue flagstone, and marl. Manufactures very important, especially 
hardware, arms, watches, jewellery, silk, and ribbons. Warwick (Wor- 
ric), on the Upper Avon. The castle, once the residence of the Earl of 
Warwick, is the most complete specimen of a feudal fortress in the king- 
dom. Stratford, also on the Avon, the birthplace of the immortal 
Shakespeare. Bugby, with a celebrated school, tne scene of Dr Arnold's 
labours, stands in the exact centre of England. Leamineton (Lem'-ing- 
ton), a fashionable watering-place, with sulphureous, saline, and chaly- 
beate springs. Coventry and Nuneaton, the chief seat of the ribbon 
manufacture. Birmingham, on the Bea, an affluent of the Tame, and a 
sub-tributary of the Trent, is the second manufacturing city in England, 
and for hardwares the flrst in the world. It has been called ''the great 
toy-shop of Europe," but it is equally famous for all descriptions of 
h£u*dware, firearms, and crown-glass. It is surrounded by extensive cosIp 



Ill-works, and is one of the main centres of cnnal aoA railway 
cmonmnicatJon in Englaud. Here eiectro-plttting was invEnled ; and at 
Boho In the ricinity is the greatest manufactory of steam-eneines in the 
iTorld, condacUd by a firm of wbicb the celebiated Jamee Watt vks a 

NOBlHAkPTON, B Mntral county, drainsd by the Nen, Wetland, and 
Oose. AlmofC wholly oolite and lias. Surface diTcreined and richly 
wooded; eoil mostly aatitF productive Inani ; climate healthy ; agricultnia 
well advanced, the chief staple beirg tbe breeding of heavy black horses, 
jhort-homed cattle, andeheep; chief manufactures— Bhoes, hobbin-lacc, 
and woollen stD&. Horthamptan, on the Nen, the chief seat of the bout 
and shoe manufacture. Paterborongli, au cpiscopul see. the birthplace 
of Dr Paley ; the cathedral, a splendid edifice, conlains the tomb of 

Seen Catharine, fint wife of Henry VIII. 'WelUngborongb, with hoot, 
he, and lace manufactures. Kettering, aiUt- wearing, plush, and wool- 
oombing. Haaeby.a country pariah, 12 miles N.N.W. of Northampton ; 
here in IMS the troops of Charles I. were totally defeated by the Pnrlia- 
mentary array. Fotfieringay, 3* milea N. N.E. of Onndle ; its castle is 
ramoui as the birthplace of KlcTiacd III., and as the scene of the Im- 
priaonment, trial, and eiecution, in 1587, of Mary Queen of Scots, 

HcnnSGDON, sometimes called Hunts, an inland cuunty in the basin ot 
the Oose. Almost wholly oolitic, but post-tertiary in H.E, Suifacs 
gently varied where the oolite prevails, the rest level, and forming a part 
of "The Fens." Chmate mild and healthy, except in the fens ; eoil good 
■inl aJnioat wholly under cultivation, with agriculture iu an advanced 
state, especially In the Bedford Leyel or fens district ; horses extensively 
linid, ana much "Stilton cheese" made. Manufactures unimportant. 
EiUltlii|[dan, on the Great Ouse, the h. -place of Oliver Cromwell in 
IGM ; luB extensive breweiies, and considerable trade in com, wool, coals, 
■sd timber. St Ives, large sheep and cattle markets. 

CaKbrIDOE, in the basmg of the Great OuM and Nen. Post-tertiary 
Id tbe N., oolitic in the centre, greenaand and chalk in the S. and K 
SnrCaoe level, marshy, and thmly wooded, and the fens liable to inun- 
datlDD ; about a tbii^ of the county luidcr tillage, tbe rest fanning ex- 
cellent pOBtuia. The butter of Camhridge and Epping, and the cheese of 
Cottenham, are highly valued ; but, on tbe whole, agricnlture if 

■backward, and '^- ■— -'.i.-- ■ • ■■ 

if some pottei 
on the C^, L 

owrtnry, and ct „ ^ _. 

raaowned for mathematics and natural philosophy. Ely, a bishop's see, 
nrfth ■ splendid catbedral— tbe only episcojHl city in England which 
sends no member to Farliunent. 'Wlsbeaoh, an active river port, en- 
gaged in shipbuilding. 

Olouqebter, in the basin of the Severn. Frind[)at1y oolite and lias, but 
earbonlferons and new red in the W. ; naturally divided into three divi- 
■to»— viz., the valley of the Severn in the middle, the Cotswold Hills in 
the E., and the forest of Dean in the W. Tbe first is highly fertile, and 
Ihe iconery beautiful ; the second is celehrated for its sheepfarming. 
The county is cbieHy agricultural, but It is also noted for its cheese, 
whieh is nowhere snrpassed. The principal minerals are coat and iron ; 
and the manufactures chiefly woollen and cotton cloth. Bloncester 
<01os'-ter), a bishop's see, on tbe Severn, has a flue cathedral, and mann- 
factnres of cutlery, soap, and pins. Tewkesbury, the scene of a decisive 
battle between the houses of York and Lancaster in 1471, Bristol, on 


the Lower Avon, is the tliird seaport in England, and the commercia] 
metropolis of the west. The fine nanuels of Wales are finished here ; ex- 
tensive iron and brass foundries ; the biithplace of many eminent per- 
sons, among whom William of Worcester, Sebastian Cabot, Chatterton, 
Bayley, and Southey. Stroud, on a river of same name, the water of 
which is peciUiarly adapted for dyeing scarlet, is the centre of the Glou- 
cester wool-manufacture. Cheltenham, with its saline medicinal springs, 
is the rival of Bath as a watering-place. Cirencester, (Sis'-e-ter), a very 
ancient town, had some importance in the time of the Romans. Berkeley, 
the birthplace of Dr Edward Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination. 

Oxford, in the Thames basin. Principally oolite and lias, but green- 
sand and chalk in the S.E. ; surface mostly level or undulating, except in 
the S., where it is traversed by the Chiltem Hills ; soil a fertile loam in 
the N., elsewhere gravelly ; four-fifths of the county under cultivation ; 
stock of sheep large; dairy produce excellent; minerals unimportant; 
manufactures — ^lace, gloves, and blaiJcets. Oxford, on the Cherwell, with 
a celebrated university consisting of nineteen colleges and five halls, prin- 
cipally renowned for classical learning ; annual revenue, £457,000. The 
Bodleian library contains 220,000 printed, and 20,000 MS. volumes. 
Oxford formed the headquarters of Charles I., and the scene of the mar- 
tyrdom of Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer. Banbury, noted for its cheese, 
and for cakes, which bear its name. Woodstock, celebrated for its gloves ; 
gives name to one of Scott's novels : near it Blenheim, the magnificent 
seat of the Duke of Marlborough. 

Bucks, in the basins of the Great Ouse and Thames. Oolite in the 
N., greensand and chalk in the S. ; surface undulating in the N., occu- 
pied by the Chiltem Hills in the S.,* and in the centre by the rich vale 
of Aylesbury, one of the most fertile in the kingdom; well wooded; 
yields large quantities of butter and cheese, with sheep and poultry— the 
sheep being noted for the weight and fineness of their fleeces ; minerals 
of little importance, but manufactures considerable, consisting of paper, 
straw-plait, and thread-lace. Buckingham, on the Great Ouse, which 
nearly surrounds it, has manufactories of paper and bobbin-lace ; near it 
is Stowe, the splendid residence of the Duke of Buckingham. Eton, the 
seat of the most famous school in England, founded by Henry VL in 
1440. Great Marlow, silk, lace, and paper. Aylesbury, in the centre 
of the county, has a better right than Buckingliam to be regarded as the 
county town. 

Bedford, in the basin of the Great Ouse. Oolite in the N., greensand 
and chalk in the S. ; surface level, except around the Chiltem Hills in 
the S. ; soil vaiious, from the stiffest clay to the lightest sand ; chiefly 
under tillage, but agriculture not in an advanced state ; culinary vege- 
tables extensively cultivated in the sandy and chalky districts for tne 
London and Cambridge markets ; onions and cucumbers of the best 
quality are extensively raised ; minerals unimportant ; and the manu- 
factures chiefly consist of straw-plait for hats, reckoned but little inferior 
to that brought from Tuscany, and of pillow-lace. Bedford, on the Great 
Ouse, noted for its straw-plaiting ; near it Elstow, the birthplace of John 
Bunyan ; and Cardington, where John Howard resided. Luton, Kggles- 
wade, Leighton-Buzzard, and Dunstable, all extensively engaged in the 
straw-plait and straw-hat manufacture. 


The office of Steward of the Chiltem Hundreds, though now a sinecure, Is 
still retained, to enable members of the House of Commons to vacate their seats 
bv accepting it, as it is unconstitutional for members to demit their oflEloe more 


Herts, in tba baaina of tlia Tlinmea and Great Ouse. Keai-ly all ci 
caoua, but tertiaij in the S. ; soil Tariona, often jntenniied with t 
■nd of niecage fertility ; principal cropa — wheat, bailey, turnips, itpple 
»nd cherry orcharda; minerab --'*"" imTirtv^-inro . r^ny^^r-ai n^amita^^iT^b — 
paper and straw-plait; much „ _..._.., 

DO the Lea; near it Haileybury College, where, till 18SS, young men 
were trained for the servii:e oC the East India Company. Ware, at the 
head-aprings of the Sew-River, which suppliea the north of London with 
water. St Albaoa, an ancient town, was tlie scene of two battles between 
the riTal houaea of York and Lancaster in UbB and 1461; the church eon- 
taina the remains of the celebrated Lord Bacon. 

Mtodlbbes, in the Thames baain. Wholly tertiary, beine the lower 
eocene or London clay, which consiats of atenaoiona brown or bluiah-grey 
clay replete with fossils, especially at UiKbgate HUl, near London ; sur- 
face almoat pErfectiy IbybI, eiceut the Blight eminences of Hampetead, 
Highgate, and Harrow-on-tbe-Hill ; soil various ; agriculture in a back- 
ward state, but improving ; grass-farms, tor the supply of London with 
hay anil milk, gntatly exceed in extent the arable portion ; market- 
gardena extenaive, and a lat^ portion oiicupied by villas, commons, and 
plBasura-grounda ; minerals of no importance, except clav for brick- 
making. London, on the Thamea, the capital of England, and the me- 
■tropoba of ^e British empire, is probably the largest, and certainly the 
^— Ithiast andmoat commercial city in the world. Population (in 1871), 
■2,000 ; occupying a surface of 122 a^. m. This immenae population 

nearly equal to that of the entire kingdom of Scotland, and exceeds 

B ^gr^ate population of the 15 next largeat towna in England. The 

[wpiilation doublea itself In about 40 years. There are 900 churches and 
cbapala, 250 public and ISOO private Hchools, 150 hospitals, 166 alms- 
lunuea, 2S0 other inatitntiona of a aunilar chuacter, £50 public offices, Ji 
ptiMni, S2 theatres, S4 markets, 100,000 eatablishments of trade and in- 
dustry, besides an immense number of public.bonaea, hotela, eating- 
house*, and beer-ahopa. The foreiini eiporta in ISfiO amnuTitiid tn 

£30,837,000, and f- = '- — "="«"n/inn 


_.,._., isburdan. There are sii bridges across theTliaL__ _., 

London, Southwark, Waterloo, Westininaler, Blackfriara, and Vauihall 
bridges ; three railway bri^a, and two tunnels under the bed of the river 
— one two miles below London Bridge, and the other (ope oed in 1870) at the 
Tower, The most conapieuoua pHhlio buildinga are St Paul's Cathedral 
(a noble structure of Grecian architecture, 610 feet long, 2S0 broad, with a 
dome 370 feet high) ; the Mansion House ; the Bonk ; Koyal Exchange ; 
General Poat-OfGce; India, Custom, and South-Sea Houaes; Mint; Christ'a 
and Bartholomew's Hoapltala ; Westminster Abbey ; Bouses of Parlia- 
ment; British Museum; Dnivereity College and Hoapitol; Somerset 
Hcnue; St James's and Buckingham Palaces. Among its principal 
scientific aaaouiationa are the ttoy^ Society, Royal Antiquarian, Linnean, 
BmloDltural, Medical and CbirnrBical, Qeological, Gec^raphical, Aatro- 
nomieal, Asiatic, Zoological, Ethnoloeical, and Statiatical Societies. 
There are IS daily newapapers, and 130 others, with 500 other perio- 
dicab. Breweries and distilleries are on an immenae scale ; but Sbuth- 
wuk and Lambeth are the great workshops, with large iron-works, 
tauieriei, breweries, glass-works, patent shot and steam-engine manufac- 
toiiN. Silk-weaving is confinea to Spitatfialds ; watcb-making chiefly 
to Oleriieiiwell; shipbuilding to Wapping, Kotherhithe, Depltord, ond 
Blaekwalli cutlery of the finest quality is produced in many parts. In 



Dniidical times Londinioxn was first the capital of the Coutil, and after- 
wards of the Trinobantes. It was called Ang^ta in Roman times, and 
was the central point from which all the Roman roads in Britain diverged. 
After the departure of the Romans, it was the capital of the East Saxons 
till A.D. 871, when it became the capital of England under Alfred the 
Great. It obtained its first royal charter from William the Conqueror in 
the eleventh century ; in 1665 the great plague cut off 100,000 of the in* 
habitants, and one year afterwards it was nearly all destroyed by fire. 
The other towns in Middlesex are of little importance. FaUumi is the 
site of the palace of the Bishop of London. Brentfiord, the nominal 
capital of the county Middlesex. Chelsea, 4^ miles from St Paul's, noted 
for its hospital for superannuated soldiers. 

The Twelve Welsh Counties. 

Flint, a maritime county in the N.E., bounded by the Dee and Clwyd. 
Chiefly carboniferous, with a patch of new red in the N.W. Surface 
level in the N., and elsewhere diversified by a range of hills running from 
S. to N. Soil fertile in the low grounds, and but only partially under 
tillage. Its lead-mines are the most valuable in the empire, and those 
of copper and coal of great importance. Manufactures, cotton and some 
flannel. Mold, on the Allan, a small town, with coal and iead mines. 
Holywell, with rich copper and lead mines ; the well, which gives the 
town its name, is the most copious spring in Britain, giving out twenty- 
one tons of water per minute. Flint exports coal and lead, and imports 

Denbiqh, a maritime county, between the Clwyd and the Conway. 
Silurian for the most part, but carboniferous and new red on the east 
border ; surface rugged and mountainous ; soil fertile in the valleys, but 
in the hilly districts consisting of peat covered by heath, and affording 
pasture to great numbers of sheep, goats, and black cattle. Principiu 
minerals — coal, lead, iron, flint, and slates; manufactures — stockings, flan- 
nels, coarse woollen cloth, gloves, and shoes. Denbigh, on tiie Clwyd, 
with manufactories of tanning, shoemaking, and woollen plaids. Wrex- 
ham ; paper-mills, flannel manufactories, coal and lead mines. Llangol- 
len, with a noble aqueduct across the Dee for the EUesmere Canal ; it nas 
fifteen arches, and is 126 feet high ; a castle of great antiquity. Aber- 
gele, a resort for sea-bathing. 

Caernarvon, a maritime county, between the Conway and the Irish 
Sea. Silurian ; surface the most mountainous in South Britain, being 
traversed by the Snowdon range, 3590 feet high ; but many tracts of low 
and fertile land, affording excellent pasturage. The chief branch of rural 
industry is dairy produce and the rearing of cattle and sheep. Its slate- 
quarries are the most valuable in Britain ; other minerals are copper and 
lead. Caernarvon, on the Menai Strait, exports slate and copper ore ; 
has an ancient castle erected by Edward I. to secure his conquest of 
Wales. Bangor, also on the Menai Strait, with two stupendous viaducts, 
each of which is a triumph of engineering skill. One of these is a huge 
suspension-bridge, 660 feet long, with the roadway 100 feet above high- 
water mark, erected by Telford ; the other, the Britannia Tubular Bridge, 
Stevenson's greatest achievement, forming apart of the Chester and 
Holyhead Railway, consisting of two lines of iron tubes, each 1513 feet 
long, supported on three towers, and 100 feet above the sea-leveL 
Llanrwst contains the tomb of Llewellyn, the last prince of Wales belong- 
ing to the Celtic race. 


Anqleska, an inBularconnty in the K.W. CI liefly Silurian, but Da- 
i catboDiferous in the teiitre, aurface comparatively Hat; eli- 
'e to tha Browth , • ■' ' ...... 

ea inaignincant ; nr 
sUvor ores, coal, marble, and granite. Many! 
DiBili, a Saa iowa on the Uenai Strait, much frequented as a. bathing;- 
pUce. Amlwch exports copjier obtained from the Parysand Mona mines. 
Holyhead, connected with iungatoD and Dabhn hy a eubmarine telegraph 
70 miles long. 

MebioNETH, b Diaritirae county between Caernarvon and the Dovey. 
Wholly Silnrian ; surface mountalnons, well wooded, with fine valea and 
oisDy small lakes ; soil poor, and only fitted for pastn re-lands ; Welsh 
pdniea, oalled "Merlins," are reared; minerals, slatoa and lime, with 
aome lead and copper ; maniifacturea, ooarse llEmiiels ; considemble ehip- 
ping. Dolgelly, on the Gwynion, near its junction with the Maw ; it 
came into possession of the famous Owea Glendoncr, during hia rebellion 
in 1400. Bala, on the lake of same name, the largest in North Wales, 

copper, lead, and 

MoHiaoMEai, an inland county in the haaiu of the Severn. Wliolly 
Silurian; aarfaoe monntainoM and well wooded, a amall portion under 
tillage, the rest occupied with sheep-walks ; the sheep are celebrated for 
their mntton and wool. Here also the famous " Merlins," a iinre breed 
of Welsh ponies, are reared. The principal mineral is state, and the chief 
article of manufacture is flannel. Montgomery, on tbe Severn, the scene 
of the last atmggiB between tha Welsh and the English in 1291. Wellb- 
p«ol, considered the capital of North Wales, has tanneries and wool- 
mills. Vewtown, with manufactures of Qannela. Llanidloes, where 
Uewellyn was defeated by Edward L 

C&BDiBAN, a maritime coauty between the Dovey and Teify. Strata 
Silurian ; aniface level on the coast, where the ground is highly fertile ; 
monntaiaous in the interior ; scarcely ouB-third under cultivation ; prin- 
cipal industry, rearing cattle ; minerals— slates, silver, copper, and. lead ; 
manafactures, gloves and flannels. Cardigan, on the Teify, exports 
elatea, Dalj, and butter. Aberystvrith, a gay bathing-place; large export 
trade to Liverpool. 

Pbmbboee, a;peninsular county in the S. W. Silurian In the N. , Devon- 
ian and carboniferous in the S. ; mountainous in the Silurian tract, but 
tame elsewhere ; coast bold and deeply indented ; climate mild and very 
rainy; soil everywhera fertile, but chiefly used as pasture; minerals— 
antnTBCite, coal, lead, lime, slate, and marl; manufactures unimportant, 
bnt (ishenea valuable. PembrDU, on Milford Haven, with a Govern- 
luent dockyard, and a castle stormed by Oliver Cromwell. Haverfaid> 
WMt (Haifurdwcst), ou the Cleddy, ha-i a great local trade. leiiby, on 
the BOBth coast, a favourite watering-place; commodious and well- 
■beltered. hart)our. 

Cabruastbeh, the largest county in Wales, lying chiefly In tha basin 
of theToway. SilnrianiuN., Devonian and carbonil'orous in the S.; sur- 
face hilly, with numerous fertile valleys, and well wooded ; the uplands 
aSbrd pasture to herds of small cattle ; minerals — iron, lead, coal, and 
lime; manufactures, tinned iron-plates and other articles. Caerniu- 
then, on the Towey, one of the most flourishing towns in Wales ; has a 
Presbyterian college, docks, and large export trade in lead, elates, bark, 
com, and butter. Llkndello has rich coal and irnu mines, stanneries, and 
mannfactnrea of flannel. Llanel!y,with several docks and copper- works, 
and a lai^e export trade in coal. 


Glamorgan, the most important county in the principality, situated 
on the British Channel, between the rivers Burry and Rumney. Nearly 
all carboniferous ; surface mountainous in the N., level elsewhere ; sou 
highly fertile ; minerals— inexhaustible quantities of coal and iron, both 
of which are wrought on an immense scale. The coal-field is the largest, 
and the iron-mines the most important, in the empire. Cardiff, at the 
confluence of the Taflf and Severn, is rapidly becoming one of the first 
ports in the empire ; splendid docks, with 45 acres water-area, give great 
facilities for shipments. Swansea is fast rising in importance: the 
copper ore of Anglesea, Cornwall, and Ireland is smelted and refined 
here. ITeath, with iron and copper foundries and coal-mines. Herthvr- 
Tydvil, the largest town in Wales ; though recently a small village, it nas 
now a population of 50,000. This prosperity is owing to its position near 
the centre of the great coal-field of South Wales ; numerous smelting^ 
furnaces, iron-foundries, and coal and iron mines. 

Brecknock, an inland county in the basin of the Severn. Silurian in 
N. andW., all the rest Devonian; surface mountainous — the Beaooi^ 
which is the loftiest mountain in South Wales, rises to a height of 2862 
feet ; soil various, and only about a half cultivated, producing oats, 
barley, wheat; the remainder in pasture, yielding wool, butter, and 
cheese; minerals— copper, lead, iron, coal, and limestone, most of which 
are extensively wrought; manufactures, worsted hosiery and coarse 
woollen cloth. Brecon, on the Usk, has extensive markets and a con- 
siderable general trade : it is of high antiquity, and was the birthplace 
of Mrs Henry Siddons in 1755. 

Radnor, an inland county in the basin of the Severn. Wholly SUur- 
ian; surface mountainous, except in the S.E. ; staple products, sneep of 
a small hardy breed, and cattle. Much of the surface is covered with 
bog and moorland, the ancient forests of Radnor having long since dis- 
appeared. New Radnor, once a fortified town, is now a mere village. 

Capes.— Flamborough Head and Spurn Head, E. of Yorkshire ; Gib- 
raltar Point, E. of Lincoln ; Lowestoft Ness, in Suflfolk, the most eastern 
point in Great Britain ; the Naze in Essex ; N. Foreland, S. Foreland, 
and Dungeness, in Kent ; Beachy Head and Selsea Bill in Sussex; Dun- 
nore Head and the Needles in Isle of Wight ; St Alban's Head and 
Portland Point in Dorset; Start Point in Devon; Lizard Point in 
Cornwall, the southernmost point of Great Britain ; Land's End, the 
most westerly point of England ; Hartland Point in N. of Devon ; 
Worms Head in W. of Glamorgan ; St Goven*s Head and St David's 
Head in Pembroke ; Brach-y-Pwll, the most western point of North 
Wales ; Holyhead in Anglesea ; St Bees Head in Cumberland. 

Islands. — Holy I. or Lindisfame, Feme Is., and Coquet L, on the 
E. of Northumberland; Sheppey and Thanet in estuary of the 
Thames ; Isle of Wight, S. of Hants ; the Channel or Norman Ides 
—viz., Jersey, Guernsey, Aldemey, and Sark — on the N.W. coast of 
France, capital, St ffelier, the seat of the local Parliament, and the 
most southern town in the British Isles, pop. 30,000 ; Scilly Isles, 
140 in number, off Land's End ; Lundy Island, at the entrance of 
Bristol Channel ; Stockham, Skomer, and Ramsey, W. of Pembroke ; 
Bardsey, off Brach-y-Pwll Head ; Anglesea and Holyhead, a county 
in N.W, of Wales; Isle of Man, a large and populous island in the 
Irish Sea, containing Douglas, Castleton, Ramsay, and Peel, 



Bays Had StraJta-^Hnmber Mouth, bet, York and Lincoln ; tlia 
Wash, bet. Lincobi and Norfolk ; Tarmonth Bonds, E. of Norfolk ; 
eatusiy of the Tbames, bet Essex and Kent; the Downs, bet. Keut 
Hid the Goodwin Sanda; Strait of Dover, het. Dover and Calais, 
SI milea broad ; Portsmouth Harbour, Spithead, Southampton 
Water, and the Solent, S. of Hants ; Pool Bay and Weymouth Bay, 
B.of Doraet; TorBay, Start Bay, and Plymouth Soand, S. ofDsvon; 
St Aurtell Bay, Falmouth Harhour, and Mount's Bay, S, of CornwHll ; 
Bt Ires Bay, W. oE ConiwsU ; Bidofuiyl Bay, N, of Devon ; Bristol 
Channel, bet. Somerset and Wales; Swansea, Bay and Caerniiirthea 
Bar, S. of Waliia ; Milford Haven, St Brida'a Bay, Cardigan Bay, 
and Caernarvon Bay, W. of Wales; Wenai Strait bet Caernarvon 
and Anglesea; StQeorgo's Channel, bet Wales and Ireland, Wmilaa 
broad ; estuaries of the Dee and Mersey, on either side of Cheshire ; 
Lancaster Bay and Moreeambo Bay, in the N.W, of Lancashire ; 
Solwaj Firth, bet. Cumberland and Scotland. 

Mountain Syatem. — England is far from being a monntainons 
country. Strictly apeaking, there is only one mountain-range of 
moderate elevation in the ii^ole country. TMa range, commencing 
with the monntoina on the Scottish border, pursues a southerly course 
throogh Derbyshire ta Glouceatershire, and then deflects westward 
till it temiinHtfis at Land's End in Cornwall, The position of this 
lengthenedand nearly con tinnooa chain ia a fine example of the well- 
known law that mountain-ran gee follow the direction of the gi'eatest 
length of land in whiT;h they are situated. This range is ahont 500 
miles long, has few interruptions, and forms the main water-parting 
of England. Here nearly all the large rivers have tlicir origin ; and 
bj this range, and the lateral branches which proceed frain it on both 
Bides, the direction of the rivers and the extent of the river^busins are 
Uatermined. Aa it lies much nearer to the weatern than to the east- 
ern side, the great majority of the rivets have an easterly direction. 
However, as there is a considerable gap atout the middle of the range, 
and as two important rivets (the Trent and the Upijer Avon) intersect 
it in opposite di^e(^tions in that depression, it is more convenient to 
consider the two portions as separate and independent ranges. Then 
tile mouBtains of Wales will rank as a third range ; and the lateral 
T&ngea that branch oS in an easterly direction, the fourth and last. 

1. The Forthem EtmEe, extending from the extreme N. of England 
to the Peak ot Derhy in the centre of the kingdom, embracoa three differ- 
ent chains — viz., the Cheviot Uills, the Pennine Chain, and the Cnmbriao 

Mountains, The CAsoiof i/i'ti eitend about 35 m" ' 

"nabet. thel ..._ 

id the Tyno 
t, Cheviot Peak, 2888 feet. The J'tan-ins 

a Cheviots, extending from their western 

.0 the Peak of Derby, 270 milea | and forming the great watcr- 

>t the North of England : it sends to the North Sea the Tyiie, 

_, -eea, Yorkshire Ouse, and the left affluents of the Trent (Dove, 

rwent. Idle, and Tarn); and to the Irish Sea, the Edeo, Lune, Kibble, 

id Mwsey. Piincipal summiU, Cross Fell (2901), Bow Fell (2911), In- 


gleborough (2361). The Cumbrian Mountains, in Comberland, thou^li 
an ofbhoot from the principal chain, contain the loftiest mountainB in 
England proper. They are separated from the Pennine Chun by the 
Eden flowing northward, and by the Lune flowing southward— Bending 
to the Irish Sea the Ehen, £sk, and Dudden^ the Leven, Ken, and Lime, 
and containing the celebrated lakes which are the favourite resort of the 
English tourist. Principal eminences— Scawfell, 3229, the highest moun- 
tain in England ; Helvellyn, 3056 ; Skiddaw, 3022. 

2. The Devonian Bangs extends from the S.E. of Worcestershire, 
through Gloucester, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall, and terminates at 
the Land's End in the extreme S.W. of the kingdom. It forms the prin- 
cipal water-parting of the south of England, separating the great basin 
of the Severn, with its continuation the Bristol Channel, from the rivers 
that flow to the E. and S. — viz., the right-hand affluents of the Trent, 
those flowing into the Wash, the Thames with its tributaries, and those 
which find their way to the English Channel, Its differentparts receive 
particular names. Thus : The Bredon Hills, in the S.E. of Worcester, 900 
leet ; the Cotswold HillSf in Gloucester, 1134 feet ; the Mendip Bills, in 
the N.E. of Somerset, 1000 feet; the Quantock Hills, in the N. of Somerset, 
1428 feet ; Exmoor and Dartmoor, in Devon, where the range attains its 
maximum elevation in Caws and Beacon, 1792 feet ; the Cornish Moun- 
tains, in Cornwall, where Brown Willy rises to a height of 1364 feet. 

3. The Cambrian Bange, of very irregular form, occupies the greater 
part of the principality of Wales. Properly speaking, it forms an off- 
shoot from the Pennine range, and the contiDuity of the water-parting 
bet. the two chains can be easily traced. It consists of two parallel 
ranges, one along the north coast of Wales, the other along the south, 
with a connecting-bar between their centres, running N. and S. — the 
whole forming a figure like an inverted capital I. The northern range 
contains the highest mountain in South Britain — viz., Snowdon in Caer- 
narvon, 3590 feet, the culminating-point of England and Wales. The 
central chain, at right angles to it, contains Cader Idris, 2950, Plynlim- 
mon, 2463, in Merioneth ; and the sovihern chain has Brecknock Beacon, in 
Brecknockshire, 2862 feet, and the Malvern Hills, in Herefordshire, 1396 
feet high. These last closely approach the Cotswold Hills in the Devo- 
nian range, on the opposite side of the Severn, a river which rises in Plyn- 
limmon, and derives its head- waters and right-hand tributaries from the 
Cambrian range, which is therefore the connecting-link between the Pen- 
nine and Devonian ranges. In general this range forms the water-parting 
between the Severn and Bristol Channel on the one side, and the Irish Sea on 
the other. The Dee, Clwyd, and Conway flow to the N., the Dovey, Yst- 
with, and Teify to the W. , all into the Irish Sea; the Towey, Taw v, and Taff, 
into the Bristol Channel ; the Rumney. Usk, and Wye, into the Severn. 

4. The Lateral or Secondary Brancnes are of no great elevation ; but 
as they play an important part in the direction of the rivers, and deter- 
mine the dimensions of the river-basins, they require special attention. 
Nearly all of them proceed in an easterly direction from the Devonian 
range. The first branches off from the Cotswold Hills in a north-eastern 
direction, separating Warwick and Leicester from Oxford, Northampton, 
and Rutland: it terminates in the N.W. of Lincoln, and divides the 
basin of the Humber and Trent from that of the Wash. The second 
diverges from the Devonian range at Salisbury Plain, in Wiltshire, and 
pursues a north-eastern course till it arrives at the N. coast of Norfolk : 
it bears different names in different parts, as the ChiUem Hills in Oxford 
and Bucks, the Gogmagog Hills in Cambridgeshire, and forms the water- 



parting between tlie basins of ilie Wash ajid tlie Thames. Tlie thii-d 
coDsiata of a double range of cbalk-MIls, called the JVer^and South 
Dmmu, Batting out from Bababury Plain, and terminating, the one at 
Polliestone, and the other at Beachy Head. They enclose the distrint 
called "The Weald," and divide lie Thames basin from the Ei^lish 

RlTer-BsilnB. — There is a necessary connection between the monn- 
tsin-chains. as above enumerated, and the more or less extended 
valleys or river-basins lying between them. As the principal moun- 
tain-rango runs Stom N. to S., and is situated much cearer to the W. 
than to the E. coast, it follows that all the larger rivers have an east- 
erly ilireotiot). The Severn, even, which is the only exception to thia 
rule, pursues an easterlj direction For a ^ent part of its course ; and 
wera it not for the obstacle interposed by the Cotawold Hills, which 
deflect it westward, it would find its way to the Thames, and empty 
itself into the German Ocean. 

Of the 100 river-basins of England and Wales, only 20 have any con- 
siderable magnitude. Thew occupy three-fanrtha of the entire surface, 
and contain 41 out of the 63 capitals. Only four of these basins are very 
Bitensivo— viz., the Humber, the Wash, tba Thames, and the Severn, 
Thdr Dombined area is reckoned at 30,000 eq. m., or more than half the 
entire surface, and they contain S8 capitals of counties. The first three 
dope towards the North Sea, and the fourth towards the Atlantic, 

or these four liasins, that of the Hnmher and Trent is the largest, being 
one-sixth of tiie entire Idnedom (area, 9550 sq. m.) It fomis a qnadn. 
lateral figure, the longest side of which extends from the W. of Warwick. 
shira, a little 3. of the lawn of Birmingham, to the N. frontiers of York- 
shire ; on the W. side, opposite Bay, it approaches within 
S2 miles of the coast. It consists of three parts— viz., the basin of tiie 
Humber proper, H78 8q. m.; of the Trent, 4082 sq. m.; and of the York- 
ehire, 429n sq. m. It is bounded on the N. by the basin of the Tees, 
on the W. by those of the Bibble and Mersey, on the 8.W. by that of the 
Bevem.and on the S.E, by the basin of the Wash. The Buin of the 
Vaeh is of an irregDlnr form, consists of the subordinate basins of the 
Great Dose, Nen, Welland, and Witham, and is bounded on the N. and 
N.W. by the Humber basin, on the W. by the Thames and Severn basins, 
on the 8. and S. E. by the Thames and Yare basins : area, SBSO sq. m. 
The Thames Baaia is bouuded on the N. by those of the Wash and Black- 
water; on the W. by the Severn basin, from which it is separated by the 
Cotswold Bills : and on the B, by the slope which Inclines towards the 
English Channel: area 6180 sq. m. The Severn Basin commences at 
Plynlimmon, about 13 miles from the W . coast ; is bounded on the N. 
by the basins of the Dee and Mersey | on the E. by those of the Humber 
and Thames : on the W. by the small ttreama that enter Cardigan Bay ; 
and on the 8.W. by those that flow into the Bristol Channel. As this 
Channel, however, Is in reality only the estuary of this river, the real 
tDuthem bonndary is the Devonian range: area, 8530 sq. m. 

Table of Rivera and Tawii*.— The followinf; table, the result of 
niDch labour and research, presents in one connected view all the 

, rivers and towns of England and Wales possessing the least degree 

L dI impori^ance. 

No fewer than 100 main rivers and 200 tributiry streams are ennmeratod 



in the left-hand column ; while in the other will be found 800 towns^ amount- 
ine to or exceeding 1000 inhabitants, including 350 large towns of 5000 
inhabitants and upwards. The rivers are given in the order in which their 
mouths would occur to one sailing round the coast from the Solway Firth 
to the Tweed ; and the towns and tributary rivers in the order in which 
he would observe them in his passage up the river. Main rivers, or those 
entering the sea, are placed to the extreme left, as the Sark, Eden, and 
"Wampool ; tributaries, or rivers of the second rank, one place further to 
the right, as the Caldew, Irthing, and Eamont ; sub-affluents, or affluents 
of tributaries, two places to the right, as the Chor, Medlock, and Irk. 
The letter I denotes that the affluent after which it stands enters the 
main river on the left; those without any affix enter on the right side. 
Capitals of counties are distinguished by small capitals ; towns of 5000 
inhabitants and upwards, by Roman letters ; and those between 1000 and 
5000 by Italics, B. denotes bay ; Co., coast ; Hr., harlxmr; and Sd., sound. 

Basins inclined to t?ie Irish Sea. 

Rivers. Tovms. 

Sark, Gretna Green, on the 


Esk, Longtown, Langholm. 

Liddel, L... New Ca^tleton, 

Eden, Carlisle, Appleby, 

Caldew, I . . Carlisle. 

Irthing, Brampton. 

Eamont, I . . PenritiL 

Wampool, Wigton. 

Poebeck, Whitehaven. 

Ellen, Maryport. 

Derwent Workington, Cocker- 
mouth, Kesioick. 

Ehen, Egremxynt. 

Horecambe Ulverstone, DaUon, n.. 

Bay, Cartmell, n. 

Leven and L.Hawkshead, n. 

Ken or Kent, Kendal. 

Lune, Lancaster, Kirkby- 

Lonsdale, Sedbergh. 
Dent, 2 ....Dent. 

Wyre, Fleetwood. 

Ribble, Kirkham, Preston, Clith- 

eroe. Settle. 
Douglas, i..Wigan, Leigh. 

Chor Chorley. 

Darwen, I ..Blackburn, n., Over-Dar- 
wen, n., Acerington, n. 
W. Calder, I Burnley, Colne, Padi- 
bam, n. 

Alt, Ormskirk, Prescot. 

Mersey and Liverpool, Birkenhead, 
Tame, Much Wolton, n. , Run- 

corn, Warrington, NeiD- 
ton-in-MakerHeldf n., 
Stockport, Hyde, Ash- 
ton-under-Lyne, Staley 
Weaver, i ..Frodsham, Crewe, n., 
Dane, ....Middlewich, Congleton. 

Rivers. Towns. 

Sankey, . . . .Warrington, Newton, n., 

St Helens. 
Bollin, I,... Altringham, BoUington, 
n., Macclesfield. 

Irwell Manchester, Salford, 

Bury, Haslingden, Hey- 
wood, XL , Droylsden, n. 
MedIock,{ Oldham. 
Irk, I .... Middloton. 
Crole, .... Bolton, Tamwarth, n., 

Hindley, n. 
Roche, I . . Rochdale, Todmorden, n., 
Bacup, n. 
Gk)yt, I . . . .SiockpoTt. 
Etherow, ..GIossop, n. 

Dee, Holywell, Flint, Hawar- 

den, n., Neston, Ches- 
ter, Wrexham, n., Mai- 
pas, XL, Llangollen, 
Corwen, Bala. 
Allen, 2 ....Mold. 

Clwyd, Rhyl, Rhyddlan, St 

Asaph, Denbigh, 
N. Co. Den- Abergele. 

Conway, .... Conway, Llanrwst. 
Menai Straits, Beaumaris, Bangor, 

Co. of Anglesea Amlwch, Holyhead. 
Co. o( C&emax-Nevin, Pwllheli, Llan- 
von, dudno. 

Maw, Barmouth, Dolobllt, n. 

Gwynion, I Dolgelly. 

Dovey, Machynlleth 

Ystwith, .... Aberystwith. 

Teify, Cardigan, Lampeter, 

Co. Pembroke, N e wport, Fishguard, 

MilfordHaven,Milford, Pembroke. Hav- 
erfordwest, Narberth, 


Eatini incifntd Co 1A« BriXol Cli 




.GLoncEbTEB, NeveDL 

. CAEKiuBTBBH.Llandsilo, 

CUslt I 



p.Teitltesbiirv, Fcnhnrt, 

Sidwll]/, LlaneUy. 

EvHhain, SfmO'ord 


W.EWitK. Hogby. 




.Alealer, Reddltch. 

««iii. ..;. 





.CARDinr, CAepXow. n., 
BtHtiey. a., Ladnaji, 



, WoacesTEB, n., Teabvru, 


8»lw»rp. i 
aionr, 1.. 

.Btoat^ Kid^in- 

Biidgenorth. Braaeli;/, 
Uacfi.Wenlock. n.. Hk- 

alat, Stourbridge, Ho/t- 
tavan. DndW. n. 



Wel»h,KH.l, MontoOM- 


ERY, LtanldlOEB. 

WBff, I .. 

A«, .... 

.iiciridiW, WellB. 

Dawlfy, ' 

T.H .,- 

. CiRnTrr.Merthyt-TSdvU. 

Tb™, .... 

■ Wellicglon, n., Jtfortel- 


Cik. .... 

.Newport, JfterjoDeniiy, 


.ft-eB^ ITAi-MAitrc*. n.. 






Af on 

Terry, (.. 






on, 1 


Jfofiii, CattUcart'f, 

hun. MslniesLury. 



e,Bri>lo1, ChippJiB-Sod- 

Parrot, .... 

. Brldgewater, £oiisi)ort, 
5. Pethtrten, Crca- 


ttme, Beatai-ntler. 

Ware. I 

'JtMbiny. "■ "" 





Tons,! .. 

.Tjdbtos, Hiletrlm, n.. 

TTje. ...: 

. ChcpHoa, Cid^ord. Mds- 

.Langpai. leovU, Shet- 

""r^ flo»t' ^«W," 



me. I.... 


I^ffi. I 

.Leoniinster, Freeteign, 

a el. 


ra^sSl"""'"' "^ 


. Bamalaple, CItumleigh. 



Tortldgo, .. 

.BidefoRi. TtrringHin. 



£B*efey, irot(orM.n<fer- 


.Fai>tov>. BoMiH. 

£(^. ' 

W. Co. Com 

- Cainbome, n., Bt Agnea, 





Aosi'iu iitrtincd to t 

< £nS(«fc C»o«™[. 


((OTW, n. 

FlyuDuth Sd 

.Pl^^noQtb, Devnnport, St 



.StGermaai, CaUi-nglon. 

fUdrnth. D. 




'-Saliaih, Launesttan. 






Bdsins inclined to the English Channel (continued). 


Tor Bay, , 
Teign, . . . 


Crede, , 
Otter, .. 




Bride or Brit,. . 


Foole Harbour 
and Frome, 


Allen, I . . 
Cayle, I . 


Dartmouth, Totness, Ash- 

Brixhamt Torquay. 

Teignmoutb, 'Newton- 
Abbot, Chudleigh, 

Exmouth, Topshdmy Exe- 
ter, Tiverton, Dwwr- 


St Mary, Ottery, Honi- 


Colyton, Accminster. 


Bridport, Beaminster. 


Poole, Corfe Castle^ n., 
Waretaam, Dorchestee 

Christchurch, Ringwood, 
Fordingbridge, Salis- 
bury, Ainesbury, De- 

Christchurch, Wimhomey 
Blandford, Sturmin- 
8ter, Shaftesbury. 


Stalbridge, Wineanton. 



Wily, Salisbury, Wilton, 

The Solent, ...Lymington. 
Southampton SouUuumpton. 

Aire, 2 Titehfteld. 

Hamble, { . ..Bishop's Waltham. 
Itchin, I.... Southampton, Winghes- 
TER, Airesford. 

Test, Romsey, Andover, n., 

Portsmouth H.Portsmouth, Fareham. 
ChichesterHr. Havant, Chichester. 

& B. Jjavant, 
Sussex Co., ...Bojjrnor, Worthing, 
Brighton, Eastbourne, 

Arun, Little Uainpton, Arwi- 

W. Bother,. .Pdtworf A, Midhurst, 

Adur, NewShoreham, Horsham 

Ouse, Newhaven, Lewes, Cuek- 

field, n. 

Bother, Rye, BaUle, n. 

Crane, { Tenlerd»n, n. , ChwnXiTOOk, 

S. Co. Kent, . . Hy the, Folkestone. 

E. Co. Kent,.. Dover, DeaL 

Basins inclined to the North Sea. 

Stour, Bamsgate, Sandynch, 

Canterbury, Ashford. 

N. Co. Kent,.. Margate, Heme Bay, 
Whitstahle, Faversham, 
Milton, YL 

Thames, Sheemess, Gravesend, 

Woolwich, Greenwich, 
Blackwall, Deptford, 
London, Fulham, 
Brentford, Bichmond 
Twickenham, Kingston, 
Hampton, Chertsey, 
Maidenhead, High 
Wycombe, Great Mar- 
low, Henley. Beading, 
n., Wallingford, Abing- 
don, Oxford, Bavnpton 
n., Ot. Farringdon, Cir- 
encester, n. 
Medway,.... Sheemess, Chatham, 
Strooa, Bochester, 
Maidstone. Tunbridge, 
Tunbridge Wells, n.. 
East Grinstead, n. 

Darent, Dartford, Seven Oaks, 

Pym, or Romford. 

Bourne, I. 
Boding, / ...Barking, Epping, n. 

Lea, I Blackwall, Tottenham , 

n., Enfield, n., Wal- 
tham Abbey, Ware, 
Hertford, Luton. 
Stort, I ...Bishop's Stortford. 
B a y e n s - Deptford, Bromley. 

Wandle, .... Wandsworth, Croydon. 

Brent, Bren^ord. 

Hogsmill, . . .Eangston, Epsom. 

Mole, Leatherhead, Dorking, 


Wey, Guildford, Oodalming, 

Famham, Alton. 
Bourne, .... Chertsey, Chobham. 

Colne, { Staines, Usebridge, Wat-' 

ford, St Albans. 
Misboume,. .ATnersham. 

Chess, Chesham. 

Yorlan, ,..HtAlhanB,nemel-Hemp' 
stead, n., Berkham^ 
stead, n. 

Wick, I Great Marlow, High Wy- 


Loddon, Henley, n., Hwst, Baa* 

ingstoke, Kingselere. n. 
Kennet, .... Beading, Newbury,£fuii- 
gerford, Marlborough, 
Lam- Newbury, Lambowm 
bourne, I 


Baiiiu inclliud to thi ifortfi Sea (co 

nllDued). ' 

K n.-Mr.. 


■ Ttaunc... 

, rftame, Ayleatnry, IVinn, 

(JroioloBd. Petsr- 


n., /tiiflftws, li. 

InroiiEb, Oundli. Wel- 

V oi^ 


UaKburunEh, Nqrtu- 
iMMOji, Damnlry. 



..OiroKD, Bantury. 









ITppinsiam, n. Jfar- 


^f Bt^^tii,' 

.MoldDi), ffriSoin. Cog- 

Glen. .... 


:««j;i,™.„, »^». 

^H Clialinsr,. 

.Chblmbforii, JJuTintow, 

aieaford . 




Bain, . 

^H CHU3,.. 

..ChelDiiCunl, BrentKoad, 




.,Trai5yl«l, Si>il»0!/. 

..ColehMtor. HBlalsid. 

WitHsrn,. . . 


^H CnlDS, 

^H Mmt .. 

.Hajwirfi, Sudbnry, Long 
KiCfi^. HavtfhiU. 

iSnt, "" 

KIngitoD, Sarton, 

V "^' 

^ Bnt.t.... 


ap«.or(A, Gain.bu- 

Orwell. .. 
Delmi ... 

.IpswioH, Btow-JUrket 
.Oi:/iii4 FramliTigluim. 




.SOttlAwcW, HoiHttwtft, 


BBltDlk Co,. 



.yumonth, NoBWioH. 


Bam. i... 

.AyLlIU. ' 

.North W.I»li«ni. 


.LouSl^''^''"'' ^"^°"'- 

.BtcOts. Bu»ga«. Barle,- 
urn, EyB,i..,lii«. 


.KlBgaton or Hull, Sever- 

Ooolo, Eaviden, Selby, 

k,Oon«r, lf«(ta. 



[■.Lynn-Regis. DoOTlAilm- 



JforiBi, Ely, St /cm, 

bTidge liipon, JfMA. 
am. floMs. 

chaUr. n.. S( Jf««, 

BmreBD, Oi»tv, Si«>- 

Don, .. 

.Tkfrnc. Donea.ter, 



BAH. Bract ley. 

N.r or 



n„ ChBBtertleld. 


.Boadm,B.,Saaiih, Pon- 

Ut. OnsB, 

.Brandon. TA^V""!. 

ford. n., Binglty. 

-.JfiWdtftnlf. Burj 8t Ed- 


CiHacfBrd,' Wa^aflsld, 

Quo,.. . 

Batten, n.. DBwabniy. 

■Rn»i, SbIAvu-WoI- 




""m*"""^""' '^'"'' 





.TaSxwttr, WttkiAy. 

Tow,, ... 


QniaUy, n.. r«da», 


.March. JjBBiws, Wl.- 


boicb, ffAfCIIdeo, 

ros», i. . 

.Tout, SuinuiMld, n. 



Basins inclined to tJie 
Jtivers. Towtis, 

Nidd, Enaresborough, Harro- 
Swale, I ,.Bedale, n., Richmond, 
Cod- Thirek. 

heck, I 
"Wwke, INorthallerton. 
Old Don, L.Crowle, TickhiU. 

Idle, I E. Ret/ord, Mansfield. 

Ryton, ;.. Worksop. 

Devon Newark, Bingham. 

Erwash, I . .Ilkeston, Aljreton, Kirk- 

Soar, Loughboro', Leicester, 

Wreak, . . .Melton-Mowbray, Oak- 
Derwent, Z.. Derby, Belper, if a^toct. 

Wye, BakeweU^ Tideswell, 

Dove, I Tutbury, Uttoxeter, Ash- 
bourne, Hartington. 
Chuinet,.. Cheadle, Leek. 
^choo, I.. Ashbourne f Wirksworth. 

Mease, Ashby-de-la-Zou^h. 

Tame, Lichfield, n., Tamworth, 

Wednesbury, n.. West 
Bromwich, n., Walsall. 
Anker, ...Atherstone, Nuneaton. 
Blithe, .. .Coleshillf Solihull. 

North Sea (continued). 

Rivers. Toicns. 

Rea, Birmingham. 

Sow, Stafford, EcclesluJl. 

Penk, Penkridge, Cannock, 

Yorkshire Co., Bridlington,Scarborough. 

Esk, Whitby. 

Tees, Middlesboroogh, Ouis- 

boroughy n., Stockton, 
Barnard Castle. 

Leaven, Stokesley. 

Skeme, I ...Darlington. 
Durham Co.,.. Hartlepool. 

Wear, Sunderland, Houghton' 

le-Spring, n., Durham, 
Bishop- Auckland, Wol- 

Tyne, Tynemouth, S. Shields, 

N. Shields, Newcastlk, 
Gateshead, Hexham, 
Haltwhistle, Aldstone, 
North Tyne, IBellinqham. 

Allen, Allendale. 

Blyth, Blyth. 

Wansbeck Morpeth. 

Coquet, Rothbury. 

Aln, Alnwick. 

Co. of North- Record, n. 

Tweed, Berwick. 

Till, Wooler. 

Lakes. — The English lakes are few in number, very small in di- 
mensions, and mostly confined to the Cumbrian group of mountains. 
Windermere, the largest of them, is 10^ miles long, and is drained 
by the Leven. TJlleswater, in the same county, is the second 
largest ; whilst Bala, the largest in Wales, is 4 mUes long, and is 
drained by the Dee. They are, however, celebrated for their beaul^, 
for being the resort of tourists, and for containing a species of fresh- 
water fish called the char, peculiar to the north-west comer of Eng- 
land, and considered a high luxury of diet. The other principal 
lakes are BassenthwaitCi DerwerUwateT, Thirlemerc, Crummockwater, 
Loweswater, Ennerdale WateVy and Wastwater, in Cumberland ; 
Haweswater, Orassmere, and Rydal, in Westmoreland ; and ConiS' 
tone Water, in Lancashire. 

Internal ConununicatioiL — England stands unrivalled among the 
nations for the number and extent of its railwaj^s, canals, navigable 
rivers, and turnpike roads. In January 1871 there were 58 main 
lines of railway in operation, with a vast number of branches, afford- 
ing 10,773 miles open for traffic, and the total cost of construction 
amounts to about £365,000,000. The whole kingdom, indeed, with 
the exception of central Wales and a small portion of the S.W. of 
England, is one huge network of railways. The Surrey iron railway, 
between Wandsworth on the Thames and Croydon in Surrey, was 
the first railway in England intended for public use, and was opened 
in 1805 ; but the Stockton and Darlin^on railway, opened in 1825, 
was the first to employ locomotive engines, and to excite the general 

rved, blnnt, and 



interest of tlio puMiu. Euglnnd is further iutcrsected in every direc- 
tion by eanalB, nftviijaljlo rivers, and rivera rendered navigable by 
artiGcial means, llie last mentioned are called navigations. The 
oldest canai is the Sankey Brook Vfcaal in laneashire, finjahed in 
17S8 i and the total length of all the canals u estiniated at about 
2100 miles, besides 2000 miles of rivers rendered navigable by 
artificial meana. fineland is also traversed by 2a, 000 miles of Turn- 
pike Beads, and by about 100,000 mOea of cross-roads, by means nf 
which, and by the numerous canals and railways, commodities of all 
kinds are so easily and expeditiously conveyed to all parts of tha 
kingdom, that they everywhere fetch about the same prices. 

National CharactBr. — The most striking characteristics of an 
Englishman are hia love of liberty, justiee, and independence, his 
hiah sense of honour and fair-dealing. To think, apeak, and wiite 
as ne pleasea on all subjects — so long as he keeiis within the bounds 
of tmtli and charity — ^he claims as his inalienable right ; and to 
maintain this liber^ he evinces indomitable courage, persi 
and self-deniaL To a stranger he appears cold, I 
haughty ; but his candour, probity, and verawity secure uiiii me lo- 
speot of all. His humanity and philanthrapy are of a highly ]>racti' 
cal character, as is evinced by the estraoiiiinary nnmber of chari- 
table, benevolent, and religious institutions with which his couutry 
abonnds. He is unrivalled for good taste in domestic architecture, 
and his home is always a model of cleanliness, neatness, and com. 
fort ; while his frugality, economy, and providence ate evinced by 
his vigorous support of savings-banks, friendly societies, and insur- 
ance oSiceB, 

UtenLtOTfl, — There is perhaps no nation, ancient or modnm, that 
excels England in the number of distinguished literary names. Tha 
foUowing IB a list of some of her most eminent and gifted sons in 
the Tanous departments of science and literature : Poetrt — 
Chancer, Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, Herbert, S. Butler, Waller, 
Prior, Dryden, Pope, Young, Oowper, Crabbe, Bvron, Kogers, Cole- 
ridge, Southey, Wordsworth, Tennyson. Histohv— Clarendon, 
Gibbon, Coxe, Roacoe, Napier, Lingard, Thirlwall, Hallani, Grote, 
Mac ftuJay, Freeman, Fronde, Philip Smith. Science and Fnii.osoPHY 
—Bacon, Boyle, Newton, Ray, Locke, Hobbes, Cudworth, Tncker, 
Malthas, Bentham, Davy, C. Hatton, Faraday, George and Robert 
Stevenson, Whewel!, Sedgwick, Professor Owen. Tueulooy— 
Bede, WycliSe, Hooker, Jerei^ Taylor, Chillingwortb, Bishop 
Boll, Barrow, Walton, Patrick, Bishop Lovth, Owen, Howe, Bax< 
ter, Bnnyan, Foole, Doddridge, Henry, Lardner, Butler, Samuel 
Clarke, Paley, Scott, K. Hall, Foster, Whately, I. Taylor, Deau 
Alford. MEDtciNB — Hnrvey, Jenner, Heberden, Gooch, Hall, 
■Willan, Bateuian, Cooper. Tbavfls— Drake, Frobisher, Dam- 
jder, j^loD, Byron, Cook, Becham, E. and J. Laniier, Parry,' Frank- 
lin, Speke, and Burton. Fine Aets — Wren, Hogarth, Bevuolds, 
Oian'bey, Hayman, Gainsborough, Wilson, Opie, Komney, Wright. 
Notthoote, Morland, Lawrence, Hay don, Turner, Landseer, Purcell. 
MwCEi.i.ANBorH — Addison, Johnson, Bentley, Sydney Smith. Dp 
Foe, Ficldiiif^ Warren, Thackeray, Dickeos, Geo. and Sir U.. ^'wVluotx. 



Position and Boundaries. — Scotland forms the north part 
of Great Britain ; the mainland extends from lat. 54** 2& to 
SS*' 40' north, and from Ion. 1" 46^ to 6" 14' west ; thus occupy- 
ing 4'* 1' of lat. and 4° 28' of Ion. It is boimded on the N. by 
the Pentland Firth, on the E. by the North Sea, on the S. by 
England, and on- the W. by the Atlantic. 

Form, Coast-Line, and Extreme Points. — Of an oblong but ex- 
tremely irregular form, with numerous deep indentations, especially 
on the west. The extreme points are, the Mull of Galloway in the 
S., Dun net Head in the N., Bnchanuess in the E., and the Point of 
Ardnamurchan in the W. Including the islands, the most northerly 
point is Unst, in lat. 60° 49' ; and the most westerly, St Elilda, in 
Ion. 8° 84' west. The coast-line is so extremely irregular as to sug- 
gest the idea that the country is about to separate into fragments : 
length, including the main iolets of the ocean, 2500 miles, or 1 mile 
of seabord for every 11 square miles of surface. This ratio is un- 
paralleled in any other European country except Greece. 

Area and Population. — Including the islands, the area is 80,685 
sq. m., or 19,639,377 acres, being considerably more than one- third 
of the area of Great Britain with the circumjacent 186 isles. Extreme 
length of mainland 276 miles, with a breadth varying &om 80 to 
175 miles; but from the Mull of Galloway to the extreme north of 
Shetland about 450 miles, and from Peterhead to St Eilda about 250 
miles. In 1871 the population was 3,360,018, being nearly 107 per- 
sons for every sq. m. ; while England has 389 persons to the sq. 
mile, and Ireland 166. In 1801 the population was only 1,608,420; 
it has therefore fully doubled itself in the last seventy years. The 
population is about equally divided between town and country, there 
being 225 cities and towns with an average population of 6654. 
The counties containing the largest population are, Lanark, with 
765,339; Mid-Lothian, 328,000; Aberdeen, 245, 000; while Kinross 
has only 7198, and Nairn 10,225. The most densely peopled coun- 
ties are, Edinburgh, which has 894 persons to every sq. m., Lanark 
861, and Renfrew 854; whereas Sutherland has only 13 persons 
to the square mile, Inverness 21, and Argyll 23. 

Political DiylsionB. — Scotland is poUtically divided into 33 conn- 
ties, 13 of which are southern, 10 central, and 10 northern. The 
central counties are separated from the southern by the Firths of 
ForUi and Clyde and the Grand Canal connecting tiiem ; and from 
the northern by the Grampian chain. 

Thikteen Southern Counties. 

Edlnbnrgli or Mld-LotUaiL — Edinburgh 198 n., Leith 44, Porto- 
bello 5, Musselburgh 8 (F. of Forth), Dalkeith 6 (Esk). 

Bdvem 1000 and 2500 inkaJbUanU, — Penicuik, Newhaven, Loanhead. 


„ T £. Lothian. — Hadbisotos 4 ^Tyne), Dunbar 3 

(F. of Forth). 

Sortli BBTviDli, Tranent, PreEtacpmia. 

Benrl^. — GBSsyiAW 1 (BUckaildeT), Dnnse 3 (WMteadder). 

Coldstream, Eydmoalh, EuMod, laudet 

BaHmri^— JzDBintea 3 (Jed), Hawick 11 (Teviot), Kelw) S 

UelroBS, New CBBtletctn, Wiltnn. 

Smnfiiai. — DrHTiUBS 15 (Nitb), Annan 3 (Annan). 

Thorntaill, Lockerbj, Lochmahen, LaDgtiolm, MoSal 

lDAnaeSirlgb.i. — Kibscudbbicht 2 (Dee), Maiwelltown4(NM). 

CbsUe Douglas, Creetuwn, Gatehuoae, Dalbeattie. 

mgUnm. — WigtownE (Wigtown Bay), Hewton Stewart 3 (Cree), 
Stranraer 6 (L. Bjnn). 

Whithorn, Glenluce, Port Patrick. 

AjT.— Ats is (Att), SaltooatB S, Ardrosaan i, Largs 3 (F. of 
Clyde), trvine 7, KilmarDock 34, QcJatOD 5, Now Mills 3 (Inine), 
Xll wiimiiig 4, Dairy 5. KilbimieS (G-amock), Stcwartoa 3 (Annock), 
GirraD 6, Hajbole 4 (airvaa), Beith 4 (Black Cart). 

Muirkiri, West KUbridE, Waterside, Manchiine, Tnxra, DalmBllinetan. 
CalrinB, Cumnock, Andunlecfc, Crossliill, Darvel, Eglijiton, Hurfiori, 
Kihuaora, Feeaweep, Tarbolton, Btereustcm, 

aBnftBW.— aKKFKEW 4, PortfllaBBOw II, Greenoci 58 (P. of 
Civde), PaiHley 48, PoUockuliawB 9 (White Cart), JolinBton 8, Kil- 
barchan 3 (Blank Cart), Barrhead 6 (Levern). 

Gnuroct, Busbf, Linwmd, LDChwinnoch, NeilEton, EagleEhani, Tbom- 
IJebank, Bridge of Weii, NitiOulL 

TjMvfc — Lakahe 5, Glasgow 548, Butherglen 9, Hamilton 1 1 . 
Caduke 3 s., Motherwell 7 n. (Clyde), Airdrie 17, Coatbridge, 10 
(N. Calder), Wiahaw 9 (S. Oalder), Strathaveo 4 (Avon). 

CaldeT.Cflidcrbank.BellBhill, BaillieBtoD, BhHttlcEton,ToUorom,BpriIlg- 
■ -J; Kirkfidd Bank, ChnpeihsU. New Lanark, Roaehail, UddinptoD, 

Caifin, Holrtoim, Newarthill, C 

UnlttfaCDW OF v. LoOilaa. — LiNUTsaow 4, Bathgate 5 (A-ron), 
Bo'neM 4 (F. of Forth). 

South QueausTerr^, Whitborn, Craftbead, Ammdale, Broxlium. 

PMblM.— PlEBLEB 3 (TwBod), Innerleithen 2 (Leithen). 

■dldik.— Bbleibx 5 (Ettrick), GslaBhiele 10 (Gahi Water). 


Fife.— CdpakS, 6t Aiidren^ C (Bden), Kirkcaldy 12, Bnrtiahuid 
3 (F. of Forth), Dunfermline 15 (Lynel, Leven 3 (Leven). 

Talkhmd, Anuhttirmnchty, Lochgelly, Marklnch, Oakley Prinlaws, Bt 
■ananoe, Anstruther, Pittflnweem, Buckhaven. Wemyss, Kinghotn, In- 
vRfcMhiDg, Dyson, Ferry-Fort-oD-Craig, Newbnr^ Covdanbeath, 
"— — '-1, Leslie. 


Snross. — Kinross 2, Milnathort 2 (Leven). 

Clackmannaxi.— Clackmannan 1 (Black Devon), Alloa 9, Tillie- 
coultry 4, Dollar 2 (Devon). 

Stirling.— Stirling 14 (Forth), Grangemouth 3, Falkirk 12, Den- 
ny 4 (Oarron), Kilsyth 5, Alva 4 (Devon), Bridge of Allan 3 (Allan). 

Bannockbum, Stenhousemuir, Carron, Donipace, Lauriston, Milngayiei 
Camelon, Balfron. 

Dumbarton. — Dumbarton 11, Helensburgh 6 (Obrde), Kenton 3, 
Alexandria 5, Bonhill 3 (Leven), Kirkintilloch 6 (Kelvin). 
Cumbernauld, Duntocher, Jamestown. 
Bute. — KoTHESAY 8 (E. coast of Bute). 
Lamlash and Brodick (in Arran), Millport (in Cumbrae). 

Argyll — Invebary 1 (L. Fyne), Oampbelton 7 (Kilbrannan Sd.), 
Dunoon 4 (Clyde). 
Tarbert, Lochgilphead, Tobermory, Oban, Bowmore,. Port Ellen. 

Perth.— Perth 26 (Tay), Crieff 4 (Earn), Auchterarder 3 (Ruth- 
ven), Blairgowrie 5 (Ericht), Kincardine 2 (F. of Forth). 

New Scone, Dunkeld, Stanley, Coupar-Angus, Aberfeldy, Errol, Aber- 
nethy, Muthill, Comrie, Dunning, Methven, Alyth, Blair AthoU^ Dun- 
blane, Doune, Callander, Blackford, Battray. 

ForfiEur. — ^Forfar 11 (Dean), Kirriemuir 3 (Gairie), Broughty 
Ferry 6, Dundee 119 (F. of Tay), Arbroath 20 (coast), Montrose 16, 
Brechin 8 (S. Esk). 

Carnoustie, Ferryden, Letham, Frlockheim, Southmuir. 

Kincardine.— Stonehaven 3 (coast). 

Luthermuir^ Laurencekirk, Bervie, Johnshaven, Banchory. 

Ten Northern Counties. 

Aberdeen. — Aberdeen 88 (Dee), Woodside 4, Inverury 3 (Don), 
Huntly 4 (Deveron), Peterhead 9, Fraserburgh 3 (coast). 

Kintore, Old Meldrum, Ellon, Strichen, Turifif, Pitsligo^ Bosehearty, 

Banff. —Banff 4, Macduff 3 (Deveron), CuUen 2, Buckie 4 (coast), 
Keith 4 (Isla). 

Portsoy, Aberchirder, DuflPtown. 

Moray or Elgin. — Elgin 7 (Lossie), Forres 4, (Findhorn). 

Lossiemouth, Fochabers, Eothes, Burghead, Hopeman. 

Nairn.— Nairn 4 (Nairn). 

Inyemess. — Inverness 14 (Ness). 

Fort George, Fort William, Beauly, Grantown, Kingussie, Portree (I. 
of Skye). 

Ross.— Dingwall 2 (Cromarty F.), Tain 2 (Dornoch F.) 
Fortrose, Invergorden, Alness, Evanton, Plockton, Maryburgh, Avoch, 
Stomoway (in Lewis). 

BC0TL4ND. 147 

— Obomartt 1 (Cromarty F.), Ullapool 1 (Loohbroom). 
— DoKNOca 1 (Domocli Flrtli). 

Golspie, Helmsriale. 

CalUmMi.— Wick 8 (K coaat}, Thurso 4 (PeDtUnd E.) 

Lybster, Castletown. 

Orkney and Shatlond.— Kikkwall 3, StramaesB 2 (Orkney), Ler- 
vrick 4 (Shetland). 

DeHOilptiTe IToteB. — At the last cenaos there were only three 
biwas in Scotland with more than IW.OOO inhabitanta (Glasgow, 
Edinburgh, and Dundee) ; two bot 100,000 and 50,000 (Aberdeen 
and Greenock) ; four bet. 30,000 and 20,000 (Paisley, Leith, Perth, 
and Kilmarnock), thirteen bet. 20,000 and 10,000 (Ayr, Arbroath, 
Montrose, Airdrie, Dumfries, Stirling, Hamilton, Dunfermline, In- 
Teruesa, KirkcaJdy, Dumbarton, Forfar, and Galashiels); and twenty- 
seven bet. 10,000 and SDOO— being in all furty-nine towns of upwards 
of 5000 inhabitants. 

The Thihtkex Southern Counties. 

Bdikburgh Ilea iu the bsainof the Forth, sud on the Boutli side of the 
firth or eatoary of Ihat name.— Nearly all Coal-measorBH, but trap in the 
Pentlond EUIb, and l^ner Silniian in the S.E. ; Surface hilly, having 
the Moorfoot Hilla in the 8.K, tlie Peutland Hilla in tlie centre, and the 
Corstorphine Hilla, including Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, in the N, ; 
toil verf fertile, and highly eultivated in the level parts ; extensive 
iiuraeries and vegetable gardena near the capitaL Mmerala highly valu- 
sble. eipeeiaUy coal and iroustone, vihieh are evteusively wroueht, sjid 
aandstone (at Craigleith) of a very superior quality ; one vast bed of eoal, 
between Carlops and Mnssetborgh, is 15 miles long by 8 broad, and con- 
tains 33 seams. Manufactures less important, but extensive paper-mills 
on the Esk and Water of Leith, as also several breweries, distilleries, and 
potteries. Edinburgh, near the Firtb of Forth, the capital of Scotland 
since the reign of James II., la one of the most chastely bnitt cities in 
Europe. It is often uaUed the Modern Athens, from the taste and ele^o 

United Kingdom, with the ei 

ing is carried on eitensively, auu lubi« hib bbvhihi yuanfliijr ranB»B m 
the first elais, 10 nenspat^rs, and many other iieriodical norks. But 
Edinburgh is chiefly celebrated for its Univcisity (founded in 1582, erected 
in 1769). with 34 pitifessnrs, from ISOO to 2000 students, and a library con- 
tuning 122,000 printed books and SOO MS3. This University holds a high 
rank as a medical school, while in mental and raorHl science it stands un- 
rivalled in Britain. Among its most illustrious professora may be named 
Dugald Stewart, Thomas Brown.and Sir 'Williani Hamilton. Besides the 
University of Edinburgh there is another distinguished theological semi- 
nary c^ed the New College, where the miuistei-a of the Free Church of 
Scotlsnd receive their theological training. Among the most remarkable 

pBhliC bnildinga may be mentioned the Castl" ■---■-■ — •- — 

^rpckj sod once a place of great Btrenoth,— it <. „ .. ._ 

■kbd, ■ garrison, and banw:ka for 2000 men; the Palace of Holj'rood, 
■tended by David 1. in 112S, which forma the rei^idence of the savereign 
^^nu> tlaitiog the Scottish capital, imd which, along with Beverley In , 


Torksliire^ Las the privilege of sanctuary ; St Giles's Cathedral, where the 
Solemn Lei^e ana Covenant was subscribed in 1643 ; Victoria Hall, 
where the General Assembly of the Established Church of Scotlanu 
holds its annual meetmgs ; Parliament House, where the Scottish Par* 
liament met before the Union ; the Advocates' Library, the lamat and 
most valuable collection of books in Scotland, containing 200,000 printefl 
volumes and 1700 MSS., and entitled to a copy of every book issued in 
the United Kingdom ; the Si^et Library, containing 50,000 volumes; the 
Boyal Institution ; the National Gallery ; Museum of Science and Art; 
the High School ; and Sir Walter Scott's Monument. Leith, two miles 
N.E. of Edinburgh, of which it is the seaport, has a commodious harbour, 
and considerable colonial and foreign trade. In 1869, 4134 vessels, of 
980,410 tons burden, entered and cleared the i>ort ; the exports amounted 
to £1,600,000, and the customs-dues to £600,000. 

Haddinqton lies E. of Mid-LothiuK and in the basins of the Forth 
and Tyne. — Carboniferous in the W., Devonian in centre and £., 
Silurian in the S., and trap in the N. Surface hilly in the S., where 
are the Lammermoor Hills, level in the centre and N. ; soil mostly a 
clayey loam, and highly fertile. Coal is worked in the carboniferous 
district, and limestone abounds in many places. The chief manufactures 
are salt and pottery wares at Prestonpans and Tranent; several extensive 
distilleries ; and fisheries at Dunbar. Haddlng^n, a small town on the 
Tyne, has the largest market in Scotland for a^cultural produce ; the 
b.-p. of John Knox and Alexander II. North Berwick: near it i» Tan- 
tallan Castle, an ancient stronghold of the Douglases; and tiie Bsoa 
Kockj at one time the State prison for the kingdom, where many of tibe 
Scottish reformers were incarcerated. Prestonpans : here Charles Stewart, 
the Pretender, defeated the royal forces under Cope, in 1745. 

Berwick lies S.E. of Haddington, in the basin of the Tweed. — Sil- 
urian in the N., Devonian in W., and carboniferous limestone in S.E. 
Surface hilly and barren in the N., where are the Lammermoors ; 
but the districts of Lauderdale in the W., and Merse in the S., are 
highly fertile and well cultivated; agriculture in a highly advanced 
state ; wheat and turnips are the principal crops. Minerals and manu- 
factures unimportant ; but many mteresting remains of antiquity, such 
as castles, towers, abbeys, and priories. Greenlaw is the smallest county 
town in Scotland, with the exception of Dornoch. Bnnse, the birth- 
place of Dims Scotus. Thomas Boston, and M'Crie the historian. 

Roxburgh, S. of Berwick, is nearly all in the basin of the Tweed. — 
Carboniferous in S., Devonian in centre and N., Silurian in W., with an 
extensive tract of trap-rock in the E. Surface hilly in the vicinity of 
the Cheviots, but elsewhere a level and fertile plain; agriculture im- 
proving, but the county is chiefly pastoral ; minerals— coal, lime, marl, 
and freestone ; the manufactures are chiefly Scotch tweeds and other 
woollens. Jedburgh, near the Cheviot Hills, is famous in Border war- 
fare, in which it repeatedly suffered by fire. Hawick, on the Teviot. is 
a thriving manufacturing town. Kelso, on the Tweed, at its junction 
with the Teviot, a beautiful little town, with the remains of an abbey 
built by David I. Melrose Abbey, on the Tweed, one of the most mag- 
nificent ruins of the kind in Scotland. Another famous abbey in this county 
and on the same river is Jedburgh Abbey, founded in the ninth century; 
also Abbottford, the beautiful residence of the late Sir Walter Scott 

Dumfries, S.W. of Boxbursh, in the basins of the Nith, Annan, and 
Esk. — Chiefly Lower Silurian, but New Red in the S., and carboniferous 
limestone in the S.E. The county is divided into three districts — Niths- 


dala, Annauitile, and Eskdale. Surface genorallv liillv, especially in th» 
N. and N.E., where is the Lovrther ruDge ; bdiI rertUe In tha lowlands, 
and affording' good poaturage on tha high grounds; niinerala — limaaloiie, 
coal, and lead. Dnm&iet, with its Euhurlj HazweUtOwn, is a thriving 
town, and the proviDcial capital of tha south of Scotlaud. Here are ia- 
terrad the remaina of Robert Bums, the Scottisli poet, and of Joha 
Comyn, who was stabbed by Robert Bmce in 13133. Annan, on a rivar 
of same name, with a good natural harbour i shipbuilding, cotton (gc- 
tories, and rope-works ; considerabie eiport trade. HoStit. a neat villagB 
mitch freqnented by invalids, who resort hen to the ohalylieate and aul- 
phurona springs. 

KlBXCODEiUOHT, OT EoBt Gallowaj, W. of Dnmfriea, Fhieftv in the basins 
of the Dae and Nith. Nearly all Lower Silurian ; surfaea billy ; cHmato 
mild and moiat ; soil productive in the sonth, bnt the main part only 
affordinK pasture for sheep, 'which are reared in great numbers. Eirk- 
cndbrigbt, on the Dee, near its month in the Solway, has the best bar- 
liaur in the south of Scotland, bnt little trade. 

WiOTOWN, or West Galloway, W. of Kirkcudbright, a peninankr coanty 
in the extreme S.W. of Scotland. Is all Lower Silurian: surface tmdu- 
luting, with many small lakes ; soil fertile, well tilled, or in BiceUent pai- 
turs : climate moist and mUd ; breeds of cattle very superior ; abounds 
ia Drnidical antiqaities. Ti^wn, n sniall town, with t.teaui commnni- 
cation to Liverpool. Newton-Stewart; hand-loom weaving, and trade 
in wool with Lanoaahira. StraJU-aor; hand-loom weaving, tanneries, 
nail-factoriea, steam conimuniration with Glasgow, Belfast, and White- 
tiaven, and submarine telegraph to Cnrrickfergns. Fort-Patriok, Sljk m. 
from Ireland, a small town, with a line of submarine telegraph to Don< 

AVB, N, of Wigtown, Ilea in tha lower basin of the Clyde. Carbonifer- 
ous in tha N. and W., Devonian in thecentre, and Lower Silurian with trap 
iu the S. Surface monntaioons, but fertile tracts of land alongthe eoaat ; 
agricnltora in an improved state, and the soil extensively drained ; iron 
and coal mines numerous; manufactures of woollen and cotton Btufiii, and 
embroidered work. Ayrshire consists of three districts — Carrich in tho 
S., Sgte in the centra, and Cunmngham in the N. Ayr, a flna seaport 
town, with large exports of coal, an extensive gsneral trade, and several 
factories, is the scene of the early achievements of Sir William Wallace. 
Saltcoats (so called from its manufactures of salt) ; shipbnilding docks, 
weaving and embroidery. Lor^, memorable for tho victory obtained by 
Alexander III. over Haco, king of Norway, in 1263. Irvine, with Isjge 
export trade in coal ; weaving of book-muslin and jaconela. EilmBT- 
noek, hj tar the largest town in the county, has numerous manufactnres. 
Qirvan is chiefly engaged in the cotton manufacture. 

Bbkfbew, N, of Ayr, in the basin of Clyde, consists of ooal-meaanres 
In the E. , and all the rest trap ; surface level, except in the W, ; cool, 
limoBtona, and freestone abound ; the manufactnras are ahawla, and silk 
and cotton atuffa ; two-Eftha arable. Eenftsw is the nominal capital o( 
the county. Fort-Slaagow, a thrivmg town, 'with a good harbour and 
docks, was lonff the port of Glasgow, and continues to be the chief port in 
the Clyde for importing Americon timber. Qieenock, a largo thriving 
town on the Clyde, and the greatest seaport in the west of Scotland ; 
tsmona for ship and steamboat building; and the birthplace of James 
Watt, who invented the steam-engine. Fiisley, an important manufao- 
luringtown; has been long famoaa for shawls, muslins, and cotton thread; 
coal and iron mines in the vicinity, which afford material for its nuiaex- 


ous iron-works. It was the birtlrplace of Professor Wilson, of Alexander 
Wilson the ornithologist, and of Robert Tannahill the poet. 

Lanark, E. of Renfrew, in the basin of the Clyde.— Carboniferons in 
the N. . Devonian in the centre, and Lower Silurian in the S. Surface very 
variable, and only one-third arable; coal, iron, and lead mines very exten- 
sive and valuable. This is the greatest manufacturing county in Scotland. 
Lanark, the nominal capital, has a laige statue of Sir William Wallace. 
Glasgow, the laigest city in Scotland, and the third largest in Britain 
(being exceeded only by London and Liverpool), is the great seat of 
Scottish commerce and manufactures. Cotton is the principal staple, 
but there are numerous iron-furnaces and large coal and iron works. It 
is especially famous for shipbuilding and the construction of machhieTy. 
The University, founded in 1450, has 26 professors, about 1200 stndente, 
about 80 scholarships, a library of 59,000 volumes, and a museum founded 
by Dr W. Hunter, containing a valuable collection of natural curiosities. 
There are many other magnificent public edifices, amongst which are St 
Mungo's Cathedral, the only perfect specimen of the ancient Gothic in 
Scotland, and the new Royal Exchange : pop. (in 1871) 548,000 ; in same 
year, 8830 vessels of 2,161,050 tons burden, entered and cleared theport 
Rntherglen and Hamilton, considerable manufacturing towns on the Cqrde. 
Airdrie and Wishaw have extensive coal and iron mines in their vicinity. 

Linlithgow, or West Lothian, N.E. of Lanark, in the basin of tiie 
Forth. — Almost wholly carboniferous ; surface beautifully varied and un- 
dulating ; soil generally fertile, but swampy in the south, and three- 
fourths arable ; coal extensively wrought ; manufactures imimportanl 
Linlitibgow contains the remains of a royal palace, whei*e Mary Queen of 
Scots was bom in 1542. Bathgate, with a well-endowed academy ; here 
is wrought the celebrated Torbanehill mineral. Bo'ness, with a coal and 
iron mine extending under the bed of the Forth. 

Peebles, E. of Lanark, in the basin of the Tweed. — Almost entirely 
Lower Silurian, but a little coal and Devonian in the N. W. ; surface well 
wooded, but full of hills and bogs ; one-third arable, and two-fifths in pas- 
ture ; large numbers of sheep and cattle reared. Coal is raised in the 
N.W. ; a few wooUen manufactures. Peebles, a small town at the con- 
fluence of the Tweed and the Eddleston, with various woollen manufac- 
tures. Innerleithen, with a mineral spring, the " St Ronan's Well " of 
Sir Walter Scott. 

Selkibk, between Peebles and Roxburgh, in the basin of the Tweed, was 
formerly cailed Ettrick Forest. — Wholly Lower Silurian ; surface mostly 
mountainous, but one-half arable ; chiefly a pastoral county, producing 
excellent breeds of sheep and cattle. Selldrk, on the Ettrick, near which 
is the birthplace of Mungo Park, the African traveller ; long famoua for 
the manufacture of shoes, and hence the corporation was called " the 
Sutors of Selkirk." Galashiels, with highly-flourishing manufactures of 
tweeds, is rapidly increasing in population. 

The Ten Central Counties. 

Fife, a peninsular county between the Firths of Forth and Tav. — 
Chiefly cai-ooniferous, largely interspersed with trap ; surface diversined; 
two-thirds under cultivation. The " How of Fife," traversed by the 
Eden, is very productive. Minerals, coal and lime; manufactures, 
linen ; exports— ^oal, lime, and fish. Cupar, on the Eden, and in the 
centre of the " How of Fife," with spinning-mills and linen manufactures. 
St Andrews, a town of great antiquity, with a celebrated University^ the 


_ in Scotlanil, fonndod in lill ; consists oE two coUegen, naiiicd St 

Mai;'>, which is s diviuitf hall, and &t Solvaior, now united with Si, 
Lennoid'B, with H profeaaora, and 74 bursaiias of illOOO annual value. St 
Andrens was long the ecdesiaatical capital af Scotland, and was the ncene 
of mnnyoC the most rematkable political aud leligious eveiila in Scot- 
tish history. Eiikcsldy has conaLderable trade; and is the b.-p. of Adam 
Smith, ontbor of 'Tlia Wesltli of Nations.' Dnuibrmlliie, a place of 
great historical interest, and notad in modern times for its linen inanufac- 
tares; here was bom Charles I., and here Charies U. subscribed the 
Solemn I«iEH? ^"^ Covenant in 1650. 

EiNEiOBS. W. of Fife, in the basin of the Forth, is the second smallest 

■..county in Scotland.— Coal-measures in the S. and K , aud trap in the N. 

^ud W. ; surface varied aud well cultivated ; minerals and manufactures 

Hpoiiuiportsnt. Einrou, on Loch J.even, a small tovm 'with manui'actnies 

^Mf cotton, taiioQ shawls, and damasks. 

r CuiOKXtsui^, W. of Kinross, in the basin of the Forth, is the smallest 

^■eoluitj' in Scotland.— Principally carboniferous, but trap.rocka in the N. 
Tba nver Devon, whose iinnka are highly fertile^ traverses the county on 
ila iniy to the Forth. Principal minerals— coal, ironslflne, and sandstone. 
Alloa, the principal town, near tlie head of the Firth of Forth, has con- 
nderable export trade and shipbuilding, and is noted for its excellent ale. 
Stibijnb, W. of Clackmannan, in the basins of the Forth and Clyde.— 
Carbcmlferous and trsu in E. aud S., Devonian in the centre, and crystal, 
iinarocki in the W. Surface mountainous, especially in the W., whero 
JleB Lomond attains a height of 3192 feet. The Carae lands, along the 
yorth, are level and fertile, and two-thirds of the whole county arable. 
Mineroli — coal, ironstone, and freestone. Here are the celebrated Carroll 
iKin-worba. Manufactures — carpets, tartans, tweeds, winceys, blankets, 
paper, and chemical products ; many cotton-mills, foundries, dye-works, 
and distiUeriea. Stirling, on the right bank of the Forth, is a place of 
great historical imjiortance in the early annals nf Scotland, contains a 
caatle of great antiqnity, which ia one of the fonr military depots still 
upheld in Scotland by virtue of the Articles of Union. FnlMrk is the 
■eat of three great annual cattle - fairs, called " TiTJsts," at which 
usnally 300,000 cattle and sheep exchange bands. Two memorable 
battles were fought here ; one between Wallace and Edward I. in 12B8, 
and the other between Prince Charles Edward and the royal army in 1746. 
BionookbiiTn, famous for a victory guned by the Scots, under Bruce, 
oveitbe English in 131 4. Kilsyth — cotton-weaving, coal and iron mines ; 
hen HontrosB gained a victory over the Coveiumters. 

DCIIBABTOM, W. of Stirling, in the basm of Clyde.— Geological struo- 
tnre same as last ; surface mostly monntainous ; anil poor, but fertile and 
well tultivated in the lowlands ; iron and coal mines, with quarries of 
limestone and freestone ; cotton-mills, g1ass>works, paper-mills, and print- 
fields. DnmbaTton, on the Leven. near its confluence witli the Clyde, 
with an ancient castle, one of the four upheld by GovemmenL EBlens- 
bnrgli, a watering-place on the Clydo. Kirkintilloch, with manufactures 
of luta, cotton-weaving, and iron-foundries. 

BOTB ANO Akran, two large islands, w-ith severalsmaller, in the Firth 
of Clyde, — Bute is Devonian in S., Silurian in the middle, and mica slate 
In N. ; while Anan is eitremely varied, being almost an opitomB of the 
geohwy of Great Britain. Both islands are mountainous in the X, and 
1indl£ting in the S. Goatfell, in Artan. attains a height of 287t feet. 


renders it the resort of many invalids. Sothesay, at tlie head of a bay 
on the E. side of Bute, is a famous resort of invalids and sea-hatheirB. 
Lamlash, in Arran, with a well-protected harbour. 

Abotll, N. of Bute, and in the extreme west of Scotland, chiefly con- 
sists of peninsulas and islands. — Metamorphic rocks, with laive patdles of 
granite and trap. It is the second largest county in Scotland, and one of 
the most thinly peopled, having only 27 persons to each square mile. 
Surface mountainous, and only a small part cultivated ; catue largely 
reared for exportation. Inverary, on Loch Fyne, principally supported 
by its herring-fishery. Campbelton, on the E. coast of Cantyn, with 
distilleries and malt-houses. Dunoon, a fashionable watering-place on the 

Perth, N.E. of ArgyH, in the basins of the Tay and Forth.— Chiefly 
metamorphic, but Devonian and coal in the S. and E. It is the tlurd 
largest county in Scotland ; surface extremely diversified, and comprising 
both a highland and lowland region ; the Grampian range traverses it in 
a north-easterly direction. The Carse of Gowne is very fertile, but CMoly 
two-thirds of the county is under culture ; agriculture greatly improved ; 
beautiful scenery and large plantations. Minerals — coal, limestone, sand- 
stone, marble, and slate ; and lead found in some places ; manufactures 
unimportant, except at Perth. Perth, a beautiful city on the Tay, was 
the capital of Scotland till 1440 ; had the royal palace of Sixme in the 
vicinity : it is very ancient, and figures prominently in Scottish history. 
Crieff, a beautiful little town near the foot of the Grampians. Anehtor- 
arder: here originated the famous controversy between the civil and 
ecclesiastical comlis, which led to the dismemberment of the Church of 
Scotland in 1843. 

Forfar, or Angus, E. of Perth, in the basins of the Tay, South Esk, and 
North Esk. — Nearly all Devonian, but metamorphic in the N.W. ; sur- 
face varied, and divided into four parallel belts—viz.. Braes of Angus, 
Vale of Strathmore, Sidlaw HiUs, and the plain along the Firth of Tay. 
Soil various, but agriculture in a highly advanced state. Forfarshire is 
the chief seat of the coarse-linen manufacture of Scotland. Forfkr, in 
the fertile valley of Strathmore, is the nominal capital. Dundee, at the 
mouth of the Firth of Tay, is the third largest town in Scotland, and the 
principal seat of the linen, jute, and glove manufacture ; is a higUy- 
flourishing town, with a large export trade ; in 1869, 2543 vessels, of 
472,015 tons burden, entered and cleared the port. Arbroath, also called 
Aberbrothock, from its position on the mouth of the little river Brothock 
—a lai^ge thriving town, with numerous manufactures. Montrose exports 
more com than any other seaport in Scotland ; numerous manufactures ; 
the birthplace of the celebrated Marquess of Montrose and of Joseph 
Hume, ^echin, an ancient Episcopal city, with an old cathedral ; in its 
vicinity is the residence of the Earl of Dalhousie. 

Kincardine, or the Meams, N.E. of Forfar, between the N. Esk and 
the Dee. — Devonian in the S. and gneiss in the N, ; surface highly moun- 
tainous, being chiefly occupied by the Grampians ; but the ** How of tiie 
Meams," in the S. and E., is a low, rich, arable tract. The mountuns 
yield extensive pasture for sheep, and about half of the county is under 
cultivation. Granite and sandstone are the principal minerals ; and the 
chief manufactures are coarse linen and wooden snuff-boxes. Stone- 
haven, a small town between the rivers Cowie and Carron, has a herring- 
fishery, and some manufactures of cotton and linen. Near it is Dimottar 
Castle, formerly the residence of the Earls Marischal, and celebrated in 
Scottish histor}'. 



The Tes Noethekn Couhties. 
Abbbdbek, N. of Kincardine, tmd between tha Dee and Deveron. — 
Oranite and metBinorphic rocka, with two patcbBs of Sevanian in the W. 
and N. ; sniface very iiiountaiiiou< in the S.W,, along the Orampians ; 
the rart level or nndulating; only one-third arable, which ia under the 
most skilful cnltivntion ; more fat cattle reared tb an tn any DUiBrcaiuityiu 
Scotland. The county is espacislly celebrated fur its beautiful granite, 
large quantitiea of which ara shipped to London ; there are also important 
■late ^id sandstone qnarriea, and extenniTe salinon-fisberiea. Mannfac- 
turea recently very flonriahing, especially woollen, cotton, and linen, but 
now greatly declined. Balmoral Castle, the Highland residence of Qneeii 
Victoria, on the river Dee, is in this county. AWdeen, between the 
mouths of the Dee and Don, ia the fonrth moat populous town in Scot- 
handsome city, bnilt of beautiful Kiey-colonred granite ; is 
the aeat of a flourishing nniv 

L place of great trade, a 

— ' — ore and 270 soho . , , - , 

, entered and cleared. Peterhead, a thriving town on the north- 
eaat coast, near Bucbanness, the most easterly point in Scotland; has 
>n important herring-fisbery, and ia the great emporinm of the whale- 

Bauff, N.W. of Aberdeen, in the Moray basin, and between the Deve- 
ron and the Spey. — Mainly metamorpliic rocks ; but granite in the Ji., 
and Old Bed in the W. ; surface mnnntamouB, eicept along the coast, 
where it is level and moderately fertile; only about a third is under culti- 
vation; cattle-breeding is the principal branch of rural industry ; but there 
are important fisheries carried on ui the small towna and villages along 
the coast. The principal minerals are limestone for agricultural purposes, 
ajid ^nular qnarti, exported from the Hill of Dum, near Portsoy, to the 
English potteries. Banff and Maeduff, seaport towns, at the mouth of 
the Deveron, with considerable export trade, CoUen, Bncbie, a 

Ly Firth, withe! 

■ay,neat little towns oc 

Keith, the birthplace oi .lames rcrguson. 

HOOAT, or Elgin, W. of BaniT, in the Moray basm, between the Spev 
and the Kndhorn.~OId Red m the N.. which is highly fossiliferons, and 
gneiss in the remainder ; surface, level along the DrtlL elsewhere mouD- 
tainons ; only about one-Hfth under cnltivation ; soil a deep loam, or 
light and sandy ; very fertile in the N., and biglily cultivated ; fine crops 
of wheat Sandstone is the principal mineral, and is eitenaively ex- 
ported; other exports are grain, cattle, salmon, and timbef from the 
andent forests of Strathspey and Damaway. The principal manufac- 
tnres are woollens; tanneries, diatilleriea, and tilaworka are nnmerona. 
Xlgia, on the Losaie, about live miles &om its seaport (Lossiemouth), has 
the remains of a beautifnl cathedral, erented in 1224— one of the finest 
ruins In Scotland. Forres, a beantiful little town near the Flndbom, 
with enchanting scenery; celebrated in Shakespeare's 'Macbeth." 
■iomontll, a thriving seaport town ; here, in 1B69, a vei7 rich 
yma discovered, with traces of copper. 

NitRM, W. of Moray, in the ff 
Plndhora.— Old Red in the N., ( 
W. Surface, mostly mgged oni 
tivated ; agricultni ' 

le hemng-fisheries. 

:h vein of lead 

iray basin. Is drained by the Maim and 
in the S, , and some granite in the 
ntainons, but nearly one-half cul- 
ate, but no important minerals or 
I mannfactiSea- Haira, an antiquated-looking little town, with eiports of 
I fish, stones, grain, and timber; near it Cawdot Castle, where, acGordiog 
I to tradition, King Duncan was murdered. 


Inverness, S.W. of Nairn, chiefly in the Ness or Moray basin, is the 
largest county in Scotland ; area, 4256 square miles ; population 88,888, 
being 21 persons to the sq. m. — Gneiss and mica slate, with a patcli of 
Old Ked in the N.B., but trap and Old Ked in Skye; surface highly 
mountainous ; Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the Bntish Isles (4406 
feet), is in the S.W. It is well wooded, and a chain of lakes, connected 
by the Caledonian Canal, passes through the centre. Soil light and un- 
productive, with moie than one-half wholly waste ; but there are im- 
mense forests where the red and roe deer roam in safety. The county is 
chiefly pastoral, and the principal exports are black cattle, sheep, and 
wooL Here the Celtic language and character are still found in their 
purest forms. Inverness, at the mouth of the Ness, and near the 
entrance of the Caledonian Canal, a fine, old, romantic town, r^arded as 
the capital of the Highlands, and the most populous town north of Aber- 
deen, with which it is connected by railway. It is the only important 
town in Britain in which the Gaelic language is usually spoken by all 
classes of the inhabitants. Near it, Cnlloden Moor, where the preten- 
sions of the Stewart dynasty were finally extinguished in 1746. Fort 
G^rge, the most complete fortification in the kingdom, has accommoda- 
tion for 2000 men. 

Ross, N. of Inverness, and between the Moray Firth and the Minch. — 
Almost wholly metamorphic, but Old Bed along the two coasts ; surface 
very mountainous, and only one-fifth arable ; fertile on the Moray Firth, 
producing excellent wheat, but the main portion is pastoral; exports 
chiefly sheep and wool. Dingwall, an antique-looking little town at the 
head of the C*romarty Firth; near it, Strathpeffer, with highly medicinal 
chalybeate and sulphurous springs, resembling those of Harrogate, and 
frequented by a large number of invalids. Tain, a neat thriving town 
on the Dornoch Firth, and the most important between Inverness and 

Cromarty consists of fourteen detached portions, scattered over the 
northern half of Ross-shire. This singular arrangement into patches was 
formed at the request of a former Earl of Croinuarty, who desired that 
one county might contain all his lands, wherever situated. Its geologv, 
drainage, soil, &c., same as Ross. The Cromarty Firth is completely 
land-locked, and affords excellent shelter for shipping. Cromarty, at the 
entrance of Cromarty Firth, is irregularly built, and of antique appear- 
ance ; the birthplace of Hugh Miller, who commenced here his iUusmous 
geological career. 

Sutherland, N. of Ross, and between the Moray Firth and the At- 
lantic. — Nearly all transition and Silurian rocks, with a little Old Red in 
N.W. and S.E., and an oolitic patch at Brora ; surface wild and moun- 
tainous ; scenery in many places singularly grand, and containing many 
lakes, which discharge their waters in three directions. The interior 
wholly depopulated, this being the centre of the far-famed Highland 
clearances, vrtiich commenced in 1807, and were repeated at various in- 
tervals. A vast number of the inhabitants have been expatriated, and 
the remainder reside in villages and hamlets along the coast, where they 
support themselves mainly by fishing. The interior is now let out into 
immense sheep-farms, which are chiefly in the hands of English capi- 
talists ; about 220,000 sheep are exported annually. Dornoch, on tne 
Dornoch Firth, opposite Tain, is a mere village, and the smallest county 
town in the British Isles— population, 625. Gol8lt>ie, a beautiftd village on 
the east coast, with Dunrobin Castle, the ancient residence of the Earls 
of Sutherland, in the vicinity. 




liighly fosaiMerana in majif parts, 
leru pntohes of granite ; snrfacB 
TBI, aBsutnw 01 trees, aua unmiereating ; soil Tarions, a lai^ portion 
being hoath-coTOrad moors, and onlyoue-foiirtli nnJBreiiltirBtioii. Many 
good roadfi and piers have been recently conatrueted for t^e acoonunoda- 
tion of the numerous tishing villages and liamlsts on tlie east coast. 
Abmrt 200,000 barrels of aalted herrings are exporWd annually; other 
exports are salmon, oata, and flagstones for paring. This county was, in 
tlie middle ages, bsld by the kings of Norway ; most of its inbabitants 
are of Scandinavian descent, and speak a peculiar dialect of the Lowland 
Scotch, coaBidBiably resembling that of Orkney. Tick, including Pnl- 
WnsTtDWD wliicli is twice ita size, is a flauTiabing town on the east coast, 
with an ImmnnsB pier and breakwater now in couns of erection. Fortlie 
last halt-century it has been the lieadquartera of the Scottish herring- 
tohery. Upwards of 1000 boats are here employed, chiefly manned by 
■■WeWem Highlanders, who in the month of July congregate here in vast 
■~ ' Here are two spirited weekly newspapers, and a rapidly- 

eiport trade, conaiating chielfy of herringa to the Baltic. 

^ beautiful little town on the Pentlanif Firth, and the most 

northerly on the mainland of Scotland Its position is nnfavonrable to 
its proaperity as a fishing-town, being exroeed to the north, and the rapid 
dangerous ciurent of the Pentland Firth, across which the Orkneys are 
Ken in all their bold grandeur. 

Ohkbet and Shetlake form an insular coonty N.E. of the mainland. 
The former conaiata of an archipelago of 67 islands and ialeta, the 
piindpal of which are Pomona, Seutli and Xorth Ronaldsha, Hoy, 
Sanda, Eowea, and Weatra ; shores bold, the interior generally undulat- 
iag; dimatemild; little snowfalls in winter, but the summers chill and 
moist Geological atmcture : wholly Devonian ; soil good, but agricnl- 
tnra vary backwaid ; many of the people employed In fishii^t, or in 
taking wild birda and ezga : great quantities of lobsters are shipped to 
tha London market. The Orcadians are expert seamen, and many of 
them are engaged in the Greenland whale fishery. Shetland, 48 miles 
N.E. of Orkney, consists of an archipelago of about 90 islanda and islets, 
of which only 26 are inhabited. Mainland, the largest island, contains 
one-half the whole area, and more than a half of the population. The 
next largest are Yell and Unst, the latter being the most northern island 
in the British archipelago (lat. fiO° 60" N.)— Devonian in the 3. ; all the 
reat gnHiss, with lai^e patches of trap and granite ; climate rnild, but 
■very dainp and variable ; surface generally monntainoua, covered with 
heath, and deatitnte of trees : a considerable quantity of tolerable land 
haa been made by long culture. The Shetland ponies are remarkable for 
their small size and hardihood, and are largely exported ; other exports 
■re ling, task, and cod. The only native manufacture is knitted hosiery ; 
■nd tbs only mineral of importance is chromata of iron, which is ei* 
ported for a pigment. Tlie people of both archipelagos are of Norss 
erttaotioii. Their language is now English, but indubitable traces of 
their Scandinavian origin are found in their namea, manners, customs, 
ropentitions, language, and antiquities. They became subject to Norway 
in. the ninth century, embraced Christianity in the thirteenth, and were 
I lumexed to the Scottish crown in 1468. Kirkwall, the capiljil of the 
V Orkneys and of the county above named, on a bay on the N.E. side of 
~ a, with an ancient cathedral named St Magnus (built 11371, and 


some manufactures of linen. Lerwick, the priucipal town in Shetland, 
on the S.E. of Mainland, is the most northern town in the British 
Isles; has manufactures of straw-plait, and whale, cod, and herring 

Capes and Promontories. — St AbVs Head, iu Berwickshire; 
Fifeness, E. of Fife ; Buchanness (Aberdeenshire), the most £. point 
of the mainland of Scotland ; Kinnaird Head, at the entrance of 
the Moray Firth ; Tarbetness, the £. extremity of Ross ; Noss Head, 
and Duncansby Head, £. of Caithness ; Dunnet Head, the most 
IT. point of the mainland ; Oldhead and Dennis Head, the S. and N. 
extremities of Orkney ; Sumburgh Head, S. of Shetland ; Her^ 
maness, N. of Shetland, the most northern point in the British 
archipelago ; Cape Wrath, N. of Sutherland ; Butt of Lewis, N. of 
the Hebrides ; Aird Point, N. of Skye ; Point of Ardnamorchan 
(Argyll), the most western point of Great Britain ; Mull of Cantyre, 
S. of Argyll ; Mull of Galloway and Burrow Head, S. of Wigtown. 

Islands. — The islands are very numerous, especially on the north 
and west coasts, and are naturally divided into three groups : — 

On the North Coast.— The Orkneys, N.E. of Caithness: principal, 
Pomona and Hoy. The Shetlanda, N.E. of the Orkneys : principal. 
Mainland, Yell, Fetlar, and Unst. On the West Coast.— The Hebrides or 
Western Islands, 160 in number, of which 70 are inhabited, and divided 
into two clusters, the Outer and Inner Hebrides, which are separated by 
the Little Minch. The Outer Hebrides, called also Long Island, lie W. 
of Sutherland and Ross : the principal are, Lewis, the largest island in 
Scotland ; N. Uist, Benbecula, S. Uist, and Barra. The Inner Hebrides : 
principal, Skye, Mull, lona. Jura, and Islay. Arran, Bute, and the 
Cumbraes, in the Firth of Clyde. On the East Coast. — May, Inchkeith, 
luchcolm, in the F. of Forth ; Inchcape, or the Bell Rock, off the en- 
trance of the F. of Tay ; Stroma, bet. Caithness and Orkney ; Fair Island, 
bet. Orkney and Shetland. 

Bays and Estuaries. — These are also numerous, and generally 
penetrate far into the mainland, in a N.E. and S.W. direction. 
Those on the east side are called firths (from Scandinavian fiord, 
pronounced " fiurth "), those on the W., lochs, corresponding to the 
loughs of Ireland. The principal are : — 

F. of Forth, bet. the Lothians and Fife ; St Andrews Bay, N.E. of 
Fife ; F. of Tay, bet. Fife and Forfar ; Moray F. in the N.E. of Scot- 
land, 75 m. wide, bet. Kinnaird Head and Duncansby Head (its main 
parts are, Beauly^F., bet. Inverness and Ross ; Cromarty F., bet. Ross 
and Cromarty; jDomoch F., bet. Ross and Sutherland); Pentland F., 
bet. Caithness and Orkney; Thurso Bay, N. of Caithness; Kyle of 
Tongue and Loch Eribol, N. of Sutherland; Loch Laxford and Loch 
Enard, W. of Sutherland; Lochs Broom, Greinord, Ewe, Gairloch. 
Torridon, Carron, and Alsh, W. of Ross ; Sleat Sound, bet. Inverness and 
Skye ; Loch Houm, in W. of Inverness ; Sound of Raasay, bet, Skye and 
Raasay ; Lochs Snizort and Bracadale, in W. of Skye ; Sound of Harris, bet. 
Harris and N. Uist ; Loch Sunart and Sound of Mull, bet. Mull and the 
mainland ; Lochs Iannh€ and Eil, forming the W. entrance to the Cale- 
donian Canal ; Loch Etive and Soimd of Jura, W. of Argyll ; Kilbrannan 
Sound, bet. Cantyre and Arran ; Loch Fyne, in S. of Argyll ; Sound of BatOi 



bet. Artan and Bute j Locli Long, btt. Argyll nnil Dmiiliarton: Firth of 
Cljde, eeparating Amui, Biil«, and Dumbarton tram Ayr and ftcnfitw ; 
Loch Eyan, Luce Bay, and Wietowii Buy, in Wigtowmhird ; Solway F., 
bet. the S.W. of Scotland and the N.W. of England ; the Minch, het. Uia 
Mainland and Lewis ; Little Miiicb, bet Skye and Long laland ; Sound of 
Islay, bet. Islay and Jura ; North Cbannal, bet. Scotland and Ireland. 

UDDntRln BrBtem. — Scotland is a liighly-moDntainous country, 
there beia^ few or no localities where motiutaiii-rangea do not limit 
the observer's view in one or more directions, Proceedlaa; from N. 
to S., wa find five principal ranges, all of which arc near^' pamUal 
to each other, and follow the general direction of N.E. and S.W,, 
similar to the principal estneries. 

Tlie Vortlieiil Eig'llluidi, consieting of detached groups that com- 
mence at the southern border if Csitbneaa, and cover a lane portion of 
Sutherland, Boea, and Inverness, separate the waters which now into the 
Moray Firth troia those that find their way to the Atlantic. The prin- 
cipal auminiCs are: Ben Attow, between Bo«a and Inremesa, 4000 feet; 
Ben Wyvis, near Dingwall, 3422 feet ; Ben Dearg, near head of Luch 
Broom. 3551 feet : Ben More, in Asajnt, 3281 feet ; Ben Cllberieh, 8. iif 
Loch Nayer. Sutherland, 3157 feet; Morven, in 9.E. of CiitluieiB, 2831 

The Oramplans, the loftiest monnCaina In the British Isles, croai the 
conntry in its widest part. They separate, for the most part, the Hiih- 
lands from the Lowlands, and the basins of the Spey and Dee from tuat 
of the Tay on the east aide, and the great vaUey of Glenmora and the 
Olyde basin on the west. Length, from StonehBven to Loch Llnnhf, 
■boot 100 mites, the height ranging from 2000 feet to npwards of 4000 
feet. Ben Ketis, at the western eitramity, 4106 feet high, is the cnlmln- 
■ting-point of the British Isles. The main range send* on two great later*! 
bnncbea, odb \a the N. from the middle of the range, which soon bifnr- 
cataa and eneloses a Urge portion of Banffshire ; and the other to the 8. 
r Loch BuiDooh, in Perthshire, to the isthmus of Cowal in 

AkjIL PriDcipal summits: Ben Kevia,* In the S.W. of Inve 
MMftet; Loch-ntesr, tn AbeideeDshire. 3777 feet ; Ben Haedni.ui ins 
8LW.orAbenlecDibln^4295fMjCe{nigorm,in BanftaMre, 40BS; Ben 
Atod, bet. Banff and Aberdeen, 3626 feet : Curntoul, near Ben Avon, 
^a bet ; Beo l^weii, 3M4, and Sebieballion, SM4 feet, in Perthshire ; 
&BLoB«id,iiiBtiilinb31B21eeti ficDCnuehan, in Argyll, .1070 ftst.. 
OAQ Bid Bdlaw BaMga, pacallel with the Gramjrians, and Hpanted 
fiOM than t» tlw vaDey of Stnthinin:&^ eonsiits M three small eha^is. 
vUek exlend acniie the eo nntt y &om yoffanhiie to Stiriinc^iin, and 
iorm tkeK. mter-paitii« of the l^y. Forth, and ayda bariua. 1^ 8id- 

'— "—- -^-' ^- ^- -* — "~ *- '— tasblni, to Perth on tba Tay, 

_ , „ sit, the Ki naseat , bring only 

UeSfatU^ The Oeiili^ brtweso Stirlins and Uw r. of 1W, att^, 
'- °v OtA^ eknliaB of 8300 be^ and the Camfn* Fdit, in 8tit- 

■aSXi liri l i t»>eiii | il » a tt« Ml |y »ah— w. TIims iHi»i laifcii has 



of the following members : the Lammennxxyr HilUj between Haddington 
and Berwick— highest summit, 1763 feet ; the Moorfoot UUU, a W. con- 
tinuation of the Lammermoors, 2130 feet ; the Pentland ffilh, in Mid- 
Lothian, 1806 feet ; and Tinto Hill, in Lanarkshire, 2308 feet. 

The Cheviot and Lowther Baiige extends from Peel Fell in the 
Cheviots proper (for which see "England," p. 135), to Loch Ryan in 
Wigtownsnire, and forms the great water-partmg of the S. of Scotland, 
separating the basins of the Clyde and Tweed on the N. from those of 
the Solway and Tyno on the S. Tlie highest summits of this range are : 
Cheviot Peak, 2668 feet, Carter Fell, 2020 feet, in Northumberland; 
Ettrick Pen, in Selkirk, 2200 feet ; Hart Fell, in Dumfries, 2638 feet ; 
Broad Law, in Peebles, 2741 feet ; Lowther Hill, in Lanark, 2522 feet ; 
Mt. Merrick, 2764, and Black Larg, 2890 feet, both in Kirkcudbright. 

BlYer-Baslns. — ^As the mountain-ranges in Scotland stretch from 
N.E. to S. W., so the intervening river-basins, in their greatest length 
and inclination, follow the same direction. The eight most impor- 
tant basins are those of the Tay (2090 sq. m.), Tweed and Solway 
(1990), Forth (1400), Dee and Don (1230), Spey (1245), Clyde (1145), 
Linnhe basin (1200), Moray basin (about 5000). 

Three of the eight basins lie N. of the Grampian chain — viz., the Moray 
basin, and the basin of the Dee and Don (tne waters of which nearly 
unite), on the E. side, and the Linnhe basin on the W. ; and their united 
areas comprise almost the whole of the district known as the Scottish 
Highlands. Immediately S. of them lie the basins of the Tay and Forth 
on. the E. side, and that of the Clyde on the W. ; these touch each other, 
and are separated from the former three by the Grampian cliain, and 
from the Tweed and the Solway basins by the Lammermoor and Lowther 
ranges : they are fertile and highly cultivated ; contain most of the large 
towns, and many rich mines of coal, ironstone, and other valuable mine- 
rals ; and have been called respectively the garden, the granary, and the 
workshop of Scotland. The first is separated from the second by the 
Ocliil Hills, and the second from the third by the Campsie FeUs. Tlie 
basins of the Tweed and Solway constitute the Southern Highlands, and 
form an excellent pastoral country. They are separated from England 
by the Cheviot range, and from each other by the Lowthers ; while the 
Tweed basin is separated from the Forth by the Lammermoor Hills, and 
the Solway basin from that of the Clyde by the Lowther range. 

^ Table of BlYers and Towns.— For the arrangement adopted in the 
following table, compare what is said under "England," the only 
difference being that here large towns, or those printed in Roman 
letters, denote those having 2500 inhabitants or upwards ; county 
towns are in small capitals, and all others in italics. One hun- 
dred rivers are here enumerated, 33 of which enter the ocean directly, 
the remainder being their tributaries ; and 300 towns, one-third of 
which have a population exceeding 2500. 

Basins inclined to the North Sea, 

Rivers. Tovms. 

Tweed Berwick (England), Cold- 
stream, Kelso, Earl- 
ston, n^, Melrose, In- 
nerleitnent Peebles. 
Whiteadder, I Duuse. 

Rivers, Totons. 

B I a c kad- Oreeitla w. 
Teviot, Kelso, Hawick, WiUon, 

J ed, Jedburgh. 

Leader, I . , Lauder. 

to Ilie Xortb Sea (coi 

...Utrrtli hirwick, Cocttn- 
tit, Tnmmt, n.. Prti- 
tonjunu. Mnsnlbureb. 
Portobeilo, IjglCli, &>- 
iHBtmaH, XnihaMn, 
eHueatfiny, Bo'nesB, 
entUKiiwnU, all 8. ol 
the SMh; CTOil, Av- 
■tnitJtfr, St JTmuhui, 

Viiijlorn, BnralU- 

:, AUi 



ti. HUnathort. 
.. ,.i,oengeuii. 

. . .MaiMlbargh. Dalkallh, 
Loanhead, Pmieuick. 

. . . . Dunrermllne, Croi^fateg, 
CotcdentKoih^ a., Oak- 

...LuiLiTuoov. Batligite, 
Armad^e, Cmfllimd, 

....OonannDiiiA, Carran. 
Stenlunaemuir, Lau- 



Rathven, Anchtenrder. 
Aluidnd, ^, . - if 0£AHfl- 
Inls. 1 Covper-AnifM. 

Erioht, . ..BlsJrgowtle, Jio«ray. 

cbbi, SouUinuir, ... 
I . ..Lathrrmvir, Lanronce- 


d, Srichin, Pit- 

I. Banff, PorOm, Cullen. Bqcl 

Findhora Fomw, n. 

flenuly Fi'rtii Fort Oeorm.jBmft, For. 
andK.NcM, Irote, Bxiuly, IsveR- 

Cromarty F., C 

,ij^ Mtirybvry, 

lather- Gol^ie, Htlmldatt. 

Caitli- Lybitsr, Wick. 



Basins inclined to the Atlantie (continued). 

Rivers. Towns, 

KilbrannanSdCampbelton, Tarhert^ 
and L. Fyne, Lochgilphead^ Inver- 


Clyde, F. and MiUport (C n m b r a e), 
B., RoTHESAT(BateX Ayr, 

Troon, Irvine, Salt- 
coats, Ardrossan, Largs, 
Dunoon, Oourock, 
Greenock, Helens- 
burgh, Port-Glasgow, 
Dumbarton, Dun- 
tocher /Re^xvuew, Glas- 
gow, ShettlesUm, Toll- 
cross, Springhum, Ru- 
therglen, Bellshill, 
BothweUfHolytoum, n. . 
Low Blantyre, Hamil- 
ton, Motherwell, n., 
Carluke, n., Kirkfield- 
bank, Lanark, New 

Doon, { Ayr, n. , DalmelUngton. 

Ayr, I Ayr, Tarbolton,Katrine, 

Muirkirk, Cumnock. 

Liigar, I . . Auchifdeck. 
Ir\-ine, i.. ..Irvine, Ealinton, Hurt- 
ford, Kilmarnock, Kil- 
maurs, Galston, New 
Mills, Darvel. 

Gamock,..Kilwinning, Dairy, Pees- 
weep, Eilbirnie. 

Annock, . . Stewarton. 

Cessnock, Mauchline. 


Rivers. TownM, 

Cart, I Renfrew, Paisley, JTitt- 

hiU, Pollockshaws, 
B 1 a c k£r. <^wevr, Linwood, 
Cart, I, Jonn8tone,Kilbarc]ian, 
Loehwinnoch, Beith. 
Ley em, I.. T?iomHelHtnk, n., Barr- 
head, NeiUion. 
Kelvin, I.... Kirkintilloch, Kilsyth, 

Cumbernauld, n. 
W. Calder, . . Colder, Calderbank, Air- 

drie, Coatbridge. 
E. Calder, ..Wishaw, Caanbtunethanf 
CoUness, n., Shotts. 

Avon, I Hamilton, Stmtiiaven. 

Nethan, I. . . Lesmahago. 
Douglas, I . . Douglas. 

Girvan, Girvan, CrosshUl, Ifay- 

Loch Ryan,. . . Stranraer. 
W. Co. Wig- Port-Patriek, Olenluee. 

Wigtown Bay, Whithorn, Wigtown, 
. Creetown. 

Cree, Newton-Stewart. 

Fleet, Gatehouse. 

Dee (Solway Kirkoudbrioht, Cattle* 
F.), Douglas, 

Ken, I Dairy. 

Urr (do. ), Dalbeattie. 

Nith(SolwayX MaxweIltown,DuiaraiEB, 

ThomhiU, Cumnock. 
Annan (do.), ..Annan, Eeel^echan, 
Loekerby, n., Loehma- 
ben, Moffat. 

Leven, Dumbarton, 

Alexandria, BouhiU. 

Lalces. — With the exception of Switzerland, there is no country in 
Europe more remarkable for its lakes than Scotland. They are in 
general very small in size, as the deep inlets of the ocean prevent any 
great collection of inland waters ; but they are celebrated for their 
beauty and wild grandeur. Loch Lomond, the largest of them, 21 
miles long, 54 broad, and with an area of 40 square miles, is justly 
famed for its splendid scenery. Arranged in the order of the river- 
basins in which they are situated, they are easily remembered. 

Tweed Basin— <S>< Mary*8 IjocK^ in Selkirkshire, drained by the Yarrow. 
Forth —ZocA .4 rrf, in Perthshire, one of the sources of the Forth ; l^tk 
Leven, in Kinross, drained by the Leven * and Lochs Vennachar, Ackraji, 
Kairine, Lttinaig, and Voil, all drained by the Teitt. Tay — Lochs Dock- 
art and Tay, in Perthshire, at the source of the Tay ; Loch Earn, at tiie 
source of the Earn ; and Lochs TutiitmI, Rannoch, Ertcht, Lydoch, drained 
by the Tummel. Ness — Ness, Oich, Garry, and ^uovik, in Inverness. 
Qonaxi^QUiss, JjuichaH, Fannich, in Ross. Oykill — Loch Shin, 18 miles 
long, in Sutherland. Naver— XocA Naver, in SutherLmd. Ewe — LoA 
Maxee, in Ross. Moidart — Shiel, Inverness and ArgylL Linnh€ and 
Spean Basin — Lochy, Arkaig, and Laggan, in Inverness ; and Lochs Awe 
and Avich, in Argyll^ drained by the Awe. Clyde— XocA Lomond^ drained 
by the lioven. 


Intamal CommimleaticiiL — Scotlund, 1>ei]ig a Iiiglily-iuoui^tninoui 
Cdtilitr;, cuQ nercr vie icith the sister kingdom in the extent or com- 
pleteiidSS of her intemul comm^micstioii ; yet hsr noble firtha anil 
eataaries, which indent the coast in oil directions, give her important 
natural ?dTBBtages ; while her turnpike roade, ciinala, and railwsja, 
abondantly attest the energy and public spirit of her sons. 

HAlLWita. — Within the last ten jbhts raUway communication in Scot- 
land has made eitraorfiuary progreaa. Tn IffiS the nnmber of milen 
open for tnfflcwaa 1342; in 1861 it was 2105; while In 1874 it amoanted 
to 261S. In 1359 few railways existed bsjond the central couuties, or 
the baahia of tte Forth, Clyde, and Tay ; bnt they ara now numer- 
oua in the south of Sratland ; while in the northern counties they 
pwietrate to the eitrorae confines of the mainland — Wick and Thnrso 
being now the tenninL In north-weslem ScoClimd the only linea 
yet constructed are from CaUaader to Ohau, and from Dingwall la 

iCASAtS. — The jiriucipal are the following: Caledrmiaa Canal, be- 
tween the Beauly Pirth and Loch Linnhri, connects the Moray Filth with 
the Atlantic ; total length, 60 miles— but only 23 miles required to ba 
aiecnted, as the canal passes through Lochs Ness, Oich, and Lochy, and 
tonDumtes in Loch Eil, an arm of the sea. Inremesa stands near the ona 
aitramity, and Fort WilUam near tlis other. Forth and Clyde Canal, 
iTom Glasgow to GraQRemouth in Stirling, unites the Irish with the 
North Sea ; length, 35 miles ; finished in 1700, and extended frum near 
Falkirk to Edinbu:^h by the Uuion Caiuil, finished in 1822, and 31 niilea 
long. FaiiUg Canal, from Glasgow, throngh Paisley, to Johnstone in 
Renftew; length, 11 miles. MojiilaTid Canal, between Glasgow and 
Aiidrie ; 12 miles. Crinan Ca-Mtl, across the isthmus oC Canl^re, con- 
nects Loch Fyne with the Sound of Jura, f) miles. The total length of 
canal communication in Scotland is 225 milea. 

TuRDPlKB Bouis. — In consequence of the eicellent materials forroad- 
making which everywhere abound, and the skill and science of Scottish 
troatees and aurveyors, the turnpike roads of Scotland are unequalled by 
those o( any other conntry. In 1829 there were 3666 miles open, and 
the nnmber has been since largely inoreaaeiL 

and r^ecting; in their habits frugal, industrious, and persevermg; pro- 
Tidence, honeslr, and extreme caution are amoog their most distinguish- 
ing traits of chaiacter. They do not readily associate, and far leas 
amalgamate, with foreigners, but will spare uo amount of labour and 
aelt-denial to promote the welfare of their fellow-countrymen. They are 
eminently reUgiaus, deeply attached to the Pi-esbyterion form of 
Church goveniment, and stroiwly avereo to Roman (Stthulicism. The 
aimals of no other nation can sliow such a resolute determination in de- 
fence of civil and religious liberty. The Hcly Scriptures are daily read 
in all the common sSiDoIa, and the poorest peasaot can generally read 
and understand them. The great and saving truths of the Hible aio 
(amiliarto almost every one, and the divine code of moral law is ob- 
■erred by all clBSBes of the community. The Lord's Day ia universally a 
dl7 of rest and religions observance; while life and property ore s^er 
**— ~ any other country, 

Utraitai& — Scotland, though far from being a.a opulent country. 


and thongli her seats of leamine are poorly endowed, has produced 
a cluster of names in all branches of science, philosophjr, and art, 
that reflect on her the highest hononr. The following are a fcfw of 
her most eminent names : — Poetry : Oasian, Buchanan, Gawin 
Douglas, Dmmmond, Dunbar, Lyndsay, Kamsay, Tannahill, Hao- 
neill, Tennant, Hogg, Robert Bums, Thomson, Beattie, Scott, 
Campbell, Pollok, J/Montgomery, Profl Wilson, Alexander Smith. 
History : Buchanan, Burnet, Hume, Robertson, Henry, Rnasellt 
Watson, Scott, Mackintosh, Alison, Carlyle. Physical Sgisnge : 
Napier, Ferguson, Gregory, Watt, Telford, Rennie, Playfair, Madau- 
rin, Leslie, J. Hutton, Black, Sir David Brewster, Robert' Brown, 
Hugh Miller, John Fleming, Sir Charles Lyell, and Sir Rode- 
rick I. Murchison. Mental Philosophy: Keid, Hume, Karnes, 
Stewart, Brown, Mackintosh, Adam Smith, and Sir W. Hamilton. 
Theolooy : Knox, Leighton, Burnet, Boston, Madaurin, Macknight, 
Campbell, Gerard, Brown of Haddington, Halybnrton, Witherspoon, 
M'Crie, and Thomas Chalmers. Medicikb: Pitcaim, Munro, Gre- 
gory, Cullen, Abercrombie, W. Hunter, BaiUie, Alison, Christison, 
A. Combe, Abemethy, J. Hunter, John Bell, Sir Charles Bell, Sir 
James Clark, Sir Johin Forbes, Listen, Lizars, Syme, Miller, and Sir 
James Y. Simpson. Tkayels : Bruce, Park, Clapperton, Simpson, 
Sir J. Ross, Dr Livingstone, and Captain Grant. Fine Ajeltb : 
Wilkie, Nasmyth, Raebum, Ramsay, Jameson, Sir J. N. Patom. 
Miscellaneous : Ruddiman, BosweU, Smollett, Mackenzie, Adam, 
Blair, Jeffrey, Brougham, Prof. Wilson, Sir W. Scott, C. P. Smyth. 


PoEdtion and Boundaries. — Ireland is the second largest 
island in the British archipelago. The Irish Sea, with its two 
inlets, the North Channel and St Greorge*s Channel, form its 
western boundary, separating it from Great Britain ; while on 
the remaining tlnree sides it is bounded by the Atlantic Lying 
between lat. 51° 27' and 55° 23' N., and Ion. 5° 26' and 10^ 28* 
W., the mainland occupies nearly 4° of lat and a little more 
than 5° of Ioil 

Form, Coast-Line, and Extreme Points. — ^The general form is a ihom- 
boid, the longer diagonal of which, if produced, would pass through the 
most easterly point of Scotland (Buchanness). The four sides are ninned 
by lines passing through Fair Head in Antrim, Erris Head in Mayo, 
Mizen Head in Cork, and Camsore Point in Wexford. Properly speak- 
ing, these are the extreme points ; but Malin Head, in Donegid, is the 
most northern point of the mainland; Mizen Head the most southern; 
Ehmmore Head, in Kerry, the most western ; and Halbert Point, on the 
coast of Down, the most eastern ; greatest length, 806 m. — greatest 
breadth, 175 m. The coast-line, which is wavy and continuous on the £., 
but deeply indented on the W. and N. measures about 2200 mites, being 

■y 15 fi-i. . 

d by III 

Head uid Dobliu ; but ijie coastfl olonp the other sidee are bold and 

nifkf, end fnrro B nable liarrier agaiiiBt the vaves of the AUsotic. 

Area and Popnluim.— The bj^. uccorduig to the late Ordnsnce Snr- 

^mj-, iB32,51EBq. m., haniE neorly tuo-fiftha dT the aiie of Great BrilKii, 

Hpid oae-BJiteeoth iBrger than BBotlsnd. The ponDlatiiui in 1S41 was 

■UW6.5fl4, vHle in ISH it on];' amoimted to 5,40^7oe, Hhuwing a decreaw 

nhfijtrty yeais of S,6ES.B25, or nearly tme-baU' ita jireaHiit popal&tidii. It 

' janeeily hnjf lu densely peopled as Soglond, hsruiE 1G6 penoDB to eaoh 

»q. m. The astonishijig dBcrease dmiug the Inrt tliirty yeacB is maiuly 

BttribiriililB to the famine of 1S45-47. and to the immsnae tide of emiera- 

tioD that has fiubfiegamitJy tabfio place- 

TOUtical ntvlslimE. — Ireland is divided Into i provinmi — vit^ 

I inner, LeiuBter, Mmifiter, and Cuniiaiiglit ; wMc^ are aulidiTided 

IB folkrWK :— 

Antrim. — ReUapt 174, CarrickferpiB 6 
(Lagau), Larue 3 (L. Lome), BaUynioiiev ! 

Tumu fnm. lOUO (o 2SO0 : ■ 

DmriL — DCFWKP*TC.TCE 4 IL, Sewton-ArdB 10 (L. Strangford), 
Newrj 11 (5ewry), Dnnaghndee S (X coast), Baognr 3 (Balfort L), 
Iiramore S (Lagan). Gilford 3, Bauhiidge i (Bmui). 

Comber, Ballynnhmcii, Poitaferryj Wairon-Poiiit, E«tlifryland, HHk- 
boTDUEh, Boliywoud. 

ixnagh. — Akuagb II (CaUau), XMrgas G c, Portadinni E n. 

Keady, TanderairBc, Market-Mill, KflTtown-Hamiltoo. 

Oastle Blaney, Ballyhay, CarrickniBcross, donea. 

Gcran. — CiVAK S n. (Erne), 

EiogBconrt, Ballieboroagh, Bctturhet, CootehilL 

» — " "" f* — EtTKlSElLLEK 6 (Eme). 

SmMcal-— Lefpuki' 1 (Foyle). Balljtihaimoii S (Erne). 

Killjb^ii, Saphue, Bathmeltoii, Letterkenny, DooegaL 

bnddndmrr, — LoKDimiEKBy S5 (Fojle), Cc^eraise G (Banm, 
Stnrtnwn-Limirradj S (Koe). 

Uaghenfeh, MaghenL 
- TjToaa. — OuACH 3, Stja^ane i (Maime), 'Coatstowti 4 (Bollin- 
~ ly), DmifiBiiiioii 4 n. (ElackwatBTl, 
K Itewtoini-Slerart, Fintoiak, Augbna^^toy. 


Leinster, in the S.E., 12 Counties. 

Louth. — DuNDALK 10 (Castleton), Ardee 3 (Dee), Drogheda, partly 
in Meath, 14 (Boyne). 
MeatlL — ^Trim 2, Navan 4 (Boyne), Kells 3 (Blackwater). 

Dublin.— Dublin 246 (Liflfey), Blackrock 8, Donnybrook 2 n., 
Kingstown 12 (Dublin Bay). 
Sandymount, Skerries,' Swords, Bushi Balbriggan, Chapelizod. 

Wicklow. — WiCKLOW 3 (Vartry), Arklow 5 (Avoca), Bray 4 

Bathdram, Baltinglass. 

Wexford. — ^Wexford 12, Enniscorthy 5 (Slaney), New Robs 7 

Newtown-Barry, Gorey. 

Kilkenny.— Kilkenny 13 (Nore). 

Thomastown, Urlingford, Castle Comer, Callan. 

Queen's County.— Maryborough 3 n.. Mount Mellick 3 (Bar- 

Portarlington, Abbeyleix, Monntwrath, Stradbally. 

King's County. — Tullamorb 5 n. (Cloddagh), Birr or Paiaons- 
town 5 (Lower Brosna). 

Banagher, Edenderry. 

West MeatlL — Mullinoar 5 (Brosna), Athlone 6 (Shannon). 

Kilbeggan, CastlepoUard, Moate. 

Longford. — Longford 5 (Camlin). 

Ballymahon, Granard. 

Kildare. — ^Athy 4 (Barrow), Naas 3 n. (Liffey). 

Monastereven, Celbridge, Kildare, Maynooth. 

Carlow.— Carlo w 8 (Barrow). 

Leighlin, Tullow, Bagenalstown. 

Munster, in the S.W., 6 Counties. 

Waterford.- Waterford 23, Portlaw 4 n. (Suir), Dnngarvan 6 
(Dungarvan B.) 

Cappoquin, Lismore, Tallow, Tramore. 

CorlL — Cork 79, Macroom 3 (Lee), Queenstown 9, Middletown 3 
(Cork Harb.), Skibbereen 4 (Hen), Clonakilty 3 (Clonakilty Bay), 
Kinsale 4 (Kmsale Harb.), Bandon 6 (Bandon), Youghal 6, Fermoy 
6, Mallow 4 (Blackwater), Mitchelstown 3 (Funcheon). 

Cloyne, Bantiy, Dunmauway, Millstreet, Doneraile, Buttevant, Kan- 
turk, Charleville, "W. Passage. 

Kerry.— Tbaleb 10 (Lee), Dingle 2 (Dingle Bay), Killamey 5 (L 

Listowel, Cabirciveen, Castle Island, Kemnare. 

IKELAND. 16'^ 

OUre,— Ennw 7 (FeTgna), Kilnisli 5 (Shannon). 

Killaloa. KlDteo. 

T^jperuy.—CLONMEL 9, Carrick-on-Suir E, CaMr 3, Cubel i, 
ThuilBB 6 (Snir), TippBrnrj- 6 (ArTa), Nenngh 6 (Senagli), Hosctea * 
(Lower Brosaa). 

Killenanla, CloghMn, Borriaocane, Fethard. 

Idmmlek.— Lime KICK 40 (Shannon), Hathkeale 3 (Deal). 

Aakeaton, CrooTa, Eilmalluck, Bruff, Kewcaatle. 


GHway.— Galwat 13 (Corrih), Tiiam S (aare), Loughrea 3 (L. 
Bea), Ballinaflloa 3 (Suck). 

CUfdEn, Atheniy, Pottimnti, Aglirim, Gort. 

M»yo.— Cahtlebar 3 (Castlebar), Ballina S (Moj), WeBtjiort i 
(Clew Bay), Ballinrobe 3 (Robe). 

Crossinoliiia, SiUsIa, Ballaghadcrreen. 

Bllgo.— Sligo 10 (GttrTOgne). 

leltrtm.—CAiiRicK-ON- Shannon 2 (Shannon). 


BMoonimcru — Roscommon 3 (Suck), Boyk 3 (BojIb Water). 

CasUeieagh, Elpliin. 

DeKTlpttTS KotBB.— According to the census of 1871, there were 
ui Ireland two towns witli a, population abore 100,000 — viz., Dublin 
and Belfast; between ICO.OOO and 60,000 only oca— Cork; twelve 

Tralee, and Eingatown ; and twenty.ali between 10,000 and EOOO. 

luilei dintaut. It k the moat populous, and by far the must imnor!^ , 
of tba four provincBii into which the kingdom ia liirided ; area, B6B5 aq. 
m. ; population, 1,830,393. It ia deeply indeated bv arms of the aea on 
the three aidea exposed to the ocean, ths principal indentations twins 
LoHgh Strangford, Belfast Lough, Lough Foyl«, Lough Swilly, and 
Donegal Bay. Each of these forma the estuary of a more or lesa ezten- 
BiYB river-lioain. The principal fresh-water lakes are Loughs Neagh and 
Erne. Geoiogical character: Metamor]ihic mcka in the It., which are 
flanked with Kranite on the west aide, and with an immense tract of trap 
on the east ; Lower Silurian in the S.E. ; carboniferous limestone in the 
S.W. ; and DeTOHJan in the centre. The Ehorea are bold androclty, with 
remackablB basaltic clitfa in the N. and E., the most celebrated of which 

tiftlia under cultivation. Ulster is the principal seat of the Irish linen 
manofscture, and of othor hninches of Industrv. The annual value of 
the limn eiporl«d is estimated at £E,000,000 sterling. The principal mia- 


eral products are coal, iron, copper, lead, and limestone, wliich are found 
chiefly in Cavan. Tlie Protestant religion prevails, education is well 
attended to, and the people enjoy considerable comfort as compared with 
the other provinces. Belfast, generally regarded as the capital of Ulster, 
is the second city in Ireland in point of i>opulation, and greatly exceeds 
Dublin in manufacturing industry, especially in the linen and cotton 
manufacture. It has considerable foreign trade, and extensive inter- 
course with the west coast of Great Britain, especially with Liverpool and 
Glasgow, and is the seat of one of the " Queen's Colleges." Carrickftr- 
gus, with cotton and linen manufactories, and near it an extensive salt- 
mine discovered in 1852. Idshum, a handsome and populous town ; a 
canal from Lough Neagh here joins the Lagan. Bimymena, in the- 
centre of an industrious, manufacturing, and agricultural district, is an 
active and thriving town. DownpatriCK, the capital, is one of the meet 
ancient towns in Ireland; its noly wells are resorted to by Boman 
Catholic pilgrims. UTewry, the largest town in the county, is a flourish- 
ing seaport, with considerable linen and cotton works. Armaf li. tiie 
ecclesiastical capital of Ireland, with an observatory and two catheorals. 
Lurgaa and Portadown, with manufactories of linen and cotton goods. 
Monaghan, on the Ulster Canal, which unites Loughs Neagh and Eme, 
trades extensively in linen and V^gs* Cavan, the head of a poor-law 
union, has some local traffic. Imniskillen, delightfully situated in an 
island in L. Eme, carries on a considerable trade in linen ; in its town- 
hall are still preserved the banners borne by the EnniskiUeners at the 
celebrated battle of the Boyne, July 1, 1690. Ballyshaimon, near fhe 
mouth of the Eme, with a salmon-fishery. Londonderry, an ancient, 
flourishing, and walled city on the Foyle, famous for the si^ so heroic- 
ally sustamed against the army of James II. in 1689. Coleraine is one 
of the principal markets for the Ulster Unen manufactures. Omagh, a 
smull town with trade in linen and com. Dnngannon, the ancient resi- 
dence of the kings of Ulster, has a brisk linen trade. 

Leinster occupies the entire S.E. of Ireland ; area, 7472 sq. m. ; popu- 
lation, 1,335,966 The shores are less indented than in Ulste^ the prin- 
cipal inlets being Dundalk and Dublin Bays and Wexford Haven : the 
principal rivers are the Dee, Boyne, Liflfey, Slaney, and Barrow: the 
basins of the Shannon and Suir also belong partiaUy to this province. By 
far the largest portion is covered with mountain limestone, but there are 
considerable tracts of Lower Silurian along the east coast, enclosing a huge 
belt of granite, which extends in a S.W. direction from Dublin Bay to the 
junction of the Barrow and Nore. Surface generally level, but one moun- 
tain region in the E. and another in the W. ; soil fertile and well ctilti- 
vated, and producing more wheat than any other province : possesses 
superior facilities for internal communication by means of its large rivers ; 
but has fewer good harbours than any of the other provinces. At the 
time of the An^lo-Norman invasion the province was divided into two 

Eetty sovereignties— viz., those of Leinster and Meath. Dundalk, at the 
ead of a bay of same name, has various manufactures and important 
fisheries. Drogheda, a flourishing town on the Boyne, and near the scene 
of the celebrated battle of that name, which proved so fatal to the pre- 
tensions of the Stewarts in Ireland. Trim, a small town on the Boyne : 
near it Dangan, said by some to be the birthplace of the late Duxe of 
Wellington. Navan, with a good export trade in a^cultuTal produce. 
Dublin, the capital of Ireland and one of the finest cities of Europe, has 
a quarter of a million inhabitants, and numerous magnificent public 
buildings, among which is Trinity CoUege, a Protestant university 


fmmded in 1691 by Queen Elizabeth. Adjoining tte city is Phcenii Park, 

reluid. Kingstown, theport of Dnbjin, -with an B<oellent har- 
bour and extensive comniBrce, is the mail-paclietstatiDti to Liveqxtal and 
Holyhead. Vicklow, a. resort of Bea-bathers, exports copper-ore and 
corn. Waxferd, a considerable town, with exports of cattle and dairy 
produce, hsa eitensJTe nuap and dockyards. Ennlscorthj ; near it la 
Vin^ar HiU, wliare the Irish rebels were defeated by Lord Lake in 1798. 
New Boca, a flourishing town, with considentble eiport trade in aOTicnl- 
tuial produce. KiUenny, a considerable town, the second in population 
in the province ; the streets are paved with hiack marhle, which is quar- 
ried in the ricinity ; here is a grauimar school, in which Swift, Congreve, 
and Berkeley received the early part of their education. Uarylxmingh 
consiata for the most ji:irt of miserable cabins, with a few fine houses. 
TnllimDn, the principal shipping station on the Grand Canal. Birr, a 
thriving town, famoua for Lord RoBse'a monster telescope, one of the 
gnateat achiaveoiBnts of modem science. Xalliiigari on the Royni 
Canal, is noted for its gntX cattle and wool market* AthlonB, the prin- 
dpal military Btatioii in the west of Ireland, hna considerable local trade. 
Longtbrd, OD the Camlin, a busy, thriving little town ; rnsar it was bom 
Oliver GoldBniith in 1723. Athj, on the Bairow, has considerable trade 
in com, butter, and malt. Haynooth, with a far-famed Boman Cathoho 
coUege. GbtIow, with a Konian Catholic cathedral and college, has con- 
nderable tmie in agricultural produce. 

HuNBTEH is situated in the S.W. of Ireland, aud is the largest of the 
four provinces ; ares, fll74 aq. m, ^population, 1,390,402. The coasts 
an very deeply indented on the W. liy the estuary of the Shannon, 
Dingle Bay, Kcmuare River, and Bantry Bay. Tlie pnncinal river-basins 
are those of the Suir, which enters Waterford Harbour ; the Blackwater ; 
the Lee, which enters Cork Harbour ; the Bandon, which enters Kinsale 
Harbaur(allofwhicli incline 1« the S.B.); and the Shannon basin in the 
*' "' "' ' " ' "* ..--■. ; mountain limestone 

the S., and Upper 

N.W., <mly partially in this pr 
and milMoDe-crit in the W., 

Silurian in S.W. Surface highly divursified ; two rangt _., 

the southernmost of which contams the loftiest summits in the kingdom, 
eitend nearly across the province from B. to W., eneloaing the basin of 
the Btaclcwater : the eitensivB plain of Tipperary, Umerick, and Cork, 
cempiea a large portion of the surface. Soil various, two-thirds being 
arable, and a great portion under bog, which is easily reclainied. Coal 
is fouDd in Tlpperary, Kerry, and Cork ; but there are few mineraU ex- 
portad, thoBgrh the harbouis are eicellent. The population belongs almost 
excluiiively to tbe Roman Catholic Cburch. At the time of the Anglo- 
Nonnan eonquest, the province waa divided into the two petty kingdoms 
of North and South Monster. Waterfijrd, a iargo and thriving city on 
tL« Tight bank of the Sail, has a great foreign and coasting trade, the 
eiportB alone being valued at £4,000,000 armually. Cork, built on an 
island in the Lee, is the principal city in Munster, and in popnhitioa is 
only exceeded by Dublia and Belfast. Cork is the seat of^oneofthe 
recently erected Queen's CoU^aa. In 1888, 3630 vessels, earryine 8^,220 
tons, entered and cleared. Ita manufactures are nmneroas, and sbiphnlld- 
ingiaextenuvelycarriedou. QueenitowD, formerly Cot* of Coik, derived 
iU present name from thevisitof Queen Victoria in ISIS :ii proUcled W 
batteries and fortificalions. Kiaiale, a fashionable watering-placs, with 
valnable fisheries. Toughal, on the Blackwaler, with valuable salmon- 
ttlhsrica : here Sir Walter Raleigh flrat introduced tbe culture of iht 


potato. Fermoy, with infantry barracks and flour-mills. Tralee, near 
the head of Tralee Bay, is the seat of a brisk trade in grain and flour. 
Dingle, the westernmost town in the British Isles. KillBniey, on a lake 
of same name, famous for its enchanting scenery, and now accessible by 
rail from Dublin, is a favourite resort for tourists. EnniB, with a Gothic 
abbey, which is reckoned the finest in Ireland, has quarries of fine black 
marble io the neighbourhood. Clonmel, partly in Waterford, a consider^ 
able town with extensive manufactures, is the b. p. of Sterne, author of 
' Tristram Shandy.' Cairick-on-Snir, with a bridge of twenty arches 
over the river, and an export trade in com and cotton. Cashel, once tiie 
capital of the kingdom of Munster, is an ancient episcopal city, with Cor- 
mac's Chapel standing on the celebrated ** Rock of Cashel/' and one of tlie 
most remarkable ruins in Ireland. Thnrles contains a Koman Gatholie 
college and two episcopal palaces. Tipperary, on the Waterford and 
Limerick Bailway, is beautuully situated, and is a well-built and thriv- 
ing town. Nenagh, a thriving town, with a good local trade. Idmniek, 
a large and populous city on the Shannon, at the head of its noble estuary, 
is a place of great antiquity, and the fourth largest city in Ireland ; was 
a royal seat of the kings of Thomond before the conquest of Ireland. At 
the time of the Revolution it was the chief stronghold of the cause of 
James II., but capitulated to the troops of William III. in 1691 ; has 
railway communication with all parts of the kingdom, with great export 
and import trade, and considerable manufactures of bcuEiutiful lace. 

CoNNAUOHT, the smallest, least populous, and most westerly of the 
Irish provinces, lies N. of Munster and W. of Leinster, from which it is 
for the most part separated by the Shannon ; area, 6862 sq. m. ; popula- 
tion, 845,993. The west side is broken up into numerous peninsulas, the 
largest of which is Connemara, and is lined by a great many islands. 
The principal indentations are (xalway. Clew, Blacksod, KiUala, and 
Sligo Bays ; and the chief river-basins are those of the Shannon (in part), 
Corrib, Moy, and Arrow. Principally mountain limestone ; but a large 
tract of metsonorphic and Silurian strata in the W., and extensive patcto 
of Devonian in various parts. Surface mountainous in the W., and hiUy 
in the N. and S., while the centre consists of an extensive level plain. 
Soil various, moderately fertile, full of peat-bogs, but nearly a ludf is 
arable. Minerals and manufactures unimportant : but coal is found in 
the Lough Allan district The inhabitants belong for the most part to the 
native Irish or Celtic stock, retain their ancient language, adnere to the 
Roman Catholic religion, and are sunk in the deepest poverty and inior- 
ance. Connaught was formerly one of the kingdoms of the Irish fiep- 
tarchy, and remained unconquered long after the rest of Ireland bad 
yielded to the English arms. Gkdway, at the head of Gralway Bay, may 
be re^rded as the capital of Connaught, it being the only important 
town m the province, and the chief seaport of the west of Ireland!. It is 
105 miles west from Dublin, with which it ia connected by laili^^. Gal- 
way is very ancient ; was conquered by the Anglo-Normans in 1230 ; had 
a flourishing trade with Spain in the middle ages, and many of the houses 
are erected after the Spanish model. It is the seat of one of the Queen*t 
Colleges. Tnam, an episcopal city, with a Roman Oatholic coUese, 
named St Jarlath, is the see of the primate of Connaught. BalllnMloe 
has a large annual fair, which lasts five days. Casflebar, a small ioUrnd 
town, has some trade in linen. Ballina, with manufactures of snnf^ and 
salmon-fisheries. Sligo, a considerable town on the Garvogue, has a good 
colonial and foreign trade. Three ships of the Spanish Aimada were 
straoded here in 1588. Garrick-on-Sluumoii, at toe oonfluenoe of tli* 

Cum. — Be^uning at tLe extreme N., snd proceeding E.-ifbtiI. 
tiiB jfnnciio] wpesi and headJandB are the follovring : — MbHs Head, 
in Don^aX the N.-most point of tlie moiiLland ; Bangore Head and 
Fmt Head, in Antrim ;* Howtli Head, in Dnblin; Witklow Head, in 
Wluklow; CamHorc Point, in Werford; Cape Clear, on an island, 
the moat BoDtLem point of Ireland ; Mizen Heud and Crow Head, in 
Code; I>iuiniarB Head, in Kerry, tbe most weBt«rly point of the 
mainland ; Kerr; Head and Loo]> Head, on idther ude of Che estnaiy 
of the ShuiiioD ; Sljne Head, in Galway ; Achil Head and Ciris 
Head, io Mayo ; lioaaan Point and Bloodj Foreland, in DooegaL 

ltfili<hl — The islande sre in general very small, and close to the 
tuunland.^- FoUowiuf; the same order as in the liiet paragr^ih. n-e 
hsre: — Bathlin, S. of Antrim; Copelund, S.'E. of Diiwn; Lambay 
Mnd Ireland's Eye, E. ofDnbliu; Saltee L, S. of Wexford; Core, in 
Gui Harbour ; Cape Clear and Bear Is., S.W. of Coric ; Videnda::: 
and Blasket Is., W. of Eerrj' ; Airan Is., in Golvruy Bav ; Garomna, 
■ud aemral otbera, S. of Galwayj litnlb Botiu, liinis Turk, Clare, 
and Acldl Is,, W. of Connaught ; Arranmore and Tory la, W, 
of DooegaL 

Bay* and E»tttartM.— These are very nnmenrai, esneciaUy in the 
K. and W., wbere tbpj- penetrate far into the land. On the eoast of 
Uliter tiieie inlets are termed lotighi, a vord of the same sonnd and 
■ignifieation as the lochi of the opposite cnuts of Scotland. Beginning 
Kt tile K.. and following the coast-line £.-wards, the GiUowmg are 
tile janc^al haja, tc. : — 

CbM(iifP(!«(«r.—Longh»Swrily,Fofle, Belfast. Strangford; Dnndnim 
B.,GBIlingrordB. Cmul aTi^ii'uter.— Bnndalli B., Bablin B., Weiford 
Hsilmiir. /hulk Cvasl nf JfunjIfT.— Waterlbrd, Dnngarvtm, Tonglial, 
OlA, BSd Kinrale Harboon. Weit Coait of JUautn-. ^ fiontry B,, 
Kcomure Biver, Dingle B.,Tia]ee S., EBtHorr of the Shannon. CoaH if 
(haainiak.— GalwajB., CIewB.,SlackBod B.,Ei!ia!a B., Sligoa.and 
XkmegarB., between Coniutnght and Ulster. 

Mmmtlln 8)Vteitl.~Tbe Iritib monntains form an immense cir- 
eidar rin^ along tbe ooast, enclosing the great central basin of the 
This plain extends from Dublin to Galiray, and from the 
' ' ' to Waterford : its highest elevation is abont 
.... ^ a la™ tract of hog-land, and is traversed hy 

kfew low ranges of hills. The ranges separating the central 

ADt Inin thelliiUafCiDtyrs,lnBHitljin<l A 
Ig tbs gplebnled GioDt'g Citti»»3i|. a baultii; 

,— , J. reiemMlnga pier. TOO fMt[n length. SB* fen 

■nd BO rm hi hclgbl. II I* aBpamied b; tnp-df kea Into three dirl. 

ticiUstad witlL thg gniUeiit nlcatjr. 

-ooke are esnnieTat«d u belonging to Irelud, ot 

I ttirnilnoi ol tbe great Hobinarlne telegraph to 


plain from the ocean are not continuous, but broken up into a num- 
her of isolated masses, none of which attain to any great elevation — 
Carran Tual, in Macgillicuddy Reeks, county Kerry, the culminating- 
point of Ireland, being 8414 feet high. Beginning at the S.£. cor- 
ner of Ulster, and proceeding N. and W., the following are the 
principal ranges : — 

Moume Mountains, in Down, between the Newry and Lagan ; highest 
summits— Slieve-Donard, 2796 ; Mt Eagle, 2084 feet 

Glenocum Mountains, in Antrim, separatingthe basins of the Lagan 
and Bann, and extending from Belfast to Fair Head ; Mt. Trostan, 1817 ; 
Mt. Devis, 1568 feet. 

Camtogher Mountains, in Londonderry, between the Bann and the 
Foyle ; Mt. SaweU, 2236 feet. 

Mountains qf Dqiiegal, between the Foyle and the Atlantic ; Mt. 
Errigal, 2466 feet ; Blue Stack, 2219 feet. 

Nephin-Beg MourUaiiis, in Mayo, between the basin of the Moy and 
west coast ; Mt. Nephin, 2646 feet ; Nephin-Beg, 2065 feet. 

Mountains of Conneniara, south of Clew Bay, and between the basin of 
the Corrib and west coast ; Muilrea, 2688 ; Croagh Patrick, 2510 ; Twelve 
Pins, 2395 feet. 

Mountains of Clare, between Galway Bay and Estuary of the Shannon; 
Mt. Callan, SUeve-Boughty. 

Mount Brandon, 3127 feet — ^the second highest mountain in Ireland— 
between basin of Shannon and Diogle Bay. 

MajcgUlicvddy Reeks, in Kerry, between Dingle Bay and Kenmare River; 
Carran Tual, W. of Lake Eallarney — ^the highest mountain in Ireland— 
8414 feet ; Mangerton, S.K of Lake Killamey, 2756 feet. 

The Musketry, Bogragh, and Neagh Mountains, in Cork, between the 
basins of the Blackwater and the Lee. 

Mountains of Tipperary and Waierford, between the basins of the 
Blackwater and the Suir ; Galteemore, 3007 ; Knockmelledown, 2598. 

Blackstairs Mountains, in Wexford, between the basins of the Barrow 
and the Slaney; Mt. Lelnster, 2610 feet. 

Mountains of Wicklow, between the Slaney and Liffey ; Lugnaquilla, 
3039; Kippure 2473 feet. 

Slieve-nloom Mountains, in the interior of the Great Plain, separate 
the basin of the Shannon from that of the Barrow and Suir; Mt. Keeper, 
2278 feet. 

The line of perennial congelation in the latitude of Carran Tual is 
about 6000 feet high. Hence, if Mangerton were piled atop of the 
loftiest mountain in Ireland, it would be capped with snow all the year 

Rlver-BaslnB.— The principal axis of Ireland extends in a K.E. 
direction from Mizen Head, in Cork, to Fair Head, in Antrim. The 
twelve principal river-basins are equally divided by this line, six of 
them (Snannon, Corrib, Moy, Erne, Foyle, and Bann) inclining from it 
in a general westerly direction towards the Atlantic, and the remain- 
ing six (Boyne, Liffey, Slaney, Barrow, Blackwater, Lee) in a general 
easterly direction towards the Irish Sea and the openings leacLmg 
into it The twelve basins contain twenty-six out of the thirty-two 
county towns, and occupy about | of the entire surfiEU^ The five 
largest basins are the Shannon (area, 7000 sq. m.), Erne, Foyle, 


Bsnn, Barrow, and Sair; they contain twenty county towns and 
16,300 sqnare miles, or o no -half of the entire EorfaCB. 

Table of Siveo^ and Towns. — The arrangement adopted in tLo 
followinjt table is the same aa in the corresponding sectioiia treating 
of England and Scotland ; we begin with the river oa which the 
capital stands, and proceed northwards along the coast — that heing 
the direction followed in the riyer-system of Great Britain. Large 
towns are printed in Roman letters, and denote here such as contain 
2500 inhabitants and upwards; smalt towns, or those printed in 
Italics, denote those Gaat4dning not leas than 1000 inhahitante ; 
while county towns are in buall Oi.fiTAiB. Kinetj rivers are given 
in the table, and of these 30 enter the ocean directly, tlie other 60 
being their tributaries ; and S30 towns, only 100 of which hare a 
population amounting to 2500, all the others ranging between that 
unmber and 1000. 

'lied to the Iridi S< 

ittey II Cab- KlngstoyD.BladmKt, 
jiu B., I>onnybroek. n.^ San- 

Chaptlitod, Ceandae, 
Kau, EiUlari, n. 

B^e, I MaynOBth. 

Co. or Dublin, Suordi, Rvth, Skerria. 

.BOToe, Drngheds. Navan, Tbih. 

BlukwHter.INRTiii, Kelh. 
HojnAlty,! Bailieoorofiffh. 

^CarriokmaerMt, Kinffa- 

Batint incliiut 
Wlycwtla B. , BaUveailU. 

I. coast, Porlrtuh. 

luD, and L. Colerslne, BillrinatK}', 

Meigb, n., ADtrlni, Lurgan, tL, 

Portadown, Tandera- 

jee, Gilford, Bim bridge. 

MojdU, I ..Xaghern/elt, Knghera,. 

UiiD. Sandnliloim. 

BalUodnTT. I Coai:«lcwn. 
£]ickwftter,lDDDEiDaoa, n.,.JucA- 

Caltui. ..AniunH, Keufy, a. 
UltttrCa- Kaitmai.1t. 

Ojlfl (L tOHDOKBiaav, LtFTORD, 
Uml.i BtntbMlB. 

, TJe Krtowa-LliEmvadjr. 

iairatFane, Sevto^n- 
SUTcarl. Omr.H. Fin- 

L. StranBfOrd For 

It Atlanta 

(wIUj, L. and BaOiineUen, LeUericn- 

R.. »w. 

Donegsl R & KiUybem, Dimtgal, BaU 

utN, BeUurbtl, dyts, 

A.naa]ef..'.V.'.CaDlekUl. n. 
larrogufl and Suoo, Manor-IIamittati, 

toy, .° KOfOto.Damni. 

D«l, I CmifmolCita. 

Cantlebir, Cibtlxbab. 
Hew Bay, ....Wtatport. 
V, Co. ol Gal- Ctifdtn. 

lorriVfGilway G*tWiT. 

Clare, I Tuam. 

Robe,I ....BalUnrotw. 

Cluin Athnry, 

Cooter, ,..,,. Gort, Xjuoghrea, i 



Basins inclined to ttie Atlantic (continaed). 



Shannon (L. KiUceCf Eilrush, Ltmer- 

Allen), lUK, KUkUoe, Borriso- 

eane, Portumna, Ban- 

ogheTf Athlone, Cab- 

B icK-on-Shannon. 

Fergus, ....Ennis. 

Deelfl Askeaton^ Rathkeale, 

Maig & Loo-Croom, Charleville, Kil- 
ba,2 mallockf Kil/innan. 

Star, ....Bruff. 
Kenagh, I ..Nenagh. 
Lower Bros-Birr, Boscrea. 

na, I 
Brosna, { ..Moate, Mullingar. 
Cloddagh.ZTuLLAMORE. ' 

Basins inclined to t?ie 



Kinsale, Bandon, Dun^ 

Queenstown CloynCf n., 
Middleton, n., W. Pas- 
sage, Cork, Macroom, 


Youghal, Cappoquin, 
Lismorej Fermoy, Mal- 
low, MUlstreet 



Doneraile, Buttevant. 




Waterford, Portlaw,n., 
Carrick-on-Suir, Clon- 
MEL, Cahir, Cashel, 
Thurles, Templemore, 




Inny, I .... 

Camlin, 2... 

Bodai;g, . . . . 

Boyle (L. 
Gara), . . . . 


Tralee Bay, . . . 
Dingle Bay & 


Leane, 2 . . . . 
Bantry Bay, . . 

Ballinasloe, Boacoiofov, 

BaUymahon, Oranard, 

Carrick - CD - Shanxion, 

Listowel, AhheyfedU. 
Dingle, CahirciveentCas' 

tlemain. Castle I. 


Clonakilty B., 

Cork H. and 
R. Lee, 

Siillane, I .. 
Blackwater, .. 


Funeheon, I . 

Awbeg, I .. 

Allow, I 

Dungarvan B., 
Tramore Bay, 

Irish Sea (continued). 

Honor, L...Fethardt KillenatiU, n. 

Tar, Clogheen. 

Arra, Tipperary. 

Barrow New Ross, Leighlin 

Bridge. C a blow, A- 
THT, Monastereven^ 
KUdaretH. ^PortarUng- 
ton, Maryborough, 
Mount Mellick. 

Nore Thomastoton, Kilkkn- 

NT, AbbeyleiXt Mount- 
King's R., Cdllan, Urlingford, 
Dinan, I ..Castle Comer. 

Strad, StradbaUy. 

Figale, I Monastereven. 

Slaney, Wexford, Enniscortliy, 

Netototon- Barry, 2w- 
Um, B(ilHngla8s. 

Bann, Chrey. 

Avoca Arklow« Rathdrwm. 

Vartry Wicklow, 

Bray, Bray. 

Lakes. — The Irish lakes or loughs are numerous, and some of 
them extensive. Lough Neagh, in Ulster, is the largest in the 
British Isles : it is 17 miles long, 10 broad, and has an area of 158 
sq. miles : its waters are celebrated for their petrifying quality. 
The other principal lakes are Corrib, Erne, Derg, Ree, l&sk. The 
total area of all the Irish lakes is estimated at 984 sq. miles. All 
the important lakes are found in the principal river-basins ennmer* 
ated at p. 170. Following the order there given, we find in the 
basin of the 

Shannon — Loughs Derg, Ree, Boffin^ Corry, and Allen, in the line of 
the main river ; Loughs Ennel and Owel on the Brosna ; L&wfkt Jkn- 
veragh and Sheelin on the Inny ; and Loughs Key and Oara on the Bofle. 
Comb—Lottghs Corrih and M<uh, VLoy- '-Loughs Conn and CWIAk Am- 
--Loughs Erne, OughCer, and Oounagk, Foyle — Lough Dtrg, jMynt^"*^ 

St Patrlcfa Pargtttory on an i.iUnd. Banii— IohjA iV&i.-jfc, I ,, 
UnitBiI Kingdom. Bovne — IjOugA Ramor. Dinglo iinil Main Basin- 

LaiiM of KiUaniey,mKenv. di -i >— -■-.■^ - -- - - - ■ 

by the loftiest moiu ' 

the absence o 

. liny deep indentations of the 

coaat, Ireland possosaes great natnral facilities for carrying an her 
internal commuDicatiou ; lint until recently, little haa been done in 
opening up the connfry hy thu oonstractlDO of the highways nf 

Railways.— In January 1S7I there were 1972 miles opea for traffic, 
which cost ^24,891,000 ; and tlie toUl receipts for paiuengnrB and gooiiii 
for the year then ending were £1,5(10,000, The railway system ia still 

tfar from bemg complete. Dublin is the eentro of the greater part of 
Nateoaelk Biyubs, — The Shannon is navigable from the aea to L. 
Allen, a distance of 2U miles; the Bandon, IS; the BUcknater to 
Fermoy; the 8uir to Clonmel, 40; the Barrow lo Athy, 60; the 
Sore to Thomaatown, 28 ; tho Slaney to Enniscorthy, 15 ; the Boyne to 
Navan, 26; the Lagan to Liabum; the Bann to Coleraine, 5; the Foyle 
to Btrabane, 20 ; Eme to Ballyshannon, G. 

CiKALB.— The mileage of canal amounts to 357 miles. The Grand 
Cajial, irom Dublin to Banagher on the Shannon, connects the Irish Sea 
with the Atlantic, 184 miles. Royal Canal, from Dublin to a point in 
the Shannon a little aboTe Lough Bea, 92 miles. Uevrry Canal unites 
the rJTer Newry with the Upper Bauu, thua connecting Carlingford Bay 
with Lough Xeagh, 12 miles. Lagan Canal, from Belfast to Lough 
Neagh, 20 miles. UlaterCanal, from Charlemont on the Blackwater, n. 
feeder of the Upper Bann, to Lough Erne, by Monaghan and Clones, 46 
miles. Boyne Canal, from Drogheda to Navan, 25 miles. 

ElSCTBlO TbleqeaPH.— four lines of submarine telegraph connect 
Ireland with Great Britain (Holyhead to Dublin ; Milford Haven ta 
Wexford; Stranraer to CarriokferguB; PortpntricktoDonaghadee). Elec- 
tric wires are also laid in connection with all the principal railway lines. 
In 1858 the first submarine telegraph, connectmg the Old World with the 
Hew, was completed. Tlie eastern terminus of the telegraph is in Valentia 
Harbour, county Kerry, and the western at Heart's Content, Trinity Bay, 
Newfoundland. It continued in working order, however, for only a few 
monthfi, and ia now ahandoned. Another cable, between the same ter- 
mini, was laid in 1805, and a third in 18S6, b^th of which are nan in 
■xcellent order. 

Kation»l Cliaracter.— The native Irish belong to the Celtic race, 
•nd are characterised by all the peculiarities which distiagniBh 
It ftom the other branches of the Caucasian family, some of which 
tbey exhibit in an extreme degree. They are remarkable for quick- 
aeBS and intelligence, hut the brilliancy of theic imagination and 
Quit nnriTalled wit are more striking than their depth of thought 
or power of patient investisation. Their wit ui so peculiar and 

fi gaierit, that it ia quite mimitahle by aU save the natives of the 
asrald Isle. They are aingnlarly warm-hearted and hospitable, 
i, when well educateJ and reiined, form the most sgreeahle aaao- 



ciatcs. Their prevailing vices are rashness, improvidence,, and 
a disposition to riotous excitement ; and, when nnder the influence 
of spirituous liquors, they are frequently regardless of human, life. 
They have always manifested a strong aversion to English rule, end 
have had too many causes for evincing a spirit of insubordination : 
hut a better day is beginning to dawn over this unfortunate though 
beautiful country. 

Literature. — Ireland cuuld boast of a written literature long before 
the sister island. Kot a few Irish MSS. still extant are supposed to 
have been written as early as the sixth century. The famous Psalter 
of Cashel, though not compiled till the ninth century, contains 
many compositions of a much older date ; and the same remark holds 
true in regard to the valuable collection of ancient Irish records 
made by Tighemach and other annalists in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. These were printed and published by the Rev. Charles 
O'Connor in 1814-26, both in the original and with a Latin transla- 
tion. The largest known collections of Irish MSS. are those in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin, and those formerly in that of the 
Duke of Buckingham, at Stowe. Of the few works that have ap- 
peared in Irish, in recent times, are Eeating's ' Chronological His- 
tory of Ireland,' and the translation of the Bible, executed in 1681. 
As the Irish language was rarely studied by scholars of other coun- 
tries, learned Irishmen generally wrote in the Latin tongue in early 
times, and in English at a subsequent period. Among the latter 
may be mentioned the following: — Poetry* Dean Swift, Oliver 
Goldsmith, J. Barry, Wolfe, Moore. History: Keating, Leland, 
O'Hallaran. Mental and Moral Science : Bp. Berkeley, Hut- 
cheson. Theology : Archbp. Usher, Dr Adam Clarke, W. B. Kir- 
wan, Archbp. Magee. ^Natural Science : Sir Hans Sloane, Sir 
W. R. Hamilton, R. Kirwan, Goldsmith, Sir D. Barry, R. Murphy, 
Lord Rosse. Orators and Statesmen: Canning, Sheridan, 
Burke, Grattan, Curran, Daniel O'Connel, Lord Macartney, Lord 
Plunket Novelists and Dramatists : Sir K Steele, Sterne, 
O'Hara, Griffin, Arthur Murphy, O'Keeffe, Carleton, Knowles, Lever. 
Fine Arts : Lover, M. Kelly, Sir J. A. Stevenson. Tsayblb : R. 
O'Hara, Burke, Maclure, M'Clintock. Miscellaneous : S. Baunj, 
M alone, K Quin, Maginn, J. W. Croker, J C. Croker. 




Position and Bonndaries. — Spain and | Portngal, other- 
wise called the Iberian or Spanish PeninsulL occnpieB the ex- 
treme S.W. comer of Europe. It is bonnaed on the N. hj 
the Pyrenees and the Bay of Biscay, whiom sepaiate it fuaa 


. France ; on the W, liy the Atlajitio ; iind on the S. and E. 

I partly by the Atlantic and paatly Ly the Mediterranean and 

' Strait of Gibraltar, which sepatate jt from Africa. The Pen- 

' insula liea between the parallels of 36° 1' and 43° 45' N., 

and between the meridjana of 9° 32' W. and 3° 20' E. ; Urns 

occupying 7|° of latitude and nearly 13° of loncitude. iladrid, 

near the centre of the Peiiinsulo, is nearly on tua same pu'ftllel 

OB Naples, Bokhara, Pekin, Great Salt-Lake City, and New 

York, and nearly on the eanie meridian as Edinburgh, Exeter, 

L'Oiient^ Ivory Coast, and St Helena. 

I Form, Oosut-Une, and Extreme Points. — Except for a. consider- 
\ able prolonBation in the extreme N.E., the form of tha Peninsula is 
Dearly a s<iuare, whose longest dia^nal, from Cape St Vincent to 
Capo CreuBe, measures 6S0 miles ; sud the nhorleBt, irom Cape Orte- 
ga! to Cape de Gata, 625 miles. Tlie extreme points are — Cape Boca, 
near Lisbon, the most westerly point of the continent, and Tarifa 
Point, near Gibraltar, the most southerly ; Cape Ortegal in Galicia 
and Cape Creusa iu Catalonia are the extreme N. and B. points. 
Surrounded by the ocean on all sides except the N.K, the sea-margin 
is necessarily targe ; but the ocean nowhere penetrates the land very 
deeply, and there ai-e extensive tracts in the interior at a great dis- 
tance from the sea. The entire coast-line is estimated at 2300 miles, 
of which ISOO belong to Spain and 600 to Portngal ; being 1 mile of 
I coast to each 98 miles of surface — a ratio preatly inferior to that of 
I the other European peninsulas, all of which are deeply indented hy 

Area and Population. —The area of the Penmsula alone is S27,420 
m. miles, or considerably more than the area of France ; 190,93S 
I belong to Spsin, and 30,181 to Portugal Including ths 
Eoicacd Canary Isles, the area of Spain is 195,S14sr^. miles j and 
Blat of Portugal, including the A:!OTes and Madeira, 37,B6S sq. miles. 
Hanas the area of Spain and FortuRal, including the isisuds, is 
nearly double that of the Brit. Isles. In May 1867 the total populv 
tion of Spain amounted to 16,641,080, of which half a million be- 
longed to the islands. The population of Portugal, in 1868, amounted 
to.^3B0,974i of which 366,000 belonged to Madeira and the Azores. 
Eence the entire population of the Peninsula with its islands does 
not nearly equal the population of England and Wales in 1S7 1 , though 
the area la lout times greater. In ttiB beginning of the fourteenth 
century the population of the Peninsula was greatly denser than 
at present, that of Spain alone having been eatimatcil at nearly 
S.O00, 000 ; but in the four subsequent centuries it doclinsd to little 
re than 5,000,000. It is now af^in advancing, though very slowly. 
the first half of the present century it increased about 40 per 
i, the population of 1S03 haring been estimated at 10,361,000. 
imerons wara in which Spain has been engaged, the loss of her 
» and commerce, the want of water in the interior, the indo. 
BDCB of the inhahitimts, and, above all, the blighting agency of her 



religion, account in a great measure for the stationary and frequently 
retrograde condition of the population. The population of Portu- 
gal has increased considerably during the century. 

Political Divisions. — Previously to 1833, Spain was divided into 
fifteen, or, including Granada, into sixteen provinces, many of which 
were called kingdoms. These were then subdivided into forty-nine 
new provinces (including the Balearic Isles and the Canaries), which, 
in general, bear the names of their respective capitals. The three 
Basque provinces, however, and Navarra, retain tneir former names. 
The following is a list of the old provinces, with their capitals, show- 
ing the new provinces into which they have been partitioned : — 

01(1 Provinces. 


New Provinces. 













Galicia < 

Santiago de ) 
Compostella j 

Lugo, Corufia, Pontevedra, Orense. 



Leon, Zamora, Salamanca. 



Caceres, Badajos. 



Sevilla, Cordova, Jaen, Huelva, Cadiz. 



Granada, Almeira, Malaga. 



Murcia, Albacete. 



Alicante, Valencia, Castellon-de-la- 



Tarragona, Barcelona, Gerona, Lenda. 



Huesca, Zaragoza, TerueL 




Old Castile 


Santander, Logrono, Burgos, Palencia, 
Valladolid, Soria, S^ovia, Avila. 

New Castile ) 
&LaMancha j 

Madrid < 

Madrid, Guadalaxara, Cnenca, Toledo, 


The forty-seven continental provinces are most conveniently ar- 
ranged as follows : — 


Seven north-western provinces, fronting the Bay of Biscay. Seven 
western, embracing Leon, Estremadura, and part of Gkdicia. Bight 
southern, embracing Ajidalucia and Granada. Seven eastarn, oom- 
prising Murcia, Valencia, and a part of Catalonia. Six norUi-eaatem, 
containing the remainder of Catalonia, Aragon, and Navarra. Twdvo 
central, embracing Old and New Castile, witi^ La IfimffJi*- In fha 
following lists, towns of above 10,000 inhabitanti an nat In Ingl 
type, and those ranging between 10,000 and 6000 in nnuL 


SjiVBN North-Westben pROYiyCES. 
OnlpnMoa.* — Tolosa E (Orria), San Sabastiaoi 19 (Ummea). 
Towns between 5000 and 10,000 iaiiabitaata. Fuenterrsbia. 

■Bilbao 25 {Nervion), 
AtaTa,— VlTOKlA Ifi (ZadoiTii, afi. of tlie Ebro), 
Baatsader.— Santandeh 30 (Miem). 
OrteAo.— Otiedo 23 (NaloD), Gyon 7, Aviles 6 fS". coast). 
Lugo. — Lroo 7 (Minho), Mondonedo 6 (Masma). 

CoRciJA 30 (Mero), Feirol 17 (W. coast), Tadron B, San- 
Uago de Compostella 27 u. (Ulla). 


PonteTeiia.— PoKTEiTUDBA 5 (Lerey), Vigo 8 (Kia de Vigo). 
0r9ii8e.—0 HESSE S (Minho). 

Leos 6 (BornesgH). 
Zemon.— Zauora 10, Toro 8 (Donro), Benavente 12 (Esla). 

i. — Salamanca 16 (Tonnes), Oiadad Rodrigo 5 (Agueda). 
■Caceres 12 (Caceres). 
GaiTobillas, Flacentia, Trujillo, Montanches, Akantara. 

I. — Badajos 23, OlivencB 10, Don Benito 15, Villajiu«-a 
10 (Gnadiana). 

Xares de Iob Caballeroa, Albuqnenjne, Villafranca, Llerena, Cabcza de! 
:j-, Castusra, Fr^enal de la Sierra. 

EiOHT Sqvthbbn Peotiscbs. 
SeTDla. — Sbtilla 82 (Guadalquivii'), Utrera 13n.(Salado), Moron 


s pravinnes or Spain, d, 

btforeSjO, n, l,r = K'iByo; but g before e.i, <i, like onr ft, very stningW 
uplnlad, u Genii (llenU) ; In tbe nf UaUet ffui. pui, the g la hard, Uiough 

fclnlrtaTls silent :'i«Hii 
■ligbt and acmewhat 

ianan, Frer 
= &ig!lih i 

in Die Buibdi ud German, nr i 
ucar, wtlb the h vaj Birong. 
Ingliab inlifonL' tliua Llobrogat, Lien 
, or Eaglleb ni la Suaniari] : as CaruBa War- ' 
io Ouii3«l5urtit (fiuQ-Jnl-Wrtr^ 
[dole uf wurds have a itroag roUlng louni 

w 1[fce EDgtlnh I. 

gwa (rAa-TTi-jo'tto). 

Roada. Zadc 

a H&i thin': ' 

del. alio u-tfled DayiBlel [pftkUta c 


de la Frontera 13 (Guadairo), Carmona 15, Marcliena 13 (Carboncs), 
Osona 17 n. (Madre Vieja), Ecija 24 (GenU or Xenil). 
Lebrija, Ck}nstaiitma; Cazsdla, Alcala, Fuentes-de-la-Campana, Estepa. 

Cordova. — Cordova 36, Montoro 11 (Guadalquivir), Montilla 13 n., 
Cabra 12, Lucena 17 n. (Cabra), Baena 13 n. (Guadajos), Priego 14 
(Salado, affl. Genii). 

Palma, Bujalance, Rambla, Villanueva, Hlnojosa, Pozoblanco, Castro 
del Real, Espeja, Feman Nufiez, Puente-GenlL 

JaexL — Jaen 23 (Jaen, affl. Guadalquivir), Baeza 11, Andujar 10, 
Ubeda 14 (Guadalquivir), Alcala la Keal 12 (Guadajos), Martos 11 

Cazorla, Linares, Alcandete, Torre Don-Gimeno, Porcunna. 

HuelvaK — Htjelva 7 (Odiel). 
Valverde, Moguer, Palos, Ayamonte. 

Cadiz.— Cadiz 62, San Fernando 10 (Isle of Leon), San Lucar 16 
(Guadalquivir), Puerto S. Maria 18, Xeres de la Frontera 89, Arcos 
11 (Gaudalete), Chiclana 21, Medina-Sidonia 11 (Lerio), A^geciras 

11 (Strait of Gibraltar). 

Bota, Olvera, Ubrique, Vejer de la Frontera, Alcala de los Grazules, 
Tarifa, San Roqiie, Gimena, Grazalema. 

Malaga. — Malaga 93, Antequera 17 (Guadaljorce), Yelez Malaga 
16 (Velez), Ronda 16 (Guadiaro). 
Estepona, Marbella, Archidona, Alora, Alliaurin,Coin, Monda,Colm6nar. 

Granada. — Granada 62, Loja 15 (Genii), Motril 12 (Guadalfeo), 
Baza 11 n. (Barbata, affl. Guadalquivir). 
Montefrio, Alhama, Almufiecar, Adra, Hnescar, iSiebla. 

Almeria. — Almeria 29 (Almeria), Cueva de Vera 10, Hnercabvert 

12 (Almanzora), Velez Rubio 12 (Velez), Berja 10 (Adra). 
Nyar, Gergal, Dallas, Mojacar, Vera, Seron, Velez Blanco, Oria. 

Seven Eastern Provinces. 

Miirda.— MuRciA 88, Cieza 10 (Segura), Lorca 40 (SangonenOj 
Caravaca 10, Cebigan 10 (Caravaca), Cartagena 22 (S. coast). 

Yecla, Jumilla, Mula, Calasparra, Alhama, Fnente, Alamo, TotMUy 
Almazarron, Bullas, Moratello. 

Albacete. — ^Albacete 11 n.. Chinchilla 12 n. (Guadamiiiui, ogL 
Guadalquivir), Hellin 10 (Mundo), Peiias de San Pedro 10 {HadanJ^T 

Alcaraz, Bonillo, Almanza, Tarazona, Tobarra, Candete, Yerte. 

Alicante.>-ALTCANTE 31 (K coast), Orihuela 18 (Seffon.). EUu 18 
(Elche), Alcoy 27 (Alcoy). 

Villajoyosa, Aspe, Novela, Monovar, Villena, Gandiay 

Valencia. — Valencia 87 (Guadalaviar), Aldn IS 
Felipe de Xativa 13 (Albayda). 

Llria, Cnllera, Sueca, Ayora, Carcajente^ Ontenknl^ 
viedro, Torrente. 

Castellon-de-la-Plana. — CA8TELL02f-DB-L4-Ft> 
Vinaros 11 (Cenia). 
Segorbe, Villa-Real, Alcore, Benicarlo, Boxrin 


-Tahhagosa 13, Ecu 

, Vails 11 (Francoli), 



Tutasa, VUlftfrBnca, Cerrera. 

Sh Nobth-Eastbrn Provincih. 

Garona.— Gerona 8 <Ter), Olot 12 (Flnvia). 

Blanes, S. Felin do Gnisols, FiguersB. 

Lertda.— LEKniA 17 (Segre). 

Bnetoa. — Hubsca 9 (lauela), Fraga G, Barbaatro 6 (Cinca). 

ZaraKDxa. — Zaracoza 56 (Ebro). 

Caape, Tuazona, Calataynd. 

TemSL — TERtTEL 7 (GuadakTisr), AleaBk 6 (Gaudalape). 

HaTaiT&. — Pamplona 23 jAgia). 

TudsU, Estella, Sanguesa. 

Twelve Central Protinces. 
BuigOB.— Buitoos 26 (Arlanzon, n^. Douro). 
Xognma. — LooroSo 7, Calahorra 6, Haro li (Ebro). 
Pftlouda. — Falehcia 11 (Carrion, o^. Pisuerga). 
ViLlladOUil — Vallaholid 40 (Pisuerga), 
Medina deKio Sato. 
Borta.— SoRiA 3 (Donro). 
BegoTla.— SEaovTA 13 (Erearaa, agl. Dquto). 
Avlla. — AviLA G (Ad^a, aJL Donro). 
Haibld. — MAMtis 333 (Manzanares). 
AlcaU, CliinctioD, Colmeoar. 
Onadalaxara.— GuADALAXAiiA 5, Sigiii>nza G (HenareB). 

Cnenca Cvekca6 (Xacar), Beqneiia 11, Utiel S (Magro). 

Kfledo.— ToLEEO 15 (Tagua). 
Talaveni, Madridejos, Quintaiiar, OcaOa. 

Ctndoa BeaL— CiUDAS Real 8 n. i^Guadiaiia), Alraagro IS i 
'aldepenoa 10 {Jabalouj, Daiuiiel 12 (Azur). 
Maiuanarea, Solana, Almodovar, Alcazar, Ugreuua, Almml^Tii 

Two i.\s 

< i'i.. 


Ilahoii 13, Ciuiindeh 

CuuTlas.— Sakta { ' I 

IS Folmaa 13 (Grand ' 

I, PoKTCOAii formei ; ■ 

aces ^besides tlii- /> ' 

r 1 (MbJotm), Port. 
H 8 (Iiknii IVmrrrllTe), 


are subdivided for administrative purposes into twenty-six 
comarcas or shires. 

Mlnho.*— Braga 20 (Ria d'Este). 
Viana, Guimaraens^ Prado. 

Tras-OB-Montes. — Braoanca 5 (Sabor). 

Douro or Maritime Belra. — Oporto 89 (Douro), Coimbra 18 (Mon- 
dego), Ovar 10 (Vonga). 
Aveiro, Mira, Figuera. 

Upper Belra.— ViSKTJ 9 (Vouga), Lamego 9 n. (Douro), Almeida 7 
Lower Belra. — Castello Branco 6 (Yereza), Covilha 5 (Zezerc) 

Bstremadura.— Lisbon 224 (Tagus), Setubal 13 (Sadao). 
Abrantes, Torres- Vedras, Cezimbra, Vimeira. 

Alemtejo.— EvoRA 13 (Xarama), Elvas 11 (Guadiana). 
Portalegre, Castello de Vide, Estremoz, Beja, Serpa. 

Algarve. — Faro 8, Lagos 7, Loul^ 8 n., Tavira 11 (S. co.) 

Azores. — ^An6Ra12 (Terceira), Ponta Delgadal6 (San Miguel). 

Madeiras.— FuNCHAL 18 (Madeira), Porto Santo 6 (Porto Santo). 

Descrlptlye Notes. — Spain, including the islands, contains only 
two cities of above 100,000 inhabitants — ^viz., Madrid and Barce> 
lona; seven above 50,000 — viz., Malaga* Valencia, Seville, Mnr- 
cia, Cadiz, Zaragosa, Granada; and nineteen between 20,000 
and 50,000. The southern provinces (Andalucia and Granada) are 
by far the most densely peopled portions of the kingdom, and con- 
tain a full half of the total number of towns ; the twelve central 
provinces are very thinly peopled, while the western and norih- 
western are the least populous of all. 

San Sebastian, a strongly-fortified seaport-town, and the largest in fhe 
province, was taken by storm by the British from the French hi 1813^ 
and reduced to ashes ; but has since been rebuilt, and is now one of tbe 
finest cities in Spain. Bilbao, the principal port of the north of Spain» 
and the great emporium of Spanish wool for exportation. YitOTiA, cele- 
brated for a great victory gained by the Duke of Wellingtm over the 

* The Portuguese vowels a, e, i, o, u, y, and the diphthongs at, tm, mL 9LwaA 

ey, have essentially the same sound as m Spanish ; but oo is ntmi, as m Kmso 

(MareormaTU while the combinations ei and oi are not diphtluKQgi : ai Beln» 

Coimbra cJ5e'i-ra, Co-im'hra). 

c has a hard and soft sound as in English, but has the MiUia mora tnqpaOj 

than in Spanish. 
ch and « = cA in French or sh in English : thoa^ Ohavea^ Vundialp ZSm 

(SMves^ Fung'aial, Sha'res). 
g before e, i, and y, and j, have the same sound as In Fcenoli ; aa CiMsi toi 

Geres, Alemt^o (Ccudat-do-ZMru, Al t mg to W e ] 


/tis always silent, but when it follows lor » 

thus, Covilha, Minho {Co-vOrva, UiiCyo\ 
m and n are frequently nasaL and aimilar to tibat dtm : M A^* 

gu and qu are sounded like our a hard and L tt' 

diana, Ourique {Ga-di^na, Oo-iwliqyX 




Frenuli in 1313. Bantander was sacked by t!ifl French In 1803 : It Las 
productivB Iron-minea in the yiciiiity. Orifldo, notod for its hot mineral 
apringi and bathR. Conma, a flonrishing commercial and fDrtified town, 
witha fine harbour. It was from thia port the Spanish Annada set Bail 
for the conquest of England in 1638 ; and near this, oh Uib heights of 
Elvina, the French were defeated by the trnopa under Sir Jehu Moore, 
who fell in tbe hour of riotoiy, JannBrf 1809. Ferrol, one of the threo 
principal araenala of Spain, U strongly fortilied. Bantlago do CompOE- 
talla, with B imiveisity, and a magnificent cathedral dedicated to St 
Jameithe Elder, the patron saint of Spain. Zamora, with manufactures 
of coarse woollen hata, leather, and gunpowder. Salamuica, with an 
aneient and famous univeisjty, formerly the principal seat of learning in 
Spain, but now greatly decayed ; liero tbp French were defeated by Wel- 
lington in 1812. Badsjos.aBtrongly-fortiBed city on tho Gusdiana, te- 
peatcdly taken and ntaken in the Feninaular war, is the birthplace of 
the painter M orales. Seville or SevillEi, one of the most ancient tovraa 
in Europe, the capital of Spain under the Gothic dynasty, and afterwards 
of Andnlncia, was long tho chief residence of the Spanish roonsrehs; has 
s fine cathedral, and one of the principal universitiea of Spain : it baa tba 
largest cigar and tobacco monufactocy in Europe, employing 3O0O persona. 
CordOTa,oncB the capital of tho Caliphate of the West, and afterwards of 
the kingdom of Cordova. In modem times thia city was noted for its 
mannfftotnre of a sort of leather, called cordKain or cordoron, which has 
now declined. Codil, a lai-ge fortified city on the Isla of Leon, the prin- 
dpal commercial city in the kingdom, and the centre of the trade in sherry 
WuiB. Xsrw do la Frontara, e>;teuaively engaged in the manufactura 
of wine, and giving its name iiieny)to one variety. Malafa ia the chief 
port of the province, and l^ely engaged in eiiportiug wiues, raisins, 
almonda, and other fruits. The Malaga raisins, called rauacatBla, fetch 
a greatly higher price than any other deacription. Granada, in a plain 
renowsed for its beauty and fertility, was tlie capital of the laat Moorish 
Idngdora in Spain ; the palace of the fcing.i, the famous Alhambra, a 
coble specimen of Moorisn architecture, is still standing. Unicla, with 
goremment factories of nitre and gunpowder, and a richly-decorated 
lythedral. Lorea, a busy tluivingtown, with manufactoriea of saltphBtre, 

atienal of Spain. Valencia, a 
with a flounshing university. Is ^ , 
Tortosa, a strongly-fortified city on the Ebro, with an active fishery iTi 
sturgeons and lamproys. Su-eelona, the former capital of Catalonia, and 
the second city in Spam in point of population, is strongly fortified, has 
a university and four public libiuriea, one of which is celebrated as con- 
taining many valuable MSS. Barcelona ia laigely engaged in trade and 
- mnfactnles, and has for ages been a place of great importance. Zara- 
SE at SuMfona (Oesaiea Augusta), an ancient and populous city on 
■"oro, and the only place of importance in the nortb-eoatem provinces, 
wu me capital of the old kingdom of Aiagon ; it contains a, university ; 
and its oatheial is cdebratod over Spain for its aanctuoiy, which attracts 

' - "t heroic daienco against the 

„ of the principal fortrojaes ol 

1^ thsBtitiah iu 1813. Bnrgoa, tha 

"^ chiefly celebrated for its catbedrr ' 

, Tulftdolld, formerly a place 

atit contains a celebrated uoir 





sity ; hero Columbus died in 1B06. Segovia, noUil (or its maguificent 
Raniaa aqnedact of 161 archea, and Dnmeroiu other remuaa of ita formor 
grandeur. Madrid, the capital of Spain, occupies an elevated cite in the 
centro of s barren plain, 2200 feet ahove the level of tlie sea, and farftoia 
any navigable river. It is anhjecl to great ineqiialitiea of tempeTatnre, 
and in reckoned very unhealthy. It ie about eight milea in circuit ; tho 
modem ^rt of the city ia handsome, but the numoer of convents and 
other religiona honsea, with grated windows and without visible doora, 

S'vea the streets a sombre asneet. Madrid ia tho birthplace of Alonzo 
1 Ercilla, Lopu de Vegs, Calderon de la Barca, NnGez, and the brothera 
Velaaqnez. Toledo waa the capital of Spain under the Goths, at which 
time it had 200,000 inhabitanta, though now it has but 13,000. Ithaa 
ioug been famona for the manufacture of sword-blades, and great skill ia 
atill shown in teraperiog them. Almnden. ; near it are valuable ^nicli- 
silver-mines, the most ancient in the world. Palma, a fortified city on 
the S.W. coast of Majorca, haa in its vicinity a huRB palace, formerly 
occupied by the Spanish Inquisition. Fort Uahon, also a fortilieil tonn, 
capital of Minorca, and the residence of the military ^ovamor. SantB- 
Croi, capital of the Canary Islands, in the island Teneriffe, has an export 
trade in vine. Las Palmas, the principal tomi in the same group, InB a ■ 
population of 13,000. 

Towns m PoRlnoAii. — Portugal, including the islands, con- 
taina only two towna above 60,000 inhabitants — Lisbon and 
Oporto ; one at 20,000— Braga ; and eleven between 10,OIX) and 

tho present royal family, has manufactures of velvets and other silk 
fabrics. Chaves, a fortified town, with hot saline springs of 129' Fair. 
Oporto, or Porto, » largo oonuneteial city at the mouth of tho Douro ; in 
popnhition and commercial importance it ranks nert to Lisbon, which it 
excels in the amount and variety of Ha manufactures. It exports im- 
mense quantities of port wine, and has estensive silk-factories, and some 
of linen and cotton goods. Coimbra, on the Monde^o, ia the seat of the 
sole university in the kingdom. Coimbra is one of the rainiest localitlea 
in Europe— 118 inches of rain fallsunnaUy. Lisbon, the capital of Portu- 
gal, on the right bank of the Tagus near its maath, with about a 
qnarter of a million inhabitants. It contains many splendid architectu- 
ral monnmenta, especially tlie palaces ofthenobility, and the magnificent 
aqnedact of Alcantara, with thirty-aii arches of white marble. Ths 
streets, however, are narrow, winding, and dirty. There are few Impor- 
tant manufactures, except of jeweUeiT and trinketa ; and its commerce, 
which was once conaiderable, has greatly declined since the Portuguese 
colonies became independent. Usbon waa the birthplace of Camoena, 
TDlreB-VedTOSi celebrated in tho Peninsular war for the lines of defence 
constructed by Wellington in 1810 to obstruct the approach of tho 
French. Vimeira, where the Dnke of Wellingtoa defeated the French lu 
180S. Zvora, an ancient city of Roman ori^m, with manufactures of 
hardware and leather. Elvas, a fortified frontier city on the right bank 
of tho Guadiana, with a college and s Moorish aqueduct. Faro exporti 
fresh and dried fruits, wine, cork, sumach, and anchovies. Angra, a for- 
tified seaport, and capital of the Azores, Hith a military college and other 
educational satablishmetits. Fonts, Delgada is the principal towD in the 




Azores with regard to population and commercB, Punclial, the capital 
of the ialand Uodeiia, ig engaged in the manufacture and Bipartation ot 
Madeira vine. 

Capet.— /n Spam .- Cape Pinistcrre, in Galicia, the most western 
point of Spain; Ortegal, in the Bame province, the most northern 
point of Spain ; Creni, in Catalonia, the moat eastern ; St Martin, 
In Valencia ; Falos, in Murcia ; Gala, in Granada ; Eurapa Point 
near Oibrsltar ; Tarifa Point, the mast soathern point of the conti- 
nent of Europe ; Trafal|;ar, W. of Andalncia, off which Lord Kelson 
ilefuated the uimbined French and Spanish fleets, in ISOfl. /n Por- 
tagal: Cape Santa Haria, the soutnenimoat point of Portugal; St 
Vincent, S.W. of Atearve, off which Sir Joiin Jerria signally de- 
feated tlie Spanish fleet, in 1797 ; Espichel and Roca gnard the 
entrance of me Tagua : the latter is the most western point of the 
continent of Europe. 

of the province Cadiz; Canary IslandSjf 60 miles S.W. of Mar- 
ooco — the principal are Lazarote, Fuerte Ventura, Grand Canarj, 
Teneriffe, Gomera, Palma, and Hiero. Portuguese: The Azores,! 

BOO miles W. of Portagal ; principal, San Miguel, Terceira, Pico, 
San Jorjte, Santa Maria. The Madeira Isles, g 6B0 miles S.W. of 
Portng^, consist ot Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas. 

Bara and Btraitl. — Bay of Ssntander, in Santander; Rta de 
Betanzos anii d'Arosa, W. of Galicia ; Bay of Cadiz, Bay and Strait 
of Gibraltar, Gulf of Almeria, S. of Andalncia; Gulfs of Amposta and 
Sosas. B. of Catalonia. InPortagal : Bahia d'Aveiro, W. of Donro; 
estuary of the Tagns and Bay of St Ubea, in Estremadora ; Bay of 
Lagos, S. of Algarve. 

Snrtaco and Mountains. — The Iberian Peninsnla — the most west- 
erly of the three grand peninsnlas of Southern Europe — in its general 
cbaracteristicB more closely resenibics Africa than it does the rest of 
Europe, For the moat pait it consists of a lofty plateau, which, in 
its interior, attains to an elevation of about 2500 feet, and which is 
xlcirted on all sides by a low helt of land separating it from the sur- 

* la Spaniali, Baltn\ 
fapnMioD (IBM.) 971. 
lma»; prtaalnl piodoets— oUi«a, 

t Tna Cuunei ua of volcanic or.„ ^ 

Qm miHUiUiii*, vhich attain a ereal elcvatlaii, eapeclslly thi 

(im,) 978,000, Ttae climate Is lenipcrtle uid health;, tbe 
prtnalnil piodoets— oUi«a, wine, btatnly.fnilts, ralTron, Ubl 

tnpfaial htat la modenled bj ths AtlinKe tireeiea : pdodpsl proancl] arsulse. 
oU, £«l0| neu-^iane, ud finLta. Area, 3323 aq, m. ; pop. (in 1S04X S£0,40S. 

IThaAxom, n Weitero laLoDda— in FoctBgaeae-^pirei— arenCvolcuiloariKiii, 
irtth steep and rugged coaata. aboandlng with deep tavlnas aiid lofty mountaliiB. 
na peak of Flea la Itlt ruthlgli. Climxte temperate aod bealihy, but subject 
Hi TuflAOt earthqiulieB : prineipsl prodnals a» irizieB, all kinds ot gnln and 
iDdtebacoii. A[ea,U4Taq 



rounding seas. The two loftiest mountain-ranges form, respectively, 
the southern and northern boundaries of this pMean, while the three 
intermediate ranges traverse it. Owing to the peculiar 8aw4»ke ap- 
pearance of their summits, the different ranges are termed Herrcts. 
The culminating-point of the entire Hesperian system is Cerro Mnl- 
ha9en, in the Sierra Nevada, 11,663 feet, where the line of perpetuAl 
congelation is 11,200 feet above the sea, while in the Pyrenees it is 
only 8856 feet. 

The Pyrenees, with the mountains of Asturias, which form their 
western continuation, extend from Cape Creux in Catalonia to Cape 
Finisterre in Galicia, and separate the basin of the Garonne, Adour, 
and Bay of Biscay, from the basins of the Ebro and Douro : highest 
summits^Mount Maladetta (near the centre of the Pyrenees), 11,163 
feet ; Sierra Penamarella, in Leon, 10,000 feet. 

Mountains of Castile^ or central chain, separating the basins of the 
Douro and Tagus : Sierra Gredos, between Old Castile and Estremadura, 
10,552 feet ; Sierra d'Estrella, in Beira, 7524 feet. 

Mountains of Toledo, extending from Cape Espichel in Portugal to 
the S. W. of Aragon, and separating the basms of the Tagus and Gua- 
diana : Sierra de Guadalupe, 5115 feet. 

Sierra Morena, from Cape St Vincent to Cape St Martin, and sepa- 
rating the basins of the Guadiana and Guadalquivir in the W. from 
those of the Xucar and Segura in the E. ; Mount Aracena, in Seville, 
5550 feet ; Sierra Monchique, in Algarve, 4080 feet. 

Sierra Nevada, from the Rock of Gibraltar to Cape Palos, and between 
the basin of the Guadalquivir and the Mediterranean : highest summit, 
Cerro Mulha^en, in Granada, 11,663 feet, forming the culminating-point 
of the Peninsula. 

Riyer-Basixis. — The grand line of water-parting of Europe traverses 
the Peninsula from S.w. to N.E. Commencing at Tarifa Point, it 
follows the crest-line of the Sierra Nevada in a» easterly direction, 
then turning northward, it forms a semicircular curve, the concave 
side of which is towards the Atlantic, and strikes the Pyrenees near 
the source of the Ebro. It thus divides the Peninsula into two un- 
equal slopes, the larger of which bends towards the Atlantic and 
the smaller towards the Mediterranean. Hence, of the five principal 
rivers, no fewer than four (Douro, Tagus, Guadiana, and Guadal- 
quivir) find their way to the Atlantic, wnile the Ebro alone flows to 
tne Mediterranean. The combined area of the former amounts to 
85,000 sq. m., and embraces 25 out of the 55 provincial capitals of 
Spain and Portugal ; while the Ebro drains 25,000 sq. m., and em- 
braces in its basin 6 capitals. 

TaUe of Biyers and Towns.— There are 815 towns in the Penin- 
sula at or above 5000 inhabitants, of which 117 exceed 10,000. 
These stand on 154 rivers, of which 54 enter the sea, the remaining 
100 being their affluents. Th^se 315 towns are given in the follow- 
ing table. The capitals of provinces are distinguished by being 
printed in SMALL capitals, towns above 10,000 in Roman letters, 
and the remainder in Italics. 

^^^^^H SPAIN 

poaTUGAi.. 1S5 

^^^^^ BaHas incliwt 

W« 4(toli^ 

SiiteTI. Tomis. 
BldflMon. FufnUrrabia. 

J(.Hri. Ton™. 
TftjuDa, ....CRinran- 

Saniraa, ..HADam, n. 


Mlora. 8*»T*HDER. 

ul^'' Alcala.OxiM>>uxiSi. 

N.Co. Gijon, A„ilti. 


Nlloa Ov«DO, 

B Hern, CohdS*. 

SaOao SetubttL 

m mill, Padron. aantligo do 

■ Compoatellm D. 

3,CollB»W;;L™»t F.RO, Liiuli 

I ias^.-ifs"-"- 

Tenia, EIvds, BioAJOB, 

r MinliD, OHBB»«,Lnoo. 

Don Benito, ViUaDncta 

■ Um... r«Bm. 

ae Senna, u., ClDOAa 

C»»do. JVado. 




Doaro Opobto, Zauoiia, To™, 

Unrtiga, i Frrgtnal it la Sierra, 


COTBii. latnegD- 

Sabor. BiuoisfA. 

Matacfia], 1 Llertna. 

Ccw,{ JtDMida. 

Zaiii.l Vlllanoeva, Cabeza del 

AgiuHta. I ..Ciudad Rodrigo. 


Tgmies, J.,.H.IJHAKC.. 


J;.li^ Benavente. 


Oai^ilii- Almaden, a. 

H B<«BUl".r:-M«lina ael Rio Seco. 

^^1 Ounon, ..FiLUNciA. 

JabaloD, (..Almagro, n.. Val do Pb- 

^^B AiluHD, Bimoos. 



^B AdgJa,I....AnLX. 

iTtfanlei, n. 


^H Tanaa, Oior, Avein, Visou. 

Zanian,.. ...jjoisti- de Sun Juan, n. 

■ (rSilauro,..Jfi«; 

^ Jlondego, iWini,CQtmbn,Cwir- 


Binndio, TBrra-Viarta. 


*» '=,s;^T,-„it 

Odiel HoELVA, FalcenK. 

Tin to, .. .... .,Patot, Mofiuer. 

Ouad&lquivir, Labrya.S.LacardaEani- 
moaa, aEvii.i.E, Cat- 

■ Cohnsnar, 

Diona, n„ Coedoxa. 

^B ZBtuLorEr- PorloIfi^rK. 

Bvjalanee, Montoro, 

inW Baeia, n. 

^H AlUi>tun,?9tr9nuiL 




^" ZB»re, Cooafco. 

GQudolia, 1 Almla, Koran - do - li- _ 

TsTBBi, CAsn:u.a-Bniki<CD. 


Queana, Camtaaiina, Cazalla. M 

S=vM,i J-oimeiiAi^toonWro. 

Carbonon, 1 Cannona, Kurcliens. H 


Atop™ AleaMaTa,Btiiit. 

GMjU,i Ectja, Pu™t.-0«iii, ■ 


i'ji^pa, n.. Lnjm JZ-i* ■ 

W/™, n.,Gl^.DA. ■ 





Basim inclined to the 

Rivers. Totcn». 

Cabra, ,...Ramhla, n., Montilla, n., 

Cabra, Lacena, n. 
Salado, ...Priego. 
Alhama, I Alhama. 
Gaadiata, . . Villanueva. 
Guadajos, I .Feman Nunez^ n., Es- 
pejo, Castro, Baena, n., 
Alcala la Real. 
Salado, I ....Porcunne^n., Torre Don^ 

QimenOf Martos. 
Gaadannina,^2cara2r, Albacete, n., 
Chinchilla, n., Bonillo. 
Guarrezas, LtJiarM. 
Jaen, I Jaen. I 

A tlantie (continued). 

Riven. Townt. 

Gandiana- Ubeda. 
Minor, { 

Barbata,..Baza, n., Huescar, 

Vega, I Caxoria. 

Guadalete.... Cadiz, n.. Rota, n., 
Puerto Santa Maria, 
Xeres de la Fronten, 
Arcos, OlvercL, 
Mi^azeite, I Ubrigue. 

Lirio, San Fernando, n. , Chio- 

lana, Medina-Sidonia. 

Barbate, V^er. 

Vadalmedina,^ fca2a de log ChuuiUt. 

Basins indined to the Mediterranean, 

Strait of Gib- Tarifa, Algeciras, Gibral- 
raltar tar, San Roqti^. 

Guadiaro, Gimena^ Grazalema, n. , 


S. Co. Malaga, Estepona, MarbeUa. 

Goadaljorce, ..Malaga, n.,^2ora, Ante- 
qnera, Archidona. 
Faala, A Ihaurin, Coin, Monda. 

Telez, Velez Malaga, Colmenar. 

S.Co. Granada,^ 2mu»ecar. 

Gnadalfeo, ....MotriL 

Adra, Adra, Dalian. Beija. 

Almeria, Almeria, Nijar, n., Ger- 

Almanzora, ...Vera, Cneva de Vera, 

Seron, Huercalovera. 
S. Co. Mnrcia, Almazarron, Cartagena. 

S^nua, Orihnela, Murcta, Cieza, 

CaZasparra, Teste. 

Elche, { Elche, CrevUlente, Aspe, 

Novelda, Monovar, Vil- 
lena, Yecla, n., Cau- 
Alfera,.. ^ Imama. 
Sangonera,..MnRciA, MtUOy n., Al- 
hama, n., Fuente, 
A lamo, TotanOf Lorca, 
Velez Blanco. 
Velez, . . . .Velez Rnbio, Oria, n. 
Caravaca, . . .Caravat^ Cehigan. 
Moratalla, ..MorataUa. 

Mundo, I Helltn, JumiUa, n., To- 

Madera, {.Penaade San Pedro, n. 
E. Co. Alicante AucAirrs, Villajoyosa. 

Alcoy, Oandia, Concentaina, 


Xncar, CtMera, Sueoa, Aldni, 

Ayora, n., CuKir(A. 

Magro, I.... Reqnena, Utiel 
Albayda,....Xativa San Felipe, Car- 
cagente, Onteniente. 
Canoles, I Enguera. 

Jara, 2 Taraxona. 

Guadalavjar, . .Valencia, Terukl. 

Palancia, Mitrviedro, Seg^nrbe. 

Rio Seco, Burriana. 


Aleora, n. 
Co. Castellon- Beniearlo, Vinaroi. 

Ebro, Tortoaa, Caape, 2aba- 

oozA, Tuaela, Coto- 
Aons, LooEBOfto, Hoiu 

S^re, I Lebida. 

Cinca, — Fraga, Bafitaatra. 

Balira, . ...Akdobba (aq^iU of Ba- 
Gnadalope, AUanix. 
BeiganteB, JrorvOa, n. 

Jalon, Cotateyud. 

QneUu, ....TanoHma. 

Alhama, CoreUck. 

Aragon, { ...Sanguimi. 
Agra,.... Pakpixika. 

Ega,{ SattUa. 

Zadorra, { . . . Vrobia. 

Francoli, Tabbaooou, Ban. YiIIil 

Foix, Vi]la-Niuiv|«r< 

Llobregat,....J\» !■■■," 

Noya. IflulidBft 

Betofl, 1uwow<« 

Co. of Gate- lUtan. JBftHHik & 
loniL diOniMiL 

Ter, flsanUftn. . ^^ 

Fliwla, OMt , **?- 

Manol, Jm mm^ ■i}Xi**->i 

Lakes.— There are no lakes of any inip o rtm ' 
tngaL There is, however, a lai;^ H&-«i^ 
Valencia, abounding in fish and mld-Anri, ' 
and three snuQl la]^ in Gindad-Baa^ 


The fint, vliidi fomui its aouTce, iB called lAke B/ml; llieii the mta 
traveneB aoine miles of itt coiLrae mtder graund, and reapiieors ic two 

CBamte. — The Pemnsnla bemg bo eitensTC, and there being h 
erGHt difference of ele^'atiau between the interior and the nmritime 
aJBtricts, grBHit diflerenoea of climate eiist. On the groat Dentral 

£teatif vhich haa an average elevation of ^^00 feet, great heat and 
ught preTail in aimiiner, and Bevere oold in winter. The meon 
annnal iaotherm of fi(l° paasea E. acd W, throngh the centre of 
the Peninsnia. At Madrid, in the centre of the Peninsula, the 
meBm annual teiaperstnre is SS°.£, the mean aummer, 76°. 4, andtbe 
mean winter, 43°,1. Here winter ie the Tainy season, when froataare 
■erere at night, the thermometer often aishns; below 40° : while in 
■ommer it not imlrequentlj rises to 90°, and the total araonnt of 
umal rain do^ not exceed 10 inches. The most noxious winds are 
le iSblono, a hot wind from the S., and the Oaliego, a cold, piercing: 
d from tliB N.W. In the N.W., theclimate ia damp, the annual 
idipitBtioD varjing from S5 to 35 imJiea ; but at BEIao, it is said 
ei 100 inches. In the cestem provinces it is mBd. but van- 
n the S-W., almost African ; and in the S.E. an almost per- 
I Spring prevails. The thmate of PoRTtTGiL is generally 
althy, eapeciiiJly in the elevated regions. Mean annnal tempeta- 
TeBtLiBbon.61°.8; winter, 5S°.4; and summer, 70°.B. R^iavery 
lewest coaet, eapeciallj in autumn, the tract extend- 
ing tpuni Coimbra to Hafnt being the rainiest spot on the contiuent 
inEnrope. Here 118 iDches of rain fall aimuiJly, Snow is rare in 
Ae BonuiBni pnmnaes of the kingdom. 

OaOIaEy. — The weatem half of the Peninsula, &om the Baj of 
BiscBT to the Gaudalquivir, consists for the most part of Siliirian 
strata, interspersed nith extensive tracts of granite, esjiecially in 
the north : another belt of Snnrian rocks lines the coast from Gibrat- 
tBT to Cartagena ; and a third is faund aronnd Calatyud, between 
tLe Bonrcea of the Tagna and DDoro. Upper Palxozoic beds prevail 
in the Pyrenees, and m a large tract S. and W, o[ Oviedo, between 
the aooreeB of the Miaho and Ehro. Secondaij beds prevail along 
the north coast from Cape Fefiaa to St Hebaatian ; aootlier broiu 
vact extends in a S.B. direction from Buit^os to Csstelloa-de-la- 
; a similar belt along the heights which divide the waters of 
s Gandalqaivir from those Sowine to the Mediterranean ; and s. 
— "ii alone the Atlantic, fronj Lisbon to near Ovar. Almost the 
e lemamder of Spain coaaisu of teTtiair formations, little of 
' " ' 1 in Pcriuyiil. =iuiiL aliiug tue south bank ot the 

III itro Temnrknhie holh 
. Ti-njoe!r auy iniporttiut 
.■ !uOT/l.„-ai..iei The 


Cantabrian Mountains, and recently in Majorca, valuable deposits of 
coal; tin, zinc, antimony, and arsenic, in many localities ; silver 
near Guadalcanal, in Seville ; rock-salt in Cordova ; precious stones 
in many places ; jasper, granite, alabaster, and beautifully variegated 
marble almost everywhere ; while the quicksilver-mines of Almaden 
have been long celebrated. These precious ** treasures of the low- 
lying deep," however, are sadly neglected ; for in Spain all things 
are in a state of utter stagnation. The minerals of Portugal are 
almost as varied and valuable as those of Spain, and almost equally 
neglected. The principal mineral products that are in some measure 
wrought are iron, marble, and salt (from lagoons). Iron is very 
abundant ; a smidi gold-mine is wrought at Setubal ; there are only 
two coal-mines, one at Oporto and the other at Buarcos ; tin, lead, 
and antimony are now wholly neglected. 

Botany. — The indigenous ve^ijetation of Spain and Portugal belongs 
exclusively to Schouw's third * * Phyto-Geographical Region," de- 
scribed under " Europe " (p. 81). The number of indigenous plants 
in the whole Peninsula has not been ascertained ; but Renter col- 
lected 1250 species of flowering-plants in New Castile alone. Accord- 
ing to Webb and Berthelot, 900 species of flowering-plants are found 
in the Canary Islands. The best Duilding- timber grows on the north 
coast ; the cork-tree, the Kermes oak, and the Sumach tree, farther 
south. Of food-plants, the vine, olive, orange, fig, citron, date, 
abound on the E. coast, together with carobs, or St John's bread, 
sweet potato, the sugar-cane, and the cotton-plant, along with pome- 
granates, figs, almonds, olives, in the S. ; nuts, gooseberries, and 
orchard-fruits in the N. and N. W. In Portugal are found the vine, 
date, olive, orange, lemon, citron, the American aloe, rice, stone-pine, 
orchard-fruits, and water-melons. 

Agriculture is in a very backward state in all parts of the Peninsula, 
though it forms the leading occupation of the people of both countries. 
The implements of husbandry are of the rudest description ; the rotation 
of crops, and indeed all the modem improvements, are wholly unknown. 
Though the soil in many parts is extremely fertile, especially in Portugal 
and the south of Spain, only about a half of the surface is under culti- 
vation. The principal objects of culture, are grain crops of all kinds (in- 
duing wheat, barley, maize, and rice) ; the vine, cotton, tobacco, mul- 
berry-plant, sugar-cane, hemp, and flax. The corn-crop is generally 
sufficient for home consumption, and large quantities of wine and fruits 
are exported, those of Xeres (sherry), Malaga, and Oporto (port wine), 
being the most celebrated. The central plateau, especially in Castile and 
Leon, consists of pasture-ground, where vast numbers of merino sheep 
are reared for the sake of their valuable wool. 

Zoology. — Of the 223 mammalia inhabiting Europe, 69 are found 
in the zoological province to which Spain belongs — a province con- 
terminous with the phyto-geographical region above mentioned. Of 
the 490 European birds, 294 are found here ; and of. the 78 reptiles, 
51 species. Of the 69 mammals, 42 species are camivora, 16 rodents, 
and 9 ruminants ; while of the two remaining, one is a qxiadrumauous 
animal — viz., the Barbary ape, which inhabits the rock of Gibraltar, 




the only IcMlity in Europe wliete quadnimana nrc found ; and the 
other a pachyderm— viz., the Sum icropha, or wild-boar. The wolf, 
bear, chamois, and ibex, are foUDdlDthe Pyrenees; tb« marten izi Bis- 
cay ; the chamelenn near Cadiz ; lynxes, foxes, wild-cats, and weasels, 
in numeroiia localities. The baO^alo is the only bovine species, but 
there are three species of sheep, one of which (the merino) yields a 

Cb quantity of the finest wool, and is forbidden to be exported, 
breed, however, is now largely reared in Saxony and other 
German States. Of the numerous birds, we can only meation tlie 
eagU, vulturs and flnmiuga. Fish is not plentiful In the rivers, lut 
abundant on the Atlautic coasts. 

EUmography. — The people of th( Pentuaula nearly all belong to the 
OreRo-Latin variety of the groat Caucasian race ; but Overrun as tlie 
coiuitry has been at different times by widoly-diSerent tribes, a con- 
Biderable variety of race appears in the diflerent provinces. Tbe 
Iberians, and afterwards the Celts, were the earliest inhabitants, and 
Celtic blood still predominates both in Spain and Portugal. The 
eonth of Spain was colonised by the Pheniciana and Carthaginians 
in the fourth century before our era ; the Romans subdaed the whole 
Feninsnla, £.Q. 2CIS ; the Vandals, Suevi, and afterwards the Visi- 

Eths, overmn the country in the beginning of the fifth century; the 
DOTS, or Saracens, drove the Goths to the northern mountsjns in 
A.D. 714, and for seven centuries thereafter retained possession of the 
centre and south, where they established several powerful kingdoms, 
hut were finally eipelled in 1492 by theUliriatians, under Ferdinand 
knd Isabella. Kotnithstanding this great intermixture of blood, 
four distinct families are still discernible— viz., the Spaniards proper, 
descended from the Celts, Phenicians, Romans, and Goths, constitut- 
ing about nineteen -twentieths of the entire population ; the Basqneii, 
in the north-west provinces, the descendants of the ancient Iberians ; 
the Moors, in the south; and tbe Gypsies or Gitanos, probably of 
Hindu origin, numbering about GO,00(i, in various locanties. The 
Jewish race was totally expelled in 1492. 

Languages. — Notwithstanding the great extent of the Peninanla, the 
langutwes and dialects are comparatively few ; and, with the exception 
of ue Baaqat, whose relations are yet unknown, belong to the Orecc- 
Latin family. The Spanish and Portuguese, both of them descendants 
of the ancient Galician, and for a long time mere dialects of the same 
language, have at length come to differ considerably. The Spaniili 
proper, or Castilian, fonnd in its greatest purity in Castile, is mani- 
festly descended from the Latin, tliough with a considerable admix- 
ture of Gothic, and more especially of Arabic words. So conspicu- 
ous is the latter element, that some philologists reekon it as a sort of 
connecting-link between the Indo-European and Semitio stocks. In 
Krammatica! structure, however (the main element to he considered 
in determining the affinities of a language), ss also in the great bulk 
of its roots, it bears little resemblance to the Anibic or any other 
Semitic tongue. In addition to the Peninsula, Spanish is spoken in 
Spanish America, the Philippine Islands, and other en-itern posses- 


Bions of Spain. The Catalan, or Cataloniatij a mere cnieilect of the 
Spanish, is spoken in the old provinces Catalonia and Valencia, and 
in the Balearic Isles. The Portuffuese is spoken in Portuj^ Ma- 
deira, the Azores, and Brazil. It is a twin sister of the Spanish, both 
being descended from the Latin, through the Gkdician ; but it now 
exhibits so many peculiarities that the difference between the two 
langua^ is something more than dialectic. The Portngnese is leas 
guttural, but harsher and more unpleasing in sound than the Span- 
ish, and possesses a class of words which cannot be traced in the 
Spanish vocabulary, and which are supposed to have proceeded from 
dialects of the Berber language, which prevails in the north of Africa. 
Beligion and Education. — The Roman Catholic has for ages been 
almost the sole religion in either Spain or Portugal, though in the 
latter country a very limited amount of toleration has been enjoyed 
by the Jews and some Protestant denominations. In both countzies, 
however, great changes have recently taken place in ecclesiastica] 
affairs ; and since the flight of Queen Isabella, m 1868, toleration has 
been freely accorded in Spain to all denominations. In both coun- 
tries education is still in a lamentably deficient state, notwithstand- 
ing the marked progress which has recently taken place. In 1861 
there were in Spain 58 public colleges for middle-class education, 
with 757 professors and 13,881 students, besides 22,060 common 
schools, attended by 1,046,558 pupils, being one-fifteenth part of the 
population. In Portugal education is entirely free from the control 
of the Church, and yet, with the exception of Russia and the Papal 
States, Portugal is the worst educated country in Europe, there 
being, in the year 1862, onl^ 1 in every 36 persons able to read and 
write. The sole university is that of Coimbra, while in Spain there 
are no fewer than ten — the chief of which are those .of Salamanca, 
Valencia, Zaragoza, and Yalladolid. 

Uteratnre. — The most distinguished names in Spanish literatore 
are the following: — Poetry: The author of **The Cid,"whohas 
been called " The Homer of Spain : " this, the oldest poem in the 
Spanish language, describes the adventures of El Seid, **the Lord" 
(a famous Castilian hero, bom at Burgos in 1640), and was written 
about the middle of the twelfth century ; Herrera, Ercilla, Lope de 
Vega, Calderon de la Barca, Garcilasso, Gomez de Quevedo. His- 
tory : Mariana, author of * The History of Spain ; ' Antonio de 
Solis, the historian of * The Conquest of Mexico.* Fink Arts : 
Ribera, MuriUo, Morales, Fernandez, Ribalta, Velasquez, Henrique 
Marinas, Juan de Alfaro. Fiction : Cervantes, author of * Don 
Quixote.' Sacred Literature: Cardinal Xiinenes, Isidore of 
Seville, Michael Servetus. Maritime Travel : Columbus (a 
Genoese), Pinzon, Ponce de Leon, Hernando Cortez, Pizarro, Yelas* 
quez, Cordoba. The classic poets Lucan and Martial, and Seneca the 
philosopher, were natives of Spain, and probablv Quintilian. Portu- 
gal can boast of few names that have won for themselves a European 
reputation. The most distinguished name in its literature is 
Camoens, author of * The Lusiad ; ' next to Camoens may be placed 


. Oil Vicente and Sss de Miramla, the lirflmatists ; Antonio Ferreyra, 
islio has been called the Portuguese Horace ; Rodrigliw Lobo ; and 
JoSa de Ban-OS, an eleeant prose writer. The names of Vasco da 
nama, Ma^alhaens, Balbao, Cabral, and De Solis, are all celebrated 
in Potiogaeee siBritime discovety. 

Aoft'onal Characia: — The Spanianla are grave, stately, and formal In 
thidr mAunen ; fhigsl and temperate in diet ; extremely indolent in dls- 
porition; of sn enthusiastic temperament, whith soiuelmies prompts 
them to acts of chivalry, but more frequently to the piirpct ration of re- 
volting ntroeities, especially when goadad on by the lova of gain or hy 
religioua bigotry ; in proof Qf which we need only refer to their inhuman 
treatment of the natives of America when that continent was discovered, 
and to the annals of the Inquisition, an infamous inprtitution, which waa 
Hist established at Seville in 1481, nt the inntaoce of Ferdinaud, the bui- 
band of Isabella, and which reigned in all its teirora down to the present 
contnij. " The Spanish statistics of this infernal engine," says Alllner, 
"which was only abolished in 1820, include 34,811 pereonebunied alive, 
18,000 bunied in effigy, and 288,109 consigned to the prisons and galleys." 
The Portngneae are repreSBnted as dignihed, polite, and temperate, bnt ex- 
cessively hlthy, both m their houses and persona : they are further oha- 
racterised hy an mveterate dislike to Spaniards, whom, notwithstanding, 
they greatly resemble in manners and disposition. They are equally 
bigoted, cruel, and indolent ; equally proud and revengeful ; and equally 
fond of the barbarous amusement of bull-lighting; and whatever differ- 
ence there may he is ic favour of the Spaniards, there being no country 
•in Gurope where ciTiliautlon and morality are at a lower ebb than In 

aoTetnnisnt and Finance. — The Government of Spain, after three 
and A half centuries of dcipotism. became, in 1S4S, a constitutional 
monarchj, under Queen Isabella II., who was aided in the govem- 
Toent by the Cortes, composed of two uo-operatins hodiea — vii., a 
Senate (the members of which iveie partly hereditary and partly 
nominated for life by the sovereign), and a Congress of Deputies 
elected by the people in the proportion of one deputy for every 36,000 
inhabitant*. After many years of misrule she was compolled to eva- 
coale, and Amadens, son of Victor Emanual, Was elected King. 
Leaving Spain in dis^st, hu was succeeded in 187£> by Alphonso XIL, 
Mn of the deposed Queen Isabella. The army is formed on the French 
modeL Its total strength lu 1870 consisted of 80, 000 men and oihcers. 
In the same year the navy consisted of 6 ironclad frigates, 1 ship of the 
line, and other 89 steam-ships (uaoless in modern warfare), carrying 
106S guns, and manned by 22,000 marines. In 1871 the tevenne ol 
Spain unouu ted to £27,000, 000, the expenditure toabout £32, S20,000, 
and the public debt to £213,886,668. The Government of Portugal 
is a constitutional monarchy, reding sovereign, Luis I., who suc- 
ceeded his brother Don Pedro VTin 1861, of the Braganza-Cohurg 
line. The Parliament or Cortes consists, as in Spain, of two cham- 
bers — a House of Peers nominated by the sovereign, and the House 
ofDepulies elected by the people. In 1SG6 the army at home and 
abroad amonntml to about 8S,0D0 men and officers, and the navy te 
31 ihipe of war, currying 294 gans, and manned by 2832 marines. 


In 1873-4 the revenae amounted to £5,147,458 ; expenditnro^ 
£5,423,779 ; public debt, £72,833,000. 

Commezxse. — ^Though few countries in Europe possess greater com- 
mercial facilities, on account of the great extent of seaboard, yet such 
is the natural indolence of the Spaniards that their commerce is 
quite inconsiderable ; and the little that exists can be estimated with 
difficulty, owing to the universal practice of smuggling. The aver- 
age value of exports for the last seven years has been £12,000,000, and 
of imports £19,000,000. The principal exports consisted of wine, 
silk, brandy, oil, fruits, iron, lead, mercury, salt, barilla, skins, cork, 
Spanish flies, liquorice, and dye-stuffs, which were, for the most 
part, sent to Great Britain and France. The countries from which 
Spain receives most are France and the United Kingdom. From the 
latter she received in 1873 to the value of £3,736,620; while in the 
same year Spain sent to Britain to the value of £10,973,000, one 
third of which consisted of wine. The chief seats of the wine manu- 
facture are — Xeres (hence our sherry), Kota, near Cadiz, Montilla, 
Malaga, and Alicante, the last two of which are also famed for 
raisins. The province Valencia is especially famous for its great 
variety of wines, large quantities of the variety known as Benicarlo 
being exported to Bordeaux, where they are mixed with the wines of 
the Gironde to impart to them colour and flavour. Spain is the 
second silk-producing country in Europe (Italy being the first), and 
her best customer in this article is France. The articles imported' 
from Britain are linen-yarn and linens, iron — ^both wrought and un- 
wrought — and coal. Manufactures consist chiefly of swords at Toledo, 
cigars at Seville, leather at Cordova, cotton and silk stuffs in Cata- 
lonia, iron in the Basque provinces, and of gunpowder, cannon, por- 
celain, and glass. The commercial marine in 1872 amounted to 
4326 vessels, carrying 360,000 tons. The principal ports are Bar- 
celona, Cadiz, Malaga, Bilbao, Alicante, and Valencia. Since the 
loss of her colonial possessions, the commerce of Portugal has vastly 
decreased. Such commerce as exists is chiefly with England. Wine 
is pre-eminently the product of Portugal, and constitutes more than 
two-thirds of all her exports, which, in 1871, amounted to £5,250,000. 
In the same year her imports amounted to £6,790,000. Besides 
wine, the chief exports are fruits of the finest quality, salt, cattle, 
wool, cork, olive-oil, iron and copper pyrites, and elephants' teeth. 
In 1873 England imported of the red wines of Portugal 4,037,000 
gallons. Next to England, Brazil, Russia, and the north of Eorope 
are the principal consumers of port wine. The vine disease, which 
broke out in 1853, has continued more or less ever since, and has 
greatly diminished the quantity of wine exported. The imports con- 
sist chiefly of corn, rice, salted provisions, sugar, and coffee from 
Brazil ; cotton and woollen goods, hardware, &c, from England ; 
hemp, flax, and deals from the Baltic The principal ports ara 
Lisbon, Oporto, and SetubaL 

Inland Oommonication. — Railway communication is proioesriiig 
rapidly in Spain. The total number of miles open for truKo In 1871 

FRANCE. 133 

vns 3850, In rortugiil, railways hare been constrncted from LiaTion 
m tbe Guadiflna, by Atrantes and Elvas ; another connects Lisbon 
with. Beja ; while a third proceeds Irom the capital to Coimbra and 
Oporto : 1«tal iu 1873, G30 miles. 

CaTtali. — The numeroos moan tain -rangea which traverse the coun- 
try, sad separate the principal river-basins, present insupei-able oh- 
Btaclea to the junction of the rivers that flD<v into the Atlantio with 


those that discharge their w 
canals have been constrocted alon^ 
not navigable. The principal c 

I the Meditflcransan i but several 
the banks ofauch rivers as are 
the Imperial Canal, along 

e magnificeot colonies of Spain 
n the N. coast of Marocco ; 

the right bank of tna Bhro ; the canals of Castile, Manzanan. , 
Marcia, Albacete, and Guadarama. There are no canals in Portugal, 
Imt the livers of that conntry are more navigable than those of 

Hoods. — There are no good public roads in either country, eiceut 
around Madrid ( wheel-carriages a™ 'in-'- n^=.i_.ti.-. .."n..>,s"i 
of the transit trade Leiug ctTected O) 

Forei^ PoBaeaafoiia- — Of the oi 
and Portugal the following are all 1 

Spaniii Ceuta, Tetuan, &c., c 

nando Po and Annahona, in the G. of Guinea; Cuba, Porta Bico, 
and Isle of Pines, in the W. Indies ; part of the Philippine and 
Ladrone Islands, and nominally the Pelew and Caroline Islea, in 
Oceania. Total area, 180,000 so. m., and population (in lB7'.i), 

Portaguete. — Besides the Azores and Madeira (for which sea page 
183), to Portugal belong the Cape Verde Islands, portions of Seoe- 
gambia, Ango&, Benguelo, and St Thomas and Prince's Islands, on 
the W. coast of Africa, tc«Gther with Sofala and Mozambique on the 
E. coast; Goa, SaUette, Diu, and Damauu, in Hindustan ; Macao, 
in China ; parts of Timor and Solor, in Klalaysia. Total area, 
1,135,000 eq, m. ; pop. (in 1874), 3,2B0,U0. 


BonndarUB. — France, one of the largest and moat important 
countries of Western Europe, is bounded on its six sidoa as fol- 
lowa; — N.W,, the English Channel, separating it from Great 
Britain; W., the Atlantic; S.W., the Pyrenees, separating it from 
Spain; S.E., the Mediterranean; K., Italy, Switzerland, and 
Alsace, from which it is SBparated by the Alps, Meant Jura, and 
the Voijgcs; S.E., the Oennan portion of Lorraine, and Belgium. 
Ui. 42*^20'— 5r 6' N. ; Ion. 4° 4S' Vf.—T ZV E. 

pltal of Indre, nilu Uie centre or the empire (lat W AD', Irm. 
ij on the game pirillel u Berne, Griita, (IdesM, ABtrakliin, 



I^ke Superior, and Quebec; and nearly on the same meridian as Tarmouth, 
Calais, Barcelona, Algiers, and the capital of Dahomey. The form of the country 
is hexagonal and very compact ; greatest length from the W. coast of Finist^re 
to Nice on the Italian frontier, nearly 700 miles; extreme breadth, fh>m Givet in 
Ardennes to the mouth of the Bidassao, 585 miles ; coast generally low, but bold 
and irregular in the north-west, with an extreme length, including tiie larger 
sinuosities, of 1500 miles. This is a small extent of seaboard for so large a coun- 
try, but the numerous navigable rivers, and the canals connecting them, mak« 
ample compensation for the deficiency. 

Area and Population. — Omitting the three departments, Haul 
Khin, Bas Ehin, and Moselle, now ceded to Grermany (and named 
Elsass-Lothringen), but including Corsica, the area amounts to 
201,900 sq. m., or 1§ times the size of the British Isles ; while, in 
1872, the population was estimated at 86,102,921, or one-fifth more 
than that of the United Kingdom, giving 178 persons to each sq. 
mile. While the population of l^e British Isles has more than 
doubled itself since the French Revolution, that of France has only 
increased 44 per cent, and has required above a century and a half 
to double itself. This remarkable fact is mainly owing to war, 
political proscription, bad harvests, the grape-blight, disease of the 
silk- worm, and other causes; indeed, every natural or political 
calamity checks the increase of population in France in a marked 
degree. The rural population is constantly decreasing, and that of 
the large towns increasing. The north of France is more populous 
than the south, and contams a greater number of large towns. The 
most densely peopled department is that which contains the cajntaL 
The three departments ceded to Germany in 1871 contained an area 
of about 5580 square miles, and a population of 1,964,173. 

Political Divisions. — France was formerly divided into 34 pro- 
vinces ; but in 1789, when the love of change became paramount, tibie 

Provinces were divided into 85 departments, or 86 including Corsica. 
n 1860, three departments (Savoie, Haut Savoie, and ifice) were 
ceded to France by Italy ; but in 1871 France was obliged to cede to 
Germany the other three departments above named ; so that tiie num- 
ber still continues to be the same as in 1789. Though the provinces 
are no longer recognised in legal documents, l^ey are stm f«.f»iliMi» 
among the French people, and they are so frequently referred to 
in history that we think it necessary to append, at the loot, the 
following table (arranged in alphabetical order), showing their former 
capitals, and the departments which now correspond to them. * Tlie 

♦ Old Provinces of Francv. 

Old PBOvnrcBs.. 






Old Capital!. 







Haut Rhfn, Bm BUn. 



EL part of Fu-da-GUiifc 

N. W. of Ohuante JsoMdmr 

FKiNCE. 195 

' doptirtmojita si's nauKid after tlia moat importiint physical features 
which respective!}' cliamcterise theui — as the exintence of a large 
river, the confluence of two ritera, or iiroilmih' to eoma mountain- 
chain. The departmeiita are of much more uniform dimensions than 
the old provinces, or than the counties of Great Britain ; their 
Bveraoe size being SlOO si^. miles, or something less than Perthshire. 
But the department Gironde is larger than the largest of onr Scottish 
counties (Invemesa) ; while thst of Seine, ivMeb contnina the capital, 
and which is the smsllest depsjtmunt in France, is larger than Rut- 
laud, the amallest county in Eugland. As the departments are aa 
numerous, they must be arranged in a simple and methodical man- 
ner ; and this is best done by dividing them into sii frontier groups, 
corresponding with the sii sides of the kingdom, together with a 
taiver centr^ gronp. Then the 85 Continental departineDtB can be 
. ewily remembered as follows : — 14 nortL-westem, 10 western, 11 
LxmtnGrn, 7 south - eastern, ID eastern, 9 north-eastern, and 21 





Puy-df-Dflme, CantaL 


W. of Vsueluss. 


Bacgu PytSnSta. 


Cher, Indn.. 




Ain, COte-d-Or, aaflne-al-I^iiro, Tonne, 



CetEa-du-Nord, FlEd*l*™, llle^at-Vllaine. 
Lolts JnMrlBure, Moiblhan. 

ArdflnncH Aiit«, Huns, Bauta Name. 







Fnwclie CoinU 

DoDbB, Jura, Saute Btlme. 

Quoogns, QiijPime 

Anfh. Bor. 

Aveyron, DoniognB, Gen. Qlronde, Lot, 


Lot^aroBBB^Undo., Haute, Fj- 
OlM, Seine, S«ino-Bt-OIM, SBiEB-et- 





Atdteib^ Airfofoorf. Hfrault. HimU 





Loire, Bhone, 
Majrenne. SaittiB, 








Calvndoi, Eore, ManchB. Ome, Stina 


EuM-at-Lotnt, tolret. Uiltft«t-Chcr. 



Snirnne B. of PUHifrCilaJs, N. o( Atmo. 

riBiui bina, Vmd»«, VionnB. 



K otTuioliu*, 


ryi4nt*s OrieiitaiM. 


" "' Clwnntt InOrlaiu*. 





Central departments. In the six frontier groups the departments are 
te^en ttvo deep from the sea or other boundary. 

Fourteen North-Western Departments. 

Hord.*— Lille 158, Wattrelos 12, Roubaix 65 n., Tourcoing 88 n. 
(Deule), Armentidres 12, Halluin 11, Bailleul 10 n. (Lys), Valenciennes 
24, Cambrai 22 (Scheldt), St Amand-les-eaux 10, Douay 24 (Scajpe), 
Maubenge 10 (Sambre), Dunkerque 33 (Str. of Dover). 

Toums between 5000 and 10,000 inhabitants.— Est&lret MervUle, Hazebromck, 
Gond^, Anzin, Solesmes, Le Gateau, Beigaes, Gravelines, Gomminea. 

Pas-de-Galais.— Arras 26 (Scarpe), St Omer 22 (Aa), Calais 13, St 
Pierre 15 (Str. of Dover), Boulogne 40 (English Channel). 
Aire, Garvin-Epinoy, Bethime, Agincourt 

Soxmne.— Amiens 64, Abbeville 20 (Somme), Cressy 2 (Maye). 

Oise.— Beaxtyais 15 (TeiTein), Compile 12 (Oise). 
Noyon, Senlis, Glermont. 

Seine Inferieure.—RouEN 101, Le Havre 75, Elbeuf 22 (Seine), Bolbeo 
10 (Bolbec), Dieppe 20 (Arques), Fecamp 12 (N. coast). 
Gaadebec-les-ElDeaf, Dametal, Yvetot, St Valery-en-Cauz, Sottevllle. 

Eiire. — EvREUX 12 (Iton), Louviers 11 (Eure). 
Andeleys, Vernon, Pont-Audemer, Bemay. 

Eure-et-Ioir.— Chartres 20 (Eure). 
Dreox, Nogent-le-Rotrou, Ghateaudun. 

Calvados.— Caen 42 (Ome), Lisieux 13 (Tou^tues). 
Falaise, Bayeux, Vire, Honfleor. 

Ome.— Alen^on 16 (Sarthe), Flers 10 (Vere). 
L'Algle, Argentan, Seez, La Ferte Mac& 

Manche.— St Lo 10 (Vire), Cherbourg 37 (Divette), Granville 17 (W. 
Valognes, Goutances, Avranches. 

Mayenne.— Laval 27, Mayenne 10 (Mayenne). 
Ghateau-Gontier, Ern^e. 

* Instead of giving the prononclation of the different French words at tbey 
occur, it seems preferable to advance a few general roles :— 

a has two sonnds, as in mam-ma; ai, ei = k grave, or in there; Otts ff. 

e when unaccented is silent ; i with the acitte a^icentf like the shut aoond of « 
in English, as in bed: it has the same sound when followed by a sQent r or f at 
the end of a word; ^, with the ffr<^ve accent, and t eircun^lex = « in thtn. 

eUt the same as din German, or oo in the Irish and ScottiBh Gaelic: as "Ban, 
Evreux. eau and eaiea; = long din English, as Ghateau, Bordeaux (iS3U»-tf',B9fVI<Q^ 

ou = 00 in mood, or u in role ; as Angouldme (An^oo-UUmy. 

g with a cedilla^ used only before a, 0, u, = «in English : as Aleneon C-mfnA 

ch = English ah: as Rochelle, Chartres (Ro^heV, Shar^tr), 

g before e, i, and y, and j = « or 2 in treaswre-^TjiA Aiiige, Jam (iirti^irt^, 

gn = n or ni in Spaniard : as Avignon, Boulogne ULv^i^wmg, Boo-M^O* 

a, «, t, X, z, are silent at the end of words : as Koid, lames, Lot^ BardMn^ 
Bhodez (N6r, Neem, L5, BordOt Rhoda). 

an, en, in, on, have no representative in English, and must be aoq[iiind ftma 
the teacher : they are strictly nasal sounds, faintly resemUlng OfVi MVi <i^ and 
ong in English. 

u = Fr. u in plus, brtder; It approximates to Bcotoh ti In pudb^ mjnh; lint 
has no corresponding sound in English, tii and 1^ = ^^i*f*^ w$g M n^ 'ia' 
Udme (PtDee-de-DSme), ^ 



riB-et-Vilalne.— Rones 52 (Vilaine), St Servaii !3 (Eance). 

Voagiite. Cancsle, Redon, Vltre, Fo-ageaY, Combours, Bt Ualo. 

CfiteB-dn-lToTd.— St Brieuo 15 (Oouet). 

DJnan, Gaingamp, FlDnhar Lannlon, Plouant 

HniaUre.— QniMPER 11 (Odetl, Morlaix H (Relec). Brest 80 (Eloin). 

Floitgutel, LanUemean, LBmbezellea, Grozon, QDliupeTl& 

Ten Wbstebn Depabtkents. 

Korbihan.— Vanne3 13 (G. of Morbiiiau), L'OrieDt 

PonHvy, Baod, Sanesn, PLoermel, Flocmenr. 

Loire InSrlenre.— Nahtits 112, St Naziiire 11 (Lai 

— ■ — - a, TiUet 

Xaloe-et-Loire. — Asqebg S5 {ranSnence of Sartlie and Mayenne)) Sau- 

a U (Loire), Chollet 13 (Maine), Cbalonnes S (Lagoo). 

Tmid&i.—NAi>OLSoN- Vendue or BonBBON-VsmifiK 8 (Ton). 

Sables d'Olonne, Kolrmnotler, Ponlcnay, Lnijoo. 

Dani Mttbh.— NlOBT 21 (Sfevre Niortaiae), Partbenay 5 (Thone). 

Charente Inferienre.— I.i Eochellb 19 (N. coast), Edcbefort 30, 
Sointea 11 (Cliaroiite], St Jean d'Angely 6 (Bontonne). 

" E 25, Cognac 8 (Cbarente), 
1 eiionde.— BOBDEiUS 194 {Garonne), Liboume 12 (Dordogno). 

DordogM.— PEHiauiux 20 (Isle), Borgerac 12 (Don" 

ne), VillenouvB d'Agan 14 (Lot). 

FonnriiEH Soi^thebn Defabtuektb. 
I lAn(leB.~MO!rT-DE-MABaAN 6 (Midoiize), Dbx 10 (Adonr). 
_ . BBPyrinSea.— PAn25(GavBdePau), BayotmB28{Adour). 

1 Hastes PyrfinfaB.— Tabbes 15, Bagnferea 9 (Adour). 
I flerB.— AUCK 12, Leotoure 9 {Gere), Condom 9 (Bayse). 
I Xante Qaronne.- TonLonsB 124 (Garonne). 
L.St GaadouB. Rewc], TlUemur. 

r Tam-et-Garonne.— Mohtacbah 28, Castel-Satraain 7 (OaronuBl, Mois- 
'lo 10 (Tarn). 

I AriigS,— PoiX 8, Pamiara 8 (Ari^el. 
f Pyrgnees Orieatalea.— Pkbpiiisan 25 (Tet). 
I AJide.— Cabca^okke 22, SacboDse 16 (Aude). 
I'lilinani, CMtelDoiidary. 

1 Tarn.— Algt IB {Tarn), Caatrea 21 (Agont), Mainmet 11 (Arntitte). 
■ tUbaitena, Galllac, Laiinr, Gmnlhet. Pnf[&anDB. 

1 Efcanlt— MONTPELUEB 59 (Lei), Moera 28, Bedariaoi 10 (Orbe). 
devB 12 (LerguB), Cetto 24 (ooaall. 
■* "~i, Agda, Pejoiuw, Cieir — ■ " — 
— Mendb S (Lot). 
— NiUBB flO (VlttK), Beauoalre 10, Alais 20 (Gardoo). 
», La Pont St Bipilt, V^, AudflH, Le Vigao. 
he.— PiiTTA3 7 (OnveiBj, Aimciaay 16 (Cance). 


Roubaix, Keiins, Toulon, Brest, Amiens, Klmes, Versailles, Angers, 
Montpellier, Limoges, Nancy, Kice, Bennes; and fifty between 
50,000 and 20,000. 

, North-West Departments. — These are by far the most popnlons. 
having two cities (Lille, Rouen) above 100,000; four between 100,000 
and 50,000 (Brest, Le Havre, Roubaix, Amiens); sixteen between 
50,000 and 20,000 ; and twenty between 20,000 and 10,000. lille, a 
very strongly fortified city on the Belgian frontier, and Vanban's 
masterpiece, is one of the chief seats of the cotton, linen, and wool- 
len manufactures. Bonbaix, Tonrcoing, and Bailleni, important manu- 
facturing towns. Valenciennes, a strongly -fortified manufacturing 
town, famous for its lace, and the birthplace of Froissart in 1387. 
Cambrai, the see of Archbp. F€n^on, has been lon^ famous for its cam- 
h-ics. Bouay, noted as the place from which was issued the only Eng- 
lish version of the Scriptures received by the Roman Catholic Oburcn. 
Dunkerque, a strongly-fortified seaport, and the most northerly town in 
France. Arras, St Omer, Calais, and Boulogne, are all strongly forti- 
fied, and engaged in various manufactures ; the infamous Robespierre 
was a native of Arras; and at Boulogne, Napoleon I. assembled his 
flotilla for the invasion of England in 1804. Calais is the nearest city 
in France to the English shores, and is celebrated in the wars between 
the two countries; and Boulogne is the residence of many EngUsli 
families. Agincourt, famous for the great victory obtained by Henry V. 
over a greatly superior French force in 1415. Amiens, the birthplace of 
Peter the Hermit, Du Cange, and Delambre : here was signed the treaty 
of peace between Britain and France in 1802. Abbeville, an important 
stronghold fortified by Vauban, with numerous manufactures. CresBY, 
famous for the victory obtained by Edward III. over the French in 1846. 
Bouen, one of the most populous and flourishing cities in the north of 
France, celebrated for spinmng and dyeingwoollen and cotton stuf&i; has 
a magnificent Gothic cathedral built by William the Conqueror, and a 
statue of the celebrated Joan of Arc, who was burnt to death here in 
1431. Le Havre and Bouen are the two great seaports of Paris, with 
which they are connected by the Seine and by railway. Elbenf is one of 
the chief seats of the woollen manufacture. Dieppe is the packet station 
to Brighton. Beauvais, famous for its cloth ana tapestry. Comjpidgne, 
where the Maid of Orleans was taken prisoner by the English m 1481. 
Noyon, the birthplace of John Calvin, in 1509. Evreux has one of tiie 
finest cathedrals in France. Chartres, once the capital of Celtic Ghiul, 
is the centre of a great com trade. Caen, a large manufacturing town, 
famous for its lace, contains the tomb of William the Conqueror. Alen- 
(on, celebrated for lace and for crystal diamonds. Cherbourg, the Sebas- 
topol of France, and one of her principal naval stations, situated at tiie 
northern extremity of the peninsula of Cotentin, within sight of the Eng- 
lish coast ; the works, long in progress, and now mounting 8000 guns, 
were formally opened on the 4tn August 1858 by Napoleon III., in pre- 
sence of Queen Victoria and a powerful English fleet. Bennes, the 
ancient capital of Brittany. St Brieuc, extensively engaged in the New- 
foundland cod-fishery. Quimper, with a large pilchard-fishery. Brest, 
a first-class military port, and the principal station of the French navy, 
is strongly fortified and difficult of access. 

Western Departments. —These contain only two cities of more than 
100,000 inhabitants (Bordeaux, Nantes) ; one between 100,000 and 50,000 
(Angers) ; six between 60,000 and 20,000 (L'Orient, Bochefort, Angou- 


„_B,NicFrt, Perigueux ; and twelve between 20,000 and 10,000. I'Orient, 
& military Beaport, and one of tliB live priacipal ststioiis of the Freacti 
Imvy, witii eitensiTs shipbuilding. Bantes, dds of tbe lai^eat iind most 
contmerciBl cities in the -wist of France, with exteusive shipbuilding 
dooks : here wss issued the famona Edict of Nantes, gmnting unportant 
privil^es tp the French Protestants, in ISfiS. Jigers, the former 
capital of Anjou, with various manufactures, and extenslTe slate-guarries 
in the neighbourbood. Saumur, a stronghold of tlie French t^oteatants 
In the sixteentlt century, ia celebrated for its cavalry Hcbnol. JTiort, a 
thriving commercial and manufacturing town. La Boohells, memorable 
fortbe ajege which the Huguenots sustained against Louis XIII. in 1639, 
ia a attongly-fortlfied seaport town. BocbuOTt, an important naval 
station fortified by Va\iban, is a tiist-clBBS military port Angonleme, 
the former capital of Angournois, baa eitensive trade, and is the birth- 
place of Montalembort, BaliBc, and Mai^aret deValoia. Cog^nac, famous 
'ts brsndv, which is largely exEiortod, Bordeaux, the ancient cap. of 
innfl, and the laziest and most important city in the west of FMice, 
ta third commercial port, is the great L>mporinm of the wine trade, 
. . me of the principal seats of its foreign commerce. Agen, with a 
trade in prunes, is an entrep6t for the trade between Bordeaui and Tou- 

1 (Toulouse) above 
itween 100,000 and 

.-,...,__-, , , J , , Perpignan, Cette, 

CaiEUSanne, Castres, Alais) between 60,000 and :AI,O0O; and ten be- 
tween20,000 and 10,000. Paa, the capital of the old province of fifam, 
ia the birthplace of Henry IV., of Gnaton de Foii, and of General Ear- 
Jiadotte, afterwards Jting of Sweden. Bayonno, a strongly-fortified sea- 
IMrt, in the estreme south-west of tha kingdom, carries on an important 
trade with Spain, of which itfonns the key ; the £uyaH(( was invented 
here. Toulouao, the most important and populous city iu'tlie entire south 
of France, was the capital of LangDedoc ; it is a sort of southern capital 
for literature and science, and contauis the principal cannon-fanndiy iu 
France ; near it toot place a sanguinary battle in 18U between Wellington 
■od MarahaJ Sonlt. Parpignan, the former capital of Ronssillon, and 
an important military stronghold, haa an extensive commerce in wines, 
wool, silkjiron, and corks. Carisasaoilne niaintaina au active trade in 
brandy. Sarbwuia, a very ancient city, founded by the first Roman 
colony sent into Gaui, was the residence of several Saracen kiugra in the 
middle ages ; it ia now celebrated for its honey. Alby : it wua from this 
town that the Albigenscs of the middle ages, who were bo cruelly peise- 
cuted by the Church of Rome for their zealoua maintenance of Gospel 
troth, derived their name, Cartres, a place of great trade, manulac- 
tdrea, and mining operationa, waa one of the tirat cities in France that 
embraced the doctrlties of Calvin — the birthplace of Cacier and Rapiu. 
Kontauban a large, well-built town, with several manufactures, and the 
seat of a Protestant tbeotogical BOmlnary. Hentpdlier, one of the Qneat 
cities in the 8.E, of France, with many literary and scientific institutions, 
ia much frequenl«d by invalids; it was an independent lepnblic during 
the middle ages. Beziera, a line town built on a hill, near the Orbr, 
niffered much during the crusade againsttheAlbigenseainthe thirteenth 
i^tniy. Catte, a fortiOed seaport town, at the entrance of the Canal dn 

Hidi. Vinai , a large, thriving, comn^ercial city, with 

totroduoed tobacco mto Franca. Bettaoalre 


where all kinds of merchandise may be found, and is frequented by ; 
chants from all parts of Europe and Asia. 

South-Eastebn Departments. — These contain one city (MarseiUe) 
above 100,000 inhabitants ; two between 100,000 and 60,000 (Tomlon, 
Nice) ; four between 50,000 and 20,000 (Avignon, Aiz, Aries, Valence) ; 
and nine between 20,000 and 10,000. Marseille (Massilia), the most 
ancient city in France, having been founded by Greek colonists B.O. 600 ; 
and the third in France in regard to population : its commerce, which 
chiefly consists of wines and fruits, extends to all parts of the world. 
Aries, the ancient capital of Gaul, and afterwards of the kii^om of 
Provence, has been the seat of 13 ecclesiastical councils. Avigiion, s 
flourishing manufacturing town, surrounded by plantations of mulberry- 
trees, was the residence of the Roman pontiffs during the seventy years 
of their "Babylonish captivity" (a.d. 1308-1377). Orange was the 
capital of an ancient principality of same name, which William of Nassau, 
the founder of the Dutch Kepublic, inherited ; hence the King of tiie 
Netherlands is still Prince of Orange. Toulon, a first-class war-port, and 
the great naval station of the south of France : here Napoleon L com- 
menced his military career, during the memorable siege of 1793. Vice, 
originally a Greek colony from Massilia {Marseille), is celebrated as one 
of the earliest seats of Christianity in Europe : along with its territory, 
it was transferred by Sardinia to France in 1860 : together with Cannee 
and Mentone, in the same department, it is much frequented by invalids 
from !Ehigland and other countries. Brian^on, the principal arsenal of 
the French Alps, is the most elevated town in Europe, bemg 4283 feet 
above the sea. Valence, noted for its cotton-printing and manufacture 
of silk goods. 

Eastern Depabtmentb. — ^The eastern departments contained one city 
(Lyon) of above 100,000 inhabitants ; two between 100,000 and 60,000 
(Strasboure, Mulhausen); five between 60,000 and 20,000 (Besanfon. 
Grenoble, Vienne, Le Creuzot, Colmar) ; and thirteen between 20,000 and 
10,000. Annecy, capital of Upper Savoy, annexed to BSrance by Sar» 
dinia in 1860. Chambery, cap. of department Savoie, also annexed 
to France in 1860, has a brisk trade in metals and wines. Grenoble, 
an impregnable stronghold on the Isere, formerly the capital 
of Daupmn€, was the first large town that opened its gates to 
Napoleon in 1815. Vienne, a thriving town, with lead and silver 
mines in the vicinity. Lyon (Lugdunum), at the coniluence of the 
Rhone and Sadne, is the second city in France in regard to population 
and commercial importance, and the first in manufacturing industry : it 
was founded by the proconsul Plancus, B.c. 43 ; became the capital of 
Roman Gaul, of the kingdom of Burgundy, and afterwards of the pro- 
vince Lyonnais ; has numerous manufactures — ^that of silk being the most 
celebrated ; and contains the finest provincial library in France : was the 
birthplace of Germanicus, of the emperors C. AureUus and Caracalla, of 
the botanist Jussieu, of Jacquard and CamiUe Jourdan. Maoon, the 
centre of an extensive wine-trade. Chalons-sur-Sadne, at the head of the 
Oanal-du-Centre, carries on an extensive inland trade. Lons-le-Saulnier, 
so named from its famous saline spring, which yields annually 20,000 
quintals of salt Bosangon, a strongly-fortified city on the Doubs, cele* 
brated for its clocks and watches. Colmar and MuDiausen, extensively 
engaged in cotton manufactures, now belong to Germany. Strasbourg', 
at one time a free imperial city of Germany, became subject to France m 
1681, and then became the capital of Alsace. In 1870 it was compelled 
to capitulate to the German army under General von Werder. It Is now 

-_e capital ol tlie Oerman province ElBass-LoHiriagen is very stroDgly 
fbrtlSecI, and contains a celebrated cathedral (fonnded in 504, bn( not 
linialied till tlie fifteenth centnrj), with s apira ^66 feet high, which con- 
tains a lemarkahle BStronomical clock, representing tha mavements of 
the planeta in the Bclai system. 

NORTB-EifiTBBTJ DEPARTMENTS. — These contain no town above 
100,000 eiCBpt Paris which in 1872 bad 1.852,000 inbabiUnta ; three 
batween 100,000 and 50,000 (Beitns, Versailloa, Nancy) ; two between 
C0,000 and 20,000 (St Quontinand St Dennis) ; nndBiiteaa between 20,000 
and 10,000. BstK, a very strongly fortified city, near the Belgian fron- 
tier, was compelled tn capitulate to the Germans, Oct. 27, 1870, when 
8 marshals of Fraooa, 6,000 oiEcers, and 173,000 men were made prisoners. 
Vanoybos extensive manufscturesof cloth and embroidered muslin. Lnne- 
^lle, noted for the treaty execated here in 1801 between the Emptror cE 
Garmany and the first Napolenn. Eeims.thBprinclpal seat of the woollen 
manufacture, is renowned in history for the maiutenitQca of ita liberties 
•gainst the bishops in tlie Middle Ages ; many ecclesiastical oouncila wera 
held here, and in its colossal cathedral many of tia kings of France 
were crowned. Sedan will be ever memoruble as the scene of the terrible 
homlliation of Franco (Sept. 2, 1S70), when Napoleon III Marsha! Mac- 
mahon, 39 generals, and 100,000 men anrrandered to f ha King of Prussia. 
PoBtaJiutilean, wheia Napoleon I. signed his abdication, v&a long the 
fBTomite residence of the kings of France. TsisBilLes, famous lor its 
magnificent royal palate, one of themost goreeous in the world ; many 
femouB titaties were signed here, at one of which, in 1763, England re- 
cognised the Indepcudence of the United States of America. Paris, tho 
capital of France, and the second largest city in Europe, is situated on 
Ixfthlianksorthe Seine, about 100 mites from its mouth. Less than half 
the size of London, it for surpasses the latter in magnificence, and is re- 
gvded by all as the most splendid city in Europe. It is s\irronnded by 
B fortified wall 21 miles in length, and a series of forts, erected by Louis 
Philippe at an enormous expense ; and is odnmed Ity sumptuous palaces, 
m«gnincent churches, and other public buildings, by fountains, gardens, 
triampha! arches, and columns. The Uniforsity has twenty-eight pro- 
fessoTs, and the Natiana! Library contains 1,400,000 printed works and 
pamphlets, besides 125,000 MS, volumes. After a protracted siege 
(commencing Ang. 7, 1870), during which the Parisians suffered torriMB 
privations, the city was compelled to surrender to the Germans. 

Tb» Twep(tt-one CenthaI. DepaRTuENTs contain ona town (St Eti- 
ence) with mora than 100,000; one between 100,000 and fiO,000 
(LimogBsli ten between 50,000 and 20,000 (Orleaas, Ze Mans, Tour, 
Dijon, aarmont-FerraQd, Troyoa, Poitior". Bourgcs, Nevers, Blois) ; 
and twenty-two between 20,000 and 10,000. le Uoni, with a brisk 
trade In grain and various manuTaetutES. Tours, the former capital o( 
Toniaine.attheconflnancaol the Loire and Cher, with silk manufactures, 
■nd numarans schools and leuned societies. Blola, with great trade in 
Ori&ns braiidy, OrUans, the former capital of Orieannais, and ai one 
time the capital of the kingdom of Burgundy, was besieged by tlie Eng- 
lish in 1428, and delivered by the celebrated Joan of Arc, hence called 
"Tbt Maid of Ori&ns." TroyBB, the former capital of Champagne, is 
tte centre of several important manufactures: here a treaty was con- 
_ *laded in 1420. conferring the crown of France on the King of England. 
"^tl«», formerly capital of Poitou, was in the poaseaaion of*" — '— -" '~ 

■— centuries. Chateauroai has extensiv '-' 

Boargea, former capital ol 


finest Gothic catbedraLi in Europe. Vevers, former capital of Nivenuds, 
has important manufactures of iron and steel goods. Byon, the ^rind- 
pal market for the sale of Burgundy wines, was formerly the capital of 
Bourgogne. Limoges, the former capital of Limousin, noted for its 
horse-races and its woollen manufactures. TfouliTig, formeiiy capital of 
Bourbonnais, with tanneries and manufactures of cutlery. TnUe, con- 
tains a national factory of firearms. Clermont-Perrand, near the lofty 
mountain Puy-de-Ddme, and in the centre of a volcanic region. BionL, 
noted for being paved with basalt and lava quarried in the ndghbour- 
hood. St Etienne, a large thriving city, surrounded by coal-mines, and 
containing an active industrious populktion, who are largely engaged in 
the manufacture of firearms and iron-ware. Cahors carries on s large 
trade in tobacco and red wines. Le Pay is celebrated for its cathedral, 
containing a small image of the Virgin, which the inhabitants devoutly 
worship under the appellation of ** Our Lady of Puy." Ajaedo, the 
capital of Corsica, and the birthplace of Napoleon I. in 1769, cairies on s 
trade in wine, oil, and coral. 

Capes and Islands. —The following are the principal capes : — 
Gris-Nez {Grienay\ in Pas-de-Calais, the nearest point to England ; 
Barfleur and La Hague, in the N. of Manche ; Point St Matthien 
and Raz Point in the W. of Finist^re ; Couqnet, the extremity of the 
peninsula of Quiberon ; Side, near Toulon. hUrndt. — IJshant and 
belle Isle, S. of Morbihan ; Noirmoutier and lie Dien, W. of Ven- 
d^ ; R^ and Oleron, W. of Charente Inf6rieure ; Hi^res, S. of Var ; 
Lerins, S.E. of Var; Corsica, a large island, between France and 
Italy, now forming one of the French departments. 

Onlfb, Basra, and Straits.— Str. of Dover, 20 miles wide, bet 
Picardy and Kent ; Estuaries of the Somme and Seine ; Bay of S. 
Malo, bet. Manche and C6tes-du-Nord ; Estuary of the Loire, W. of 
Loire Inferieure ; Estuary of the Gironde, bet. Charente Inf§rienie 
and Gironde ; Bay of Biscay, bet. the W. of France and N.W. of 
Spain ; G. of Lions, S.E. of France. 

Surface and Monntalns. — The face of the country is generally 
level, and its aspect monotonous and dreary. The want of orna- 
mental plantations, and the almost total absence of hedges, give to 
the landscape an unusual degree of sameness. The principal monn- 
tain-ranges are situated on nie S.W. and E. frontiers, and belong in 
part to the Hesperian, but chiefly to the Alpine system (see under 
** Europe," p. 69). They are all comprised in the following seven 
groups : — 

The Pi/renees, between France and Spain, separating the basins of the 
Tet, Aude, Garonne, and Adour, from those or the Uobregat and Ebro— 
the loftiest summits (Maladetta, &c.) being within the Spanish frontier; 
Mont Perdu in Hautes Pyren^s, 10,994 feet; Mont Midi, in Basses 
Pyrenees, 9438 feet 

T?ie A Ips, between France and Italy, and between the basins of the 
Rhoneand Po. The highest summits belonging to France are, Mont 
Blanc, in Haute Savoie, 15,781 feet, the cuhninating-point of Europe 
(unless we should except Mont Elburz, in the Caucasus, which is 
18,571 feet); Mont Pelvoux, between Hautes Alpes and Is^re, 13,440 


F£AKCE. 305 

fast : Mout GBue\Te, 11,782 Sent, aud Mont Viso, 12,5S6 fest, bntli in 
Hsntes Alpes. 

Jura Moimtaini, bBtweeii Frauce and BwitmHEud, Bepatstbig the 
liuiiif of the DonbB and Aar ; Uout MdUeson, is Ajn, SiSS feel ; Beculel, 

Vtuffit Xounlaini, ^twMD Lornuse and Alnace, separating ibe Klmie 
from its afflnatit the MoHelle ; BaDon de Gaebwiller, in Hant Khin, -^M 
feet : BaUon d' Alsace, 41^ feet. 

C6te iTOr Jlfonirtaiiui, in department of aanie name, eeparatinp the 
liaBitu of the Sdue and Loire from that of the Saline; Le ToBselot, 
1»GS feet. 

Cetaaia ifoKiaainM, in Lan^edoc, aeparating the basins of the JLhone 
uidBaCmefromthose f^ the Loire and Giammie; Mmit Mezene» in Ard^che, 
SS20 feet ; Mont Lozb^ in Lozb^ 4667 feet. 

Ataerma Moauiaim. aepamtjng the hasiii of the Loire from that of 
the DoTclogne anfl Gannme ; Puj de Baney, in Pnj-de-DamB, 6187 feet : 
Pny'de-DOme, 4SI5 feet. 

StTst-Basllll. — Of the uttmeninE rirer-bufiiiis of France, only 12 
are ot considerable magnitude — Ti/.,the Loire, Seine, Ehone, Girondc, 
Bomme, VilulnE. Chareute, Adnnr, Tet, Rhtne, Ilenae, and ScLiJdt. 
The beat autbaiiTies arc greatly at Tanutoe in estimating the btboe ; 
and in bddie cubeb ve con only make an approzimntion. It appears 
tliat time 1° baains comprise Jths of the trhole area of France, and 
't out of the Bti camtalfi, beiog fths of the entire ntunber. Omit- 
tiag tbe 5 basinB 9tdA contain 1 capital each, the remaimiip 7 eon- 
tain 67 capitals, or abont Jths of the whole iramber, and their cum- 
bjned area (liJ,000 Bqnare iniJeB) the game proportion of tie ectii'o 
area of France. The ba^ of the Loire alone cautaina 16,000 sq. m., 
and that of the Seine 26, OOa 

Table of BlTeiB amd Townl. — The fullowing table embmces all 
the tlTeTB and tovme of France ennmetated under the "Political 
Diviaaitb, " Uie capitals of departmentB being distingiiiahed by b h'tt . 
CAPITii iBttera; towns above 10,000 iahabitflJit*, by Konum let- 
ters, and amaller tavos by liaiia. The Bbine, Mense, and Scheldt, 
being shown in their fnll deTelopment onder Germany and the 
Hetbedonds, only the partionE t^ tliein belonging to France are 
saticed here. 

Basiiu mcMwd tn lAc Eiiglitli Channel. 
Siven. JVjinu. | RiiKTi. Taumi. 

0tr. nf Dater, Dnnkerqne, CzQ^s. ' Beine — yEBaoiLLEs, n., Tasja, 



Basins inclined to the English Channel (continued). 



Oise, Pontoise, Compiigne, 

Noyony Chauny. 
Nonette, ISenlis. 
Terrein, ..Beauvais. 
Breaches, Clermont. 
Aisne, I ..Soissons, Rethel. 
V61e, I.. Reims. 
Delette, Laon. 

Mame, Paris, Vincennes, n., 

MeauXy Chateau 
Thierry, Epemay. Cha- 
LONS-sur-Manie, Vitry^ 
St Dizier, Chaumont, 
Ornain,. . . Bar-le-Duc. 
Essonne, L.Corheil. 

Juine, I ..Etct/inpes. 
Loing, I .... Montargis. 
Yonne, I.. .. Montereau, Sen s, Vil- 
leneuve, Joigny, Aux- 
EBRE, Clamecy. 
Voisin, . . . AvalUm. 



Vouzie, Provins. 

Touques, Lisieox. 

Dives Falaise, n. 

Ante, I .. ..Falaise. 
Orne. Caen, Argentan, Seez. 

Vere, i Flers. 

Dr6me, Bayeux, n 

Vire St Lo, Vire. 

Douve, Vaiognef n. (I. t) 

Divette, Cherbourg. 

Sienne, Cowtances, n. (r. t.) 

Bosq, Granville. 

Seez, Avra/nches. 

Couesnon, . . ..Fougbres. 
Co. lUe-et-Vi- CaticaUe. 


Ranee, St3fdl0yStQeTvaji,I>inan. 

Gonet, St Brieuc. 

Co. C6tes-du- Plouha. 


Trieux, Guingamp. 

Guer, Lannion, Plouaret. 

Relec, Morlaix. 

Basins inclined to the Atlantic. 



Quimperl6, . . . 

Evel, I 

Co. Morbihan, 

Isaac, I ... 


Due, I... 

Cher, I ... 




taise, I 

Moine, ., 

Divale, I 

Layon, I 

Mayenne, . 

Em^e, .. 
Sarthe, . . . 


Dive, I . . 

Brest, Plougastel, Lam- 
bezellaCf Lamdemeau. 



L'Orient, Pontivy. 


Vankes, Sarzeau. 

RedoUy Renkes, VUre. 






. St Nazaire, if ontotr, "Sxuf- 
Tta,Ch4ilonne, Anoers, 
n. , Saumur,TonRS,^m- 
botscy Blots, Beaugen- 
cy, Orleans, Oien, Cos- 
nCyLaCharitiy Nevers, 
Roanne, Montbrison, 
St Etienne, n., Le Put. 
Nantes, V&rton. 




.Anokrs, ChMeau-Gonti- 

er, Laval, Mayenne, 

Lii-Ferti Maci. 
.Angers, Sable, Le Mans, 

.La FUche, Venddme, 


Thouet, I... Parthenay. 
Argentan, Argentan. 

Yienne, I ...Chinon, Ghatellerault, St 
Junien, Limooss, St 
Grouse, ..Le jBtone, Guebet, Au- 
Gartem- MontmorUlon. 
pe, I 
Clain, I ..Poitiers. 

Indre, I Buzangais, Chateau- 

Roux, La Chatre. 

Cher, 2 Tours, Selles, Vierzon, 

StAmandy montluQvn, 
Saudre, ..JRomoranttn. 
Axon, I ... Issoudun, n. 
Auron, . . . Bouroes. 
Allier, ( ....MouLivs, Clerhonti 
Ferrani), Issoire. 
Sioule, I,. St Pourfoin. 
Andelot, I Qannat. 
Sichon, ..Ctisset. 
Dore, .... Thiers, Ambert. 
Ambene,Z Riom. 
Arroux, . . . . Le Creuzot, n., Autun. 

Furens StBtienne. 

lignon, .... TssingeauXy Tenee. 
Co. vendue, ..Sable-^OUmne. 

Lay, Lufon^n. 

Yon, Napoleon-Vendek. 

S 6 V r e Nior- Niort. 
Vendue, ..,.Fontenay. 
Co. Charente LaRochellx. 

' FRANCE. 207 1 

BojtB. inelLied to tk> 

Atlantk (contiDued). 

RiKn Teaiu, 

Oharenl* Boehfoit, Saintes, Cog- 

BiysB, i Merac, Condom. 

nac, Ahoouijmk. 

Geia,i I,«i™«,ADCH. 

Bontonno, ..StJiand'Aitgeiy. 

T«™, MDlssso, Mdntadbak, 

SOTdogoe, LiboaniB, Beiijei'ao, 



Taiiie, M-mtignac. 

Aveyran, VlUe&uiche, Rhodez. 

Corrtu. 1 SriMI. Tdu£ 

Agout, i . . LmaVT, Cutres. 



6rf.t, SarbL 


Bar, 2. .««»(. 

Lecm ( Xaamtt. n. 

DiS. U»d. 


Lore, Grenade. 


Arritgs P™fer.,Poix 

Atbdoe. J ..ifamwndi. 

Adout, Bayonne, Dos, Tahbh, , 

Lot, vnjouenve d'Ageu, Ca- 

G a Y e - d «■ Ortbu, Fid, Olmi, n. 

BOB4. Mekde. 


Troeyn,*i'St¥!om-, 0. 

MidoBze Moht-de-Mamas. 

I-'^.i Aire. 

£ih™ inciiTUd to 

Tat. Perpiokjh. 

Ande, Nujonm, C*BCA»30SME, 


Boigu L-Iilt. 

Orb*; Btei™, Bedariaui. 


Jnm SiPoni. 


L'K^lue, ....CfeiTOUK-de-Lodiw, Lo- 

Dr6ni«,'i'.'.'(?™(. ' 


Arm l^Vigan. 



Cance, Anuimay. 

■La, Mosmuj-iER, 

Qier, Bive-de-Gier, Bt Cha. 


'ildiiiiB. tUMtto-I-iiit 

TlaCn^ Nixra. 

Bafme, '.L¥OH, Viliefranche, Ma- 

»oi«, Aiin>. a o«fa», t™. 

50B, roummr.Chalonn- 

OOB, B«m™i™, Avi- 

Bur-SaOne, Avaxinne, , 

oHox, LiPtmiSt E,- 
j^,ir..ntBllinai-. Val- 

Aiergue,..Tarare, n. 



LADBAiiN£,VevBy, Jfar- 

BelUa I ..poliffny. 



Donb!, J Dfllf, BEBAHpra, Jlonl 

Seine, (...PiiB.n. 

4«itflrd, /^^!,o^lfer, 

ADduH, ..Anddie, Bt Jenn-da- 

Se-^ir- Btl/on.'^' ""'°' 

I>iii«MB.i,.A»i™cB. Cfli««<m, SI 

iZmty, n.. /*««.«, Jfn- 

Boiuolr^ BeiiiDe. 

TVMjw, Swwnm. 


Dnjon, I vhodl- 

BleoDO, J DtoKE. 

Ain, SiCiaude, n. 

• The GiTB-Je-Pan Iuucb ftonmUk 

fed \,y the glaciers o( Mnnt Perdn, and 

t»rt, th« highest In Buroiw, descanding 

lejofLue. Fonr olher wateria]!., oii 

•twhlcli iB SOQ [est high, leap ovet the 



Basins inclined to the Mediterranean (continued). 

Rivers. Towns. 

Savifere, i. ..Drains Lake Bourget 

Leisse... . . Chambery. 
Fieran, I ... Annecy. 

Arve, I Geneva. 

Etang-de- Les Martigues. 

Touloubre, ..iSa^. 

Arc, Aix. 

Verne, Marseille, Axwagne, 


Rivers. Totont. 

S. E. Coast,.. . . La Ciotat, Toulon, La 
Seyne, Antibes, 

Gapeau, Hl&res. 

Argense, Lorgues. 

Artuby, I... Draguignan. 

Calami, Brignoles. 

Siagne Canvas. 

Esteron, I ..Grasse. 

Paglione, Nice. 

Co. of Nice,... Jfonoco. Mentone, Ven- 
I timigtia. 

Basins inclined to the North Sea. 

Rhine,* Strasbouro, Guebwil- 

ler, n. 
Moselle, I ..Thionville, Metz, Pent- 
drMousson, Nancy, 
Tovi, Epinal, Remire- 

Sarr, Saarbrtick, Sarregue- 

Meurthe, Nancy, Lun^ville, St 

Madon, I Mirecourt. 
Moder, I.... Haguenau, Bischtoiller. 

Zom, Saveme. 
Ill, i Strasbourg, Schele- 

Stadt, COLMAR, Mul- 

Bniche, I Oberheim. 
Liepvrette, I St Marie-aux-Mines. 

Thaur, I ..Mulhausen, TJiann. 

Meuse, Oivet, Charleville, Mk- 

ziERES, Sedan, Verdon, 
St MihieL 
Sambre, I... Maubeuge. 
Scheldt, Condiy Amin, Valen- 
ciennes, CambraL 

Lys, I Tourcoing, n. , Comminet, 

Armenti^res, Hallnin, 
Bailleul, n., MervHU, 
Deule,....Waltrelos, Ronbaix, n., 
Lille, Carvin-Epinoy, 
Beurre, I Haaebrouck. 
Lawe, .... Bethune. 
Scarpe, 2... St Amand-les-eanx, 

Douay, Arras. 
Selle, SolesmeSf Le Cateati, 

LsLkes. — France is singularly devoid of lakes, and the few that 
exist are of very small dimensions. Grand Lien, the largest of them, 
in the department Loire Inferieure, occupies only 20 sq. miles, and 
St Point, m department Jura, 3 sq. miles. But there are numerous 
lagoons, or salt marshes, called Etangs, in the S.W. and S.E. de- 

Sartments, from which large quantities of salt are annually pro- 
uced. The principal are Carcans and Certes, in Gironde ; San- 
guinet and Biscarosse, in Landes ; Leucat and Sigeau, in Aude ; 
Thou, in Herault ; and Etang de Berre, in Bouches-dn-Bhone. 

Climate. — France lies between the isotherms of 50° and 60* hence 
the climate is scarcely surpassed by that of any country in Europe, 
though, owing to the great extent of its surface, there are great diver- 
sities. Thus, in the N.W. departments, it greatly resembles the S. 
of Endland ; in the N.E. the winters are long and often severe ; in 
the S.E. the sky is almost always serene, and the winters of short 
duration. The mean annual temperature in the N. is 50°, and in the 
S. 60" Fahr., the mean temperature of the capital is slightly greater 
than that of London, but is 2° higher in summer, and as many 
lower in winter. Mean annual rain on the W. coast, 24 inches, S. 28, 
N. 22 inches ; rainy days at Paris, 105 ; on W. coast, 152 ; in the in- 
terior, 147 ; but on the coast of the Mediterranean, only 66. The hot 

* The Rhine no longer forms part of the boundary of Franca 

FRANCE, 209 

irinJa of Africa freiiueiitly sprtad dflKolatioD in tlie S.E. dnpnrt. 
inentB, wMh the S.W. are eiposed to piercing winds und tempests 
from the Pyreneea and Bay of Biacay. Tlie oliva ia aacoessfally unl- 
tirated ia tbs S.E. ; the general cnftivatioQ of maize extends uol'th- 
ward to a line drawn from Bordeaux to Strasbourg ; the vine is pro- 
fitably cultivated as far north as a line connecting the month of tha 
l.oLre with Meziferes on tha Meuse, while N. of thia line ia the region 
of wheat, flax, and beetroot. 

Qeology anil HlneralB, — The geology of France is aa varied ai 
that of England, comprehending all the formationa of the geological 
■cale. The secondary strata, however, are the most highly developed, 
"~ id cover the largest portion of the surface. They praviul chiefly ia 
.0 E. and N.E. departments, from the Mediterranean to Metz on 
le Moselle. They also cover a large part of the W, of France, ei- 
iidiBg from the Garonne to the mouth of the Seine, hut not inclnd- 
Sag Brittany, which is nearly alt Silurian. The nest in importance 
"h the toitiarj Beriea, which occupies the region between the Pyreneea 
jBid Garonne; an exteoaive tract along the Kaide of the Khona and 
P-Saflno ; and a still more extensive area aroand the capital, known as 
tha Paris batin, and celebrated as the field ie which the great Cnvier 
roads hia reraarliable palfcontologicsl discoveries. Granitic roets 
oconi in many places, but prevail especially in Brittany, and alone 
the great water - parting separating the liasins of the Loire and 
Garonna ; and, lastly, volcanic rocks are numerous in Cautal and 
Puy-de-Dflme, where they form nn irregular ridge of mottntains, con- 
sisting chiefly of extinct volcanoes. The moat abundant ooal-depoaita 
are found in the central departments, especially in the basins of the 
Loire, Crouse, Dordogne, Aveyron, Ardfeche, and Rhone, and in the 
monataina of Cevennea, An extensive coal-field extends from Bou- 
logne in an easterly direction to Belgium, and forms a source of great 
w^th to the flonrishing cities of the N. coast of Frani^e ; but it is a 
curiona fact that coal in France ia unaccompanied by ironatone, a 
niineral which so greatly enhancea its valne in England and Scotland. 
Tha next most important mineral ia iron, I'oond in all parts of tbo 
kingdom, and worked to the extent of half a million of tons annu- 
ally ; coal, as already described, wrought in 400 coal-Qiines, and 
yielding upwards of 11,000,000 tons annually ; salt-mines of grest 
valae ; copper, lead, silver, antimony, and email quantities of gp'^, 
BulphltT, and sulphate of iron ; marble, gypsum, alabaster, builaing- 
Btona, Uld slate, in many localities. 

BotKBT. — France surpasses all other European c 
number and variety of its indigenous plants. Thus, while the in- 
diganons plants of the British falea amount only to 1400 apecies, of 
which 1600 are flowering, France contuns 7000 species, of which 
3610 are flowering, or, according to Maitins, 3860, of which 713 are 
monocotyledons and 29S0 dicotyledons. The principal formt-traa 
1 ue the difl'erent varieties of the pine tribe, as common fir in Voages 
Lsnd Jura, and the larch in the loftier Alps ; the oak, beech, elm, ash, 
'i, ftnd eork-tree. Forests occupy about 17,000,000 acres, being 


nearly an eighth of the entire surface, and are the more valuable in 
that they thnve in soils which could not otherwise be turned to good 
account. The principal fruit-trees are the vine, olive, chestnut, 
walnut, almond, apple, pear, cherry, orange, citron, fig, pomegranate, 
pistachio, lemon, and plum. 

Agriculture. — ^Except on the borders of Belgium, agriculture is in a 
backward state, though the recent improvements have been extensive, and 
the implements used in husbandry are of an inferior description. The 
British system of rotation of crops is unpractised, and large farms are un« 
known. This is mainly owing to the extreme subdivision of property. 
When a landed proprietor dies^ the land is equally divided among all his 
children. The result is that there are now in France about .8,000,000 
landed proprietors, of whom 50,000 possess on an average 600 acres each ; 
2,500,0000 have 60 acres each, while 5,000,000 have only 6 acres each. 
The soil is in general of moderate fertilitv, but in many places very ridi: 
\ is under cultivation, |th occupied with forests and fruit-trees, ^th in 
permanent meadows, and 4th in unreclaimed waste land. Vineyaros now 
occupy about a twentieth part of the entire area, and the French are 
allowed to be the best winemakers in the world. The most celebrated 
wines are those of Champagne, Burgundy, and Bordeaux. Wheat and 
the vine form the principal objects of culture, and next to them barley, 
oats, rye, buckwheat, Indian-corn, peas, beans, potatoes, and flax. 
Wheat is grown chiefly in the north, where the vine cannot be cultivated 
successfully ; maize in the south ; and rye throughout the whole country. 
The quantity of com raised is usually sufScient for the wants of the 
population, and considerable quantities are often exported. Mulberry^ 
trees form an important article of culture, especially around Lyon; beet« 
root, from which sugar is largely manufactured ; tobacco and madder are 
also cultivated in several departments, but the olive almost exclusively on 
the coast of the Mediterranean. In the reaiing of cattle and sheep iStuice 
is far behind Great Britain, but poultry are very extensively reared. 

Zoology. — Among the wild Mammalia may be reckoned the 
black and brown bear in the Pyrenees ; the lynx in the higher Alps ; 
the wolf and wild boar in the forests ; the cnamois and wild goat in 
the Alps and Pyrenees ; the stag, roebuck, hare, rabbit, and S)X, are 
common ; the marmot, ermine, hamster, the red, alpine, and flying 
squirrel in the Vosges ; the badger, hedgehog, polecat, weasel, raC 
mouse, and mole, everywhere ; the beaver is found on the banks of 
the Rhone ; the otter and water-rat in most of the other rivers. 
Birds. — The songsters and the birds of passage are much the same 
as in England ; the flamingo is found on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean; the red and grey partridge, quail, pheasant, woodcock, 
plover, lapwing, wild-duck, and snipe are common ; the eagle, falcon, 
and buzzard in the mountains. Reptiles are represented by numer- 
ous species of frogs, including the salamander, by a few tortoises, and 
by several species of vipers and of harmless snakes. Fishes. — The 
herring, mackerel, sardine, pilchard, turbot, sole, whiting, on the 
west coast ; the tunny and anchovy in the Mediterranean ; and the 
salmon in the river-estuaries. The Articulaia include the crab, 
lobster, crayfish, and numerous insects, among which may be men- 
tioned bees, which are extensively reared ; and the silkworm, which 


fbnna a liidily important source of wealth. Of MoUusca, liie oyster 
md miaBsel form important articles of food. 

EtUnograiiliy.— In ancient timea France (formerly GalljK, or Ganl) 
was iahabited by three different races — viz., the Anuitani in the S., 
an Iberian race; the Celts in the centre, n Gallic race; and the 
Belgse in the N., a Gothic race. The French people are therefore of 
n mixed race, partly Teutonic, but chieHy Boinan and Celtic The 
Gauls, or Celts, were the original inhabitants, but were invaded early 
in the fifth centarj hy the Franks, Burgundiana, and Visisoths, ■. 
confederacy of German tribes who had previoasly occupied the right 
banlt of the Khine. In Brittany the Celtic element remains almost 
mre, and the Basque jn B^am ; while Flemish is spoken in French 
Flanders, and Italian in the 8.E. 

The French Langaaot is an important member of the Greco-Latin 
family. The conntry haTing been long mibject to the Homana, the 
original language of the inhabitants was diaplaced by the Latin, wMiJi 
waa in turn greatly corrupted by the Franks. The Armorio, howerer, 
s purely Celtic dialect, continnea to be spoken in Brittany ; and the 
B^miB, which cannot be classed under an; known family, is spoken 
in the eitroma 9.W. 

JUHgion.—Tbe graat bulk of the population are nominal adherents of 
the Church of Rome. In 1B72 upwards oi 35,000,000 belonged to that 
faith, while only 680,000 were Protestants, and 49,000 Jews. Tbe 
majority of the Protestants are Calrinists, but Lutherans i 

to theee deuominatiuus who will not submit to Slate < 
Edncativti. — From its lowest to its highest atage, educatj 

.s detec 

a and 

established, a . 

mentary school ; yet In 1872, one-tbird of the adult population eonld 
neither read nor write. Advanced eduoation is conducted by an 
organisation known u tbe " Clnivarsity of France," wbioli ambroces five 
facalUBa— Tiz., those of Science, Letters, Law, Medicine, and Theology, 
and which has branches in Paris, Caen, Toulouse, Dijon, Poictiei-s, and 
Gennes. Tbe Roman Catholic Church, however, educatee ita clewjr in its 
own eeoleaiaaticai aecninaries, in which the curriculum is very limitad. 
The duration of acbool-life is regulated by tbe religion of tbe acholar. 
Roman Catholics rarely attend school after eleveu ur twelve, when they 
reodve their flrat communion, but Proteatanta commonly remain till about 
riiteen. In intelleotnal charaoter the fVench people occupy a foremoat 
place; while for eiqulsite taste, politoneaa, and courtesy of manners, they 
•re unrivalled among the nations. In moral qualities, however, they ara 

• In Ji 


at bo eonteoted nitli being to 

■duKils will be tolerated ; and, sa n climax to this pEecs of reUidotiB onnreasED 
It Is fOrther tntimal*d that sll altempta to diacnsa laltglous queatlonswlll 1 
treated m (edition, and Buppreusd acroidinglr. Do tbe whole, Pmteatsntts 
bu hardly been in a worae condition in Fruici alnce the reign of Lnnli XIV. 


less favourably distinguished ; they are deficient in solidity of character 
and strength of princij^le ; incapable alike of bearing prosperity or adver- 
sity. Fickleness of disposition and a passion for military glor^ are pro- 
minent features of their character. Licentiousness of manners is another 
distinguishing trait, especially in large cities : in the capital, for instance, 
every third mother is unmarried, and every third child nas a stain on his 
birth ; but over the whole country the proportion is only one to fourteen. 

Literature. — Though France cannot boast of many geniuses of 
the first order, a great number of brilliant names adorn her literature. 
The following are amongst the most distinguished of her many gifted 
sons : — 

POETBT : Moli^re, Kacine, ComeiUe, La Fontaine, Boileau, Crebillon, 
Voltaire, Beranger, J. B. Rousseau, Hugo, Dnmas, Musset. Histobt : 
Froissart, Rapin, Voltaire, Rollin, Comines, De Thou, Sully, Barante, 
Thierry, Thiers, Mignet, Guizot. Fine Arts : Poussin, Vouet, Claude 
Lorrain, Vanloo, Le Sueur, P. Mignard, Charles le Brun, Watteau, Ver- 
net, Greuze, David. Phtsical Science : La Place, Lavoisier, Lagranffe, 
Lalande, D'Alembert, Buffon, B^umur, Jussieu, Cuvier, Arago, Balbi. 
Mental Science : Descartes, Malebranche, Gassendi, Bayle, Condillac, 
Montesquieu, Cousin. Pulpit Eloquence : Bourdaloue, Bossuet, F€n^ 
Ion, Massillon. Sacred Literature : Calvin, Beza, Pascal^ Bochart, 
DaUle, Tillemont, Le Long, Dupin, Fleury, Basnage, Saurin, Le Clerc, 
Calmet, Houbigant. Miscellaneous : Rabelais, Montaigne, H. and R. 
Stephens, Casaubon, Salmasius, Ilerbelot, S6viign4y Du Cange, Mbnt- 
faucon, Le Sage, Fontenelle, Maimontel, Didero^ St Pierre, Vomey, De 
Sacy, Champollion, Chateaubriand, LaBruybre, La Rochefoucauld, Talley- 
rand, Hugo, Dumas, Musset, Bal^c, De Block, Eugene Sue, Lamartine. 

Form of Oovemment, Army and Navy, Public Debt, Bevenne and 
Expenditure. — The French Revolution, overthrowing the Monurdhy, 
commenced in 1789. Napoleon Buonaparte was proclaimed Empenv 
in 1804, and finally abdicated in 1815. Louis Philippe b^iame King 
of the French in 1830, but abdicated in 1848, when Fntnoe became 
a Republic with Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon the Qreat^ 
as its President. In 1852 he was declared Emperor, but his reign 
came to an ignominious termination by the terrible defeat at S^ian 
(September 2, 1870), and France is now once more a RepubUa TbB 
Franco-German war cost this unhappy country about £560.000,000, 
including a war indemnity to €rermany of £200,000,000. Previoiu 
to the Great Revolution the total public expenditure of France did 
not exceed £40,000,000 a-year, a sum which now barely covers the 
interest on the National Debt. In 1873 the army amounted to 
454,000 men, including 280,000 infantry, 60,000 oavalty, and 
51,000 artillery. ^ The navy is very formidable, but is at present in 
a state of transition. It was of no use to France in her hour of 
peril. The revenue and expenditure in 1875 amounted to upwards 
of £100, 000,000 each. 

Commerce, ManufiEUstures, Exports and Imports.~France ranks 
next to Britain, in regard to Ihe extent and value of her commerce and 
manufactures. In 1873, the commercial marine comprised 14,687 ves- 
sels, carrying 1,042,000 tons, or about a fifth part of the toima« cf 
Great Bntain ; the total exports amounted to £140,000,000, ana fba 
imports to £182,000,000. Her chief customer is England, her tiidi 



iritktlt&t countrj having increased more thui 150 per cent since tlis 
treaty of commoroe of 1860. The other principal countries are Bel- 
gium, Italy, Netherlands, and Spain. In 1873, France exported to 
our country goods to the value of £43,710, DOO, the chief items of which 
-were dlk and ailk goods (£10,000,000), vrinea and brandy (£3,000,000); 
gloves, butter, and eggs (£4000,000). In the same year France re- 
ceived from Us to the value of £17,031,000, consisting mainly of wool- 
len, cotton, and linen goods, coal, ejid iroo. Her principal imports 
from other conntriea are raw silks, wool, sugar, cotton, wood, and 
coal. With respect to maoufacturiag indostrj, France is divisible 
into three regions, which, in the order of their importance, are the 
northern, southern, and central. The northern towns (ceiieciallf 
Bonen) are the chief seats of the cotton and woollen manufacture ; 
while the linen manufacture is chieHy confined to Lille, Cambray, 
and the other towns bordering on Belgium ; silk-wearing la chiefly 
prosecnted at Ljon, and other cities in the vall^ of the Rhone. St 
Etienne is the chief seat of the manufacture of firearms and hard- 
ware. Faiis is remarkable for the great variety of its manufactnres, 
wpedally articles of taste, luxury, and fashion — as jewellery, bijou- 
terie, porcelain, mirrors, clocks, watches, perfumery, bonnets, gloves, 
OMTiftgBS, and "Articles de Paris." The^love manufacture is one of 
the most imtiortaTit branches of industry m the country, Paris being 
its chief seat. Caen and Valencienaea are famous for their lace. Cam- 
buy for muslin, Eeirasfor merinoes; while the mannfactures of beet- 
root-sugar, wine, and brandy, are of the highest importance. 

Inland Conununlcatimi. — Aa compared with Eugland and Belgium, 
tUaVAT communication is still in a backward state, PreTtous to 184D, 
there were but few Unea in the kiogdom. In IS54. the number of miles 
oi«n for traffie was 2526, -while at the close of 1874 there were 12,420 
miles in operation. Nearly all the lines are at present in the liands 
Of sIe great companies, and all the grand systems railiate frum Paris, aa 
a centre, to the extremities of the kingdom. ConuuencinE at the capital, 
Ist, the NoRTHEB^t, proceeds to Amiens, and then bran^ea to Brussels 
and Boulogne; 2d, theWESTEiiN runs to Boueii, where it forks to Dieppe, 
Havre, and CherboHrg ; 3d, the Ohleiss line proceeds S.W. to Toms, 
where it branches oil' to Nautca and Bordeanx; 4th, the Ltom and MflDl- 
IKBSliNKAN, to Ljon and Marseille ; 6th . tha Southern, from Bordsaui 
to HontpeUier ; Sth, the Eastern, from Paris to Nancy. There are now 
39,000 m. of telecrrapbio wires. There are eighty -aii canals, whoso 
united lantrth ia 2350 miles, and which connect all the principal rivers of 
nance. The nioet important are the following : Uanal dK Midi, from 
Toulouse^ on the Garonne, to the lagoon of Thou, connects the Atlautio 

ftnd Mediterranean. Canal du Cmtri, from C%alonB-sur-Sa3ne to Disoia 
te and RkoH^ 

In Bafine-et-Loire, unites the Laiie with the Rhone. 

_ ..iia(, partly in the Ihie of the Doobs, unites the Ehine and Rhone. 
Canal de Burgogiu, from the SaSne to the Yoone, connects the Hbone 
with the Seine. Canid d» Braire, connecting the Seine with the Loire. 
ThB BOAIH are divided into two clasBes— vit, Boyal and Departnientol. 
Of the formar there are twenty-six, whose united length la 2i,900 miles ; 
^>Bd of the latter, uinety-aenin, with a united length of S2,EiD0 — making 
■total of 47,400 mUes. 
1 Forslen FoBsesiloBS. — The foreign possessions of France have an 


Charles V. and John of Gaunt St ITicholas and Lokem are also chief 
seats of the cotton manufacture. Oadenarde, celebrated for the victory 
gained by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene over the French, 
in 1708. Antwerp {Fr, Anvers), a large and very strongly fortified city 
on the Scheldt, and the chief emporium of Belgian commerce, contains a 
noble cathedral, many valuable works of art, and extensive manufactures, 
the chief of which are silk and cotton hosiery : in the 13th and 14th cen- 
turies it was the wealthiest and most commercial city in Europe. Hera 
died the illustrious Rubens in 1640, and it is the birthplace of Jordaens, 
Vandyk, and Teniers. Mechlin {Fr. Malines), on the Dyle, and at the 
intersection of several railways, is a place of great trade, especially in flax, 
com, and oil. Idege (Z). Luyk, v. Ltlttich), a fortified and populous 
city on the Maas, is called the Birmingham of Belgium, on account of its 
vast ironworks and extensive coal-mines ; long celebrated for the manu- 
facture of arras, which it largely exports to foreign governments. V«r- 
viers, noted for its woollen cloth, soap, and dye-works. Hny (We)^ a 
fortified town, with a college, ironworks, several factories, and an active 
trade in com, is the burial-place of Peter the Hermit. ITamnr, a fortified 
city at the confluence of the Maas and Sambre, is celebrated for its cut- 
lery : it has extensive manufactures of iron, steel, and bronze articles : its 
cathedral is one of the finest in Belgium : in the vicinity are rich mines 
of coal, iron, lead, and copper. Mens, a fortified city on the Haine, witii 
numerous coal-mines in the vicinity, Toumay, a strongly fortL&ed city 
on the Scheldt, has a royal factory for the manufacture of Brussels car- 
pets. Charleroi, a celebrated fortress which has been taken by the Frendi 
no less than six times, lies near the centre of an extensive and valuable 
coal-field ; is well situated both for manufactures and trade. Flennu : 
various sanguinary battles took place in its vicinity in 162S, 1690, 1794, 
and 1815. Fontenoy, a village five miles S.E. of Toumay, memorable as 
the place where, in 1745, the British were defeated by the French. 
Brussels {Fr. Bruxelles), capital of Belgium, is adorned with many &ie 
buildings, fountains, and public walks of ^ksX beauty. It is tiie chief 
seat of public instruction, contains a university, and numerous other 
literary and scientific institutions, and is noted for book-printing, es- 
pecially its cheap reprints of French works. Brussels was long cele- 
brated for its carpets and lace, but the former branch of manufacture has 
now greatly declmed. Bmssels is an ancient city, having been founded 
probably in the seventh century : was the residence of the Di^es of Bra- 
bant, and afterwards of the Spanish and Austrian governors-general of 
the Netherlands. Louvain, once the seat of a famous university, now 
replaced by a Boman Catholic college. Waterloo, a village 9 miles 8. of 
Brussels, famous for the great battle fought near it, June 18, 1815, be- 
tween the French under Napoleon I., and the British under the Dnke of 
Wellington, when Napoleon was utterly defeated. ''^™<11<Aff : here the 
Duke of Marlborough defeated the French, 23d May 1706. Qvatra Brai, 
a village 10 miles S. of Waterloo, and the scene of an indecisive action 
between the French and the British (with their allies), 16tii June 1815, 
in which the Duke of Brunswick fell. Ligny. a village 14 miles W.N,W. 
of Namur, celebrated for a battle between the Proiuians and French, 
16th June 1815. 

River-Basins. — The Maas (Fr, Meuse) and the Scheldt (Fr, 
Escant) are the only rivers of Belgium that deserve attentioin. TIm 
former has a total length of 580 miles, and the latter of 811 mllM ; 
but only a part of their course belongs to this kingdom. Of tii0 



■ tons 

EBLOIL-M. 217 

nine capitals of provinoea above enumeiBtcd, three belong to the 
Maaa — yia., lAhne, Nttmnr, and Arion ; aud fivB to the Scheldt — 
viz., Antwerp, Ghent, Brassela, Hassolt, and Mona. For the table 
of rivers ana tawns, epa under " KetherkndB," where the complete 
rirer-Bjetein of both countries will be found. 

The CUiDEite is in senernl temperate, mild, and ajrreeable, but 
humid in the K and N. W. The mean temperature of the year at 
BrusBols ia 60°.l, winter 38°, aummer 61° Fair. ; the range ot tem- 
perature ifl very great — the estteaie heat being 91°.0, and eitreme 
cold 3° below zero. The prevailing winds are &om the S.W.j and 
the annual fall of rain ia about 26 inches. 

Geolofy and Btaerala.—TettiaTy format iona cover the whole N.W. 
and centre; but iu the E. and S. corboniferoua and Devonian strata 
prevail, containing many ejrtensivo and valuable coal-fields, especially 
In the provinces of Hainanlt, Nunur, and Li^ge. The minerals are 
~ nerouB and highly important, embracing coal and iron, which are 
>ught most eitensively around Mona. Liige, and Charleroi : S3 
coal-beds are enumerated, which yield aiinnally abont 10,000,000 
tons of coal, a third of which is exported t« France, whose entire 
eoal-Gelds are inferior to those of Namur alone. With the exception 
ot England, Belgium is the beat coal-producing country iu Europe. 
Liftge alone produces 200,000 tana of iron annually ; and many 
other iroD-mines are wrought between the Maas and the Sambra. 
Oilier minerals are, copper in Haiuault and Li^ge; lead in Lillge, 
Niuunr, and Luxembourg ; calamine, or carbonate of zinc, in Natnut, 
Li^, aud Hainault; idso manganese, solphnr, alum, slate, and 
bnilding-stonc, and several other useful minerals. 

Botany, Aaricnltnre, and Zoology. — The indigenoua vegetation of 
Belpuni differs so little from that of the north of France and the 
•outh of England, tliat it is onnecesaary to describa it. Among the 
forest-trees are the oak, chestnut, beech, elm, ash, walnut, Hr, and 
poplar. Agriculture ia in « highly flourishing state, and haa lon){ 
served aa a model to neighbouring countries. The soil is not natu 
ally fertile, as it generally consists of either sand or clay, but t . 
■kill and industry of the hnshandman have so judiciously mixed J 
these ingredients that Belgium may now be regarded aa the richest 1 
and mmt productive country in Europe. The rotation of crops ie .1 
carefully attended to ; artiiicial man urea are largely employed ; ami. I 
the result is, that though the country is bo densely peopled, tha .1 
qnanti^ ot com raised ia double that reqaired for home consomp- A 
tion. Seven-eightbs of the entire surface are under cultivation, and j 
the remainder yields excellent timber for bark and bnilding purpoaolk m 
Clover fonns an extendve article of larmiug and the chief food otV 
the cattle, wliich are usually atall-fed, ihe seed being exported tof 
England. The flax is of an sxcallent quality, and is also largely 4 

. . rm g ^jjjg jg nuitivated on the banks of the Uaas, but the , 

1 is 01 an inferior quality. Hops, beetroot (for sugar), chicon', 
toleooo, are grown in the central provineeg ; potatoes, flii, oil- 
, nnd mftddcr, in Fludcrt ; and wheat, rye, barley, oats, and 


pets, cutlery, nails, and re&ned sugar. Among the principal mana- 
factured articles may be enumerated Brussels carpets, which are 
unrivalled for elegance ; fine lace and thread, made from the finest 
flax, so valuable that it sometimes fetches £400 sterling x>er pound ; 
damask table-linen, and other linen cloth, paper, oil-cloth, India- 
rubber articles, musical instruments, embroidery, ribbons, hats, and 
various other articles enumerated among the exports. Both as 
regards exports and imports, its chief customers are France, England, 
Netherlands, and Germany. The articles sent to England are silk 
manufactures to the value of nearly £2,250>000, flax, yam, and dairy 
produce, amounting, in 1873, to £8,250,000. We send to it, in 
return, woollen stuffs and machinery, to the value of £2,000,000.' At 
Seraing, near Li^ge, is one of the most extensive ironworks in 
Europe, employing 5000 artisans : here are manufactured cannons, 
firearms, steam machinery, and locomotives. 

Inland Communication. — Considering its size, Belgium is better 
fumiahed with Railways than any other European country. 

From Mechlin, as the centre of the entire system, one main line pro- 
ceeds S.W. by the capital to Mons, and then to France, where it con- 
nects with the Great Northern to Paris ; a second S.E. to Li^e and 
Cologne ; a third N. to Antwerp and Rotterdam ; a fourth W. by Ghent 
and Bruges to Ostend. Another main line connects Antwerp, Ghent, 
Toumay, and Lille (in France) ; and the only other we can specify unites 
Courtrai, Mens, Namur, and Libge. These various lines have been con- 
structed at the expense of the Government, and have powerfully contri- 
buted to develop the internal resources of the country. In 1874, the 
number of miles open for traffic was 2105, yielding a clear revenue of 
£3,000,000. The country is also largely intersected by excellent Canals^ 
many of which admit merchant vessels. The chief of these are the Bruges 
and Ghent Canal, which communicates with those of Damme and Ostend 
at Bruges, and at Ghent with another canal, which proceeds north to the 
estuary of the East Scheldt ; and those which connect the Maas with the 
Scheldt — amounting together to nearly 300 mUes. The two principal 
rivers, the Maas and Scheldt, are navigable through the whole Belgun 
territory. The public Roads are also numerous, broad, and well paved. 
Belgium has no Foreign Possessions, Holland having retained all the 
colonies when, in 1830, the two counliies were disjoint 


Position and Boundaries. — The Kingdom of the Nether- 
lands is bounded on the N. and W. by the North Sea, S. by 
Belgium, and E. by Prussia ; but the Grand-Duchy of Luxem- 
bourg,'^ properly belonging to Qermany, lies S; E. of Belgium, 
between Belgian Luxembourg and the Moselle. Lat. 49° 26^— 
53'' 34' N. ; or, omitting Luxembourg, lat 60*» 46'— 53* 34' N.; 
Ion. 3° 24'— 7' 12' E. 

* In case of war, this province is neutral, under fhe proteetion off fto Oieil 


Aiiistorda.m,thecommerciii1 capital, neartbecentre.isn eaily ontbesainc' 
parallel nf latitude as Tralea, Cambridge, HanOTer, Berlin, and Warsaw ; 
and oa the same meridian as Bnissata, Lj^oa, and Minorca. The form 
approachea a rhombeid, with deep inrtentatiDna at the three angles washed 
b; the sea. Length of east side, 187 miles; breadth along the Eelgian 
mmtler, 117 mJes, The coast-lina is extremely irregular, especially in 
the N., where the eea has made serious eaci«achments on the land. 
Length, inclnrimg the larger itidentivtioas, about 600 miles, or 1 mile of 
coast to each 27 miles of surface. 

Am and Papulation.— Including Limbourg and Luxcmboarg, 
the area is 22,11B aq. milea, or nearly thrice the size of Wales. Popu- 
lation (in 1873) 3,913,600, beiag 275 persons to each aq. mile:' The 
neitem provincea (N. and Id. Holland) ars the most populous parts 
of the kingdom, and i^ontain the largest towns ; wbilc Drenthe, in 
the H.E,, partly oi^cnpied by heath and waste land, is the least 

Political Divisions.— Holland is divided into 12 provinceB, 
JDcluding the two diiuhieB of Limbourg and Luxembourg.* 

Vorth HoUand.t— Akstehdau 2S1 (Anistel and Y), Haarlem 31 n., 
Zaandam or Baardam 12 |Y), Alkmaarll, Haider 20 (Great Canal), Hoom 
10 (Zuvder Zea). 

r™™ Wieam SOOO nsd JO.OOT MJlatimnU.-menwe^Ainatel, Eukliiitien. 

Boath Holland.— The Haqcb 93, Delft 22 (Bchie Canal), LoyJen 40 
(Old Rhine], Schiedam 20, Rotterdam 123, Dart 2G (Maas), Gouda 15 
(Rhine, I'liel branch). 

Brlalle, Tlaudingen. Gorkmo. 

Zeeland.- Mn)Di.EBCiia 16, Flushing 11 (W. Scheldt), 

KoTtli Brabant.- Boia-LK-Duo 2S (Dommel), Breda 15 (Merl:), TilbuiK 
2i(Gt. Aa). 

ntrecht.— IItrecht 60 (Old Rhine), Ajnersfoort 14 (Bern). 

• The Repnblio of the Seen Upitad Prorincoa, >a rtlobrated in history, woi 

rmed bj tJie Lcitfua of U' 
lecht, QoIderlaDiT, OverjfH 
LXda added, by conqnoat or 

1, Alkmasr, also s^bUeA HsDrlem, Allimui 

CoBioHian lEMvnr-dln). 

— loom (HOm). 
I Oemiiii, or nil: 
i; uZadudfT 

i Hooni (Sltn}. 

GMrtodienbwg, Zn jder Zee (Uer-frj'iJBi-fterii 

ill _ t in OwUah ; u Z^uid (Tiee'limf j. 
.fer M VbiSbt WiflrUt). 

■■1 Bohoit, ectaiediun {ShO, Sku-dan-i. 


Gelderland.— Arnhem S3 (Rhine), Nimeguen 23 (Waal), Zutphen 15 
Thiel, Harderwyk, Nykerk. 

OverysseL— ZwoLLE 21 (Zwarte- Water), Kampen 15, Deventer 17 
Raalte, Enschede. 

Friesland.— Leeuwabden 25, Harlingen 10 (Leeuwarden Canal). 
Franeker, Sneek. 

Groningen.— Groninoen 37 (Hunse). 

Drenthe.— AssEN 5 (Hoom Diep), Meppel 7 (Reest). 

Dutcli Limbonrg.— Maestricht 28 (Maas). 
Venlo, Ruremonde, Weert. 

Luxembourg (S.£. of Belgium). — LnxEMB0UBal5(AIzette,a^. Moselle). 

Descrlptiye Notes. — There are only two towns in the Nether- 
lands that contain upwards of 100,000 inhabitants (Amsterdam, Rot* 
terdam); two between 100,000 and 50,000 (The Hague, Utrecht); 
fourteen between 50,000 and 20,000 (Leyden, GrSningen, Amheim, 
Haarlem, Maestricht, Leeuwarden, Bois-le-Duc, Dordrecht, Nime- 
guen, Delft, Zwolle, Tilburg, Schiedam, Holder) ; andtwelye between 
20,000 and 10,000. 

Amsterdam, the capital, and by far the lai^est city in the kin^om, at 
the confluence of the Amstel with an arm of the Zuyder Zee, is one of 
the most important commercial cities in Europe. It is built of bricks, 
in the form of a crescent, and supported by piles of wood driven into the 
alluvial soil. In the middle of the thirteenth century it was merely a 
collection of fishermen's huts, but it now contains 265,000 inhabitants, 
and is a place of great wealth. Here are vast storehouses filled with the 
most valuable products of both hemispheres, immense shipbuilding docks, 
and numerous literary and scientific institutions. It is a great deiwt 
for the commodities of the East and West Indies, with whicn it carries 
on an extensive trade through the Dutch colonies and its own trading 
companies. Haarlem is the centre of the Dutch trade in bulbous roote 
and flower-seeds, grown in extensive nursery-grounds in the vicinity ; it 
has numerous manufactures, chiefly cotton and bleaching ; and is memor- 
able for the siege it sustained against the Spaniards in 1572. The cathe- 
dral of St Bavon contains the largest organ m Europe, and in the mariwt- 
place stands the statue of Lawrence Coster, a native of the town, and the 
reputed inventor of the art of printing (1440). ZaAndam, where Peter 
the Great, of Russia, wrought as an artisan in the dockyard. Hoom, the 
birthplace of Tasman, who discovered New Zealand and Tasmania, and 
of Schouten, who discovered Cape Horn. Alkmaar, a fortified town on 
the Great Canal ; near it Camperdown, off which Admiral Duncan de- 
feated the Dutch fleet under De Winter. Helder, a strong fortress at the 
north extremity of the province, commands the principal entrance to the 
Zuyder Zee. The Hague, the usual residence of the King and States- 
General, may be regarded as the political capital. It is handsomely 
built, has a rich gallery of Dutch paintings, and is the birthplace <» 
Huyghens the mathematician, and of William IH. of England. Ddffc, 
long famous for its earthenware, the birthplace of the celebrated Hugo 
Grotius, critic and commentator. Gk)uda is celebrated for its cheese and 
tobacco-pipes, which are largely exported. Leyden, the literary oapital, 
has a celebrated university, founded in 1575, much resorted to by sta« 
dents from other countries, and has the most extensive linen and wooUn 



Tnanufar'tureB in the conntry. Schiedam, noted for its gin or hollanila. 
Which is largely diatiiied here. Sotterdam, the eecond city of Holland 
Id rt^rd to population, wealth, and comnierciai importance, ia more 
favuumblyBituated for commerce than Amsterdam: has numerous canals 
intersectiag the city in all directions, and capable of sdmittina; tha 
lai^at merchant veaaela : here are nninerona mann&ctories and cufftil- 
IsriiM of gin, aiiil more Englisii residents than in any other city in the 
Vingdoni : it ia the birthplace of Eraamua, the restorer of letters in 
Westom Europe. Dort, or Doidrecht, was at one time the capital of the 
SotherlandB, and tlie original reaidence of the Counts of HoUand : here 
was held the firat meeting of the Statca-General in 1572, vrliich declared 
the independence of tbe United Froviuces, and the still mors famous 
eccieaiaatical synod in 1618, which condemned the doctrines of Arminina. 
Uddelbnrg, near the centre of the island Walcheren, and TluaMng, or 
- VHaaiDgBn, in the south, are strongly fortified seaports, with conaidar- 
able trade: Flushing has tnagnificcnt docks and magaanea; was bom- 
barded by the Enjllsh in 1809; and is tbe birthplace of Admiral Da 
Rnyter. Bcis-la-Dnc, a fortified city at the junction of the Dommel and 
Aa, has numerous manufautures of linen, called kntland. Brsda, cele- 
brated for the association of nobles formed in 1566, and called "Tha 
CoiDpromise of Breda," and for the congress of 1667, has a military aca- 
demy and arsenal, and is one of the strongent fortresses in tha kinedom, 
ntlMht, the oldest city in the kingdom, contains a flonriahing univer- 
sity; it ia also noted for the "Act of Confederation " of 1570, and for 
the treaty of peace which terminated the wars of the Spauish Sueoesaion 
in 1713. Himegnea, famous for the treaty of 1678 between Prance, Eng. 
I land, and Holland. Zutphen, where the brave Sir Ptiilip Sidney receiri^ 
L his (Jeath-wonnd in 1586. Zwolle : nearit is the convent where the cola- 
Idinted Thomaa-ii-Kempis died in 1471. Leanwardan contains the tombs 
Kft the Princes of Orange. OrBnii^eii, n fortified well-built town, has a 
ntmiveniity and nnmerons other literary institutions. Maastricht is 
itrongly fortified, and has manufactures of cottons, wooHena, and paper. 
In the neighbouring hill of St Peter's are immense underground stona 
qnatrtes. twelve leagues in circumference, traversed by about 20,000 pas- 
sages intersecting in all directious. and forming an intricate labyrinth. 
In time of war the inhabitants of the surronnding country, with their 
eattlB. find here a secure asylum. Laiembonrg, capital of the Grand- 
Dnchy of the same nanie, has a fortress of great strength, wliich was 
taken by Louis XIV. in 1684. 

Cftpei and Iilaiiils.—IIeMer Point, the N. extremity of North Hol- 
land 1 tha Hook of Holland, W. of South Holland. Iblabbs.— One 
group at the entrance of the Zuyder Zee, formerly all continuous, 
and forming a part of the mainlanil, but now broken up into the 
islands of Texel, Tlielaud, Ter-Schelling, Amelanil, Schiermonni- 
koogi Borkum, and Wieringen ; the other in the delta of the Mans 
and Scheldt, and consisting of 'Walcheren, H. and 9. Beveland, 
Tbolen, Schonwen, all in province Zeeland ; and Over-Fkkkee, 
Voome, Bejerlaad, and Tsselmouda, in S. Holland. 

Sbu, Bb;>, fto.— The Dollart, between Grdningen and Hanover; 
lAuwraZae, N.E. oCFnealand; Zuyder Zee,* E. of North Holland; 

-*« time the Zuj'^eT Zee oonslstf d of an Inlani. lain named Flevo. ani] 


the y, a branch of the Zuyder Zee, in the S. W. comer ; estuaries of 
the lUiine, Maas, and Scheldt, five in number, in South Holland 
and Zeeland ; Strait of Helder or Mars Diep, between the Helder 
and TexeL 

SnrflEU^ — ^Among the most striking features of this country are its 
utter want of mountains, the perfectly level aspect of the greater 
portion of the surface, and the strange unnatural-looking depression 
of the remainder, which in many places is greatly beneath tlie level 
of the sea — thus originating the characteristic name of the country, 
Holland, signifying the **low country." These low portions are in 
some places protected from the inroads of the ocean by natural bar- 
riers of sand-downs, and in others by enormous artificial dykes of 
earth, faced with stones which have to be imported from other coun- 
tries. These dykes rank amongst the most stupendous efforts of 
human industry to be found in any country. Tlie country requires 
to be protected in a similar manner from the inundations of the 
rivers, the beds of which are generally above the level of the land. 

River-SasinB. — There are few distinct river-basins in Holland, as 
the waters of the Rhine, Maas, and Scheldt, its principal rivers, 
intermingle at their estuaries, and thus in reality form but one basin. 
The Vecht and the Hunse are the only other rivers of the kingdom 
dcser\'ing attention. The basins of the,se five rivers contain ten out 
of the twelve capitals of provinces, leaving only the Hague and 
Leeuwarden, which stand on canals that answer all the purposes 
of rivers. 

Table of Rivers and Towns. — The towns of Belgium and the 
Netherlands given in the following table, in all 112 of 6000 inha- 
bitants and upwards, include 53 above 10,000. These stand on 4S 
rivers (and canals), of which 12 enter the sea directly, the remainder 
being their affluents. All the rivers enter the North Sea. 

Riven. Tovcng. \ Rivers. Totofu. 

Hunse, Groninoek. 

Hoom-Diep, Assen. 
Leeuwarden H a r 1 i n ge n, Franeker^ 

Moselle, I ..Treves. 
Sure, { ...EchUmaeh, 
Alzette, LuxEMBouaa 

Canal, Leeuwardkn. , CoGelderland^JJorderiDylc, Nyherk^ 

Vecht, Ensehede. 

Zwarte, Zwolle. 

Reest, MeppeL 

lUiine*, Eaiiipen,i7aaZte, Devent- 

er, Zutphen, Amster- 
dam, Leyden,UTRECHT, 
Arnhem, Gonda, Gor- 
kum, Thiel, Nim^uen. 

Eem, Amersfoort 

Anistel or Y, . JLmbtebdax, JT. Anut^ 
n., Zaandam, Haarlem. 
Zuyder Zee, ..Hooni, EnUwiaen, Hel- 

Great Canal, . .Helder, Alkmaar. 
Schie Canal, ..The Haouk, Delft 
MaasorMease^iMiUe, Vlaardingen, 

North Sea; but in 1282 a broad strait was formed (now the Strait of Helder) and 
the lake converted into a large arm of the sea. The Dollart, formed in 1877, the 
Bies Bosch in 1421, and Lake of Haarlem, owe their origin to limilAr inundatiooiii 
one of which is said to have overwhelmed seventy viUagea^ contaiDing lOOlOOO 

• For the ftOl development of the Rhine, see under "Gennany," u onljtba 
portion belonging to Holland and Belgium is given here. The Maas and Booaldt 
are given here in full. 







ytu orUeniie Schiedim. liocterdnni. 


Don, G>«4i»., V^nb,. 



£w>?n. HscUiiL, I^cv^ii, 

KiHDfL Dinoni. Oitwli 


Obulevine, XuiBBEB. 


Sednn. VBrtim, SI J(^ 

Tiet*.? ,. 


'. riimirtj. Bbotbei*. HoI, 


Jfwrfiu. '^' ^^""^ 







fStTranda, Tirlmont. 


rovTBe, i 


.Glsd^ieli, VleteED. 


. DcKAirni onO^tlatt, 




. CDurtrai. Men!n, TTrr- 








a . Mtmae, Airt. 


. Nawob, Oitlf. Chnrlorot 



Tliielt, MrvltbtH. In- 


&s~- '-"- 




.Ronbsli n,, Lille. Cht- 

IWTMjy-Zoim.. MlDML- 



wc^p, Bt b^^cilu, 


Thfmiche, Ile«dt<- 




edle, '-.!-' 

./;«l«>a?t. L> COUw 



OoMDa CuuJ, 0>n«iil, Beuou. 

WlZQ.. Ci»uU..AwiB. 






I^kss. — Done of unpartance sinct Lake Hnarlem (m North HoUiomI) 

otBi of 36 sq. niile<i. But there an BcineTaug umaJl lakeR is FriealaDd, 
u Plii»»n Heer, Slote Meer, Boeelier Meer, snd Berjmn Meet. Forty 
■mdl lakes in North Holluid, and as maij in BonUi Holland, hna Iwen 

imtture-land, caDed yi^iderj, havethue teeu xeelniiuBd.— Sea under "Seaa 
nod Bays." 

CUmate. — The climate of Holland is raw, damp, cold, foRgy, and 
pitiemelj diBogrpealjle to foreigners. The winds blow intessantlj, 
aa if consciona that they have a twofold duty to perform— to carry dB 1 
the stagnant Tapoura, and to keep several thooBuida of wlndiiiilli ia I 
eonstant ODeiahon. It not unfrequently blows a perfect hurricaiw J 
>r S.W., OTerwhelming the land with foga injurions *" 
. on, and tlireatening to overthrow every huJwark which t 
3 of contm-ies have erected. The mean annual temperature 
__!rdamU *B°.8; oCwintar, 36*.B; and of summer, 6*".4. Anno 
],SStncheB; number of rainy daya, 170. The wintere are serei . 
sky beinK geueraUy DVBrcaBt, bright days rarely exceeding 40 in 
ywr. TBongh Ettle mow falls, the trasto are intense ; the Zuydm 


Zee is frequently frozen over in January, and the Great Heldei Canal 
for ttiree months in the year. 

Geology and Minerals. — The rocks consist almost ezclusively of 
tertiary and super-tertiary strata, except in Luxembourg. Except in 
Limbourg and Dutch Luxembourg, coal is absent, and stones oi 
any size are rarely seen in the soiL Minerals comprise immense de- 
posits of turf: potter's clay, brick-clay, fuller's earth, and a little 
bog-iron, are found, but there are no other minerals. Building-stones 
are imported from Norway for the erection of piers, and for facings to 
the immense earthen dykes. The houses are usually built of brick, 
and of timber from the German forests, which is conveyed down the 
Rhine in immense rafts, varying from 700 to 1000 feet in length, 
from 50 to 90 in breadth, and directed by some hundreds of labourers, 
w^o construct a village of timber huts on its surface. 

Botany, Agriculture, and Zoology. — The botany of the Nether- 
lands is much the same as in other European countries under the 
same latitude ; but, as might have been expected, aquatic plants are 
more varied and numerous than elsewhere, and though there are no 
natural forests, plantations of oak, elm, beech, &c, are by no means 
rare ; while the numerous lines of canal are usually lined with rows 
4)f willows and poplars. Agriculture forms but a subordinate branch 
of rural industry, as the country is naturally better adapted for pas- 
turage than for com crops, the latter being usually quite insufficient 
for home consumption. The principal grain crops are rye, buck- 
wheat, barley, and oats, together with some wheat in the southern 
provinces. Horticulture has attained a high degree of perfection, 
especially at Haarlem, which largely exports flower-roots and seeds. 
Other important crops are potatoes, flax, hemp, rape-seed, dover- 
seed, madder, chicory, mustard, hops, beetroot, and tobacco. Live 
stock and dairy produce are exportea very extensively, as also poul- 
try and honey. Zoology : Few wild animals are found except the 
rabbit and hare, which are largely exported to London ; waterfowl 
and reptiles are very numerous; storks and swans consider this 
country their home and their paradise ; fish of various kinds abound 
on the coasts — as cod, turbot, sole, and other flat fish ; there are ex- 
tensive herring-fisheries, and numerous whale-ships annually visit 
the Greenland seas. 

Ethnograpliy. — The population of the Netherlands belongs ez- 
clusively to the Teutonic stock. 

The four prevailing langtiages belong to the German branch of the Teu- 
tonic family, and are all closely allied to tlie German. The chief of these 
is the Dutch, which is the national language, and which ia spoken by all 
classes of society. It is merely a dialect of the Flemish, and is rooken in 
N. Brabant, both languages having been originally the same, but we Patch 
proper having been far more carefolly cultivated. The JFmtie spoken tnr 
the uneducated classes in Friesland, Heligoland, and parts of Prussia, u 
more nearly allied to the Hoch Deutsch, or moaem German ; and lastly, 
the German, spoken in Dutch Luxembourg. About two-thiids of tba 
population are Protestants, and cme-third Roman Catholics. The Daioli 
Reformed Church, by far the most nmneroiia body of Protert M tl 


{1,942,000), is Calviniatio in doctrine and Presbyterian in eovcmmenC; 
ioA the ouier most important denaminationa are tlia LnthersJis, whu 
smountto 64,000, and Jews 63,000. AU forms of religion are freely 
tolerated, and all denomiimtions placed on a perfect level. Primary edu- 
catijn Is conducted by tlia GoyenuuBnt, and is generally diffused, tliere 
being one-eighth nf the papniatton Eonatantlyntlsiiding school, aniioearly 
every cMld above ten years of age being able to read and write. The 
teachers are well paid, the fees are lovr, and tlie children of the poor are 
taught gratnitonsly. There are three univeraitiea— vii., those of Leyden, 
[Itrecht, and Griiningen, the professors of which are paid by the State, 
The Dntch are proverhia! for their cleaulineas, frUBatity, industry, and 
Bttentian to baame.'ia; they are also distinguished for their love of bee- 
dom, of national iDdependance, and for their courage and nautical skill. 
ThoBRh aanally of a dull, phlegmatic temperament, tliey are charitable to 
the poor, faithful in all .the domestio relations, and hiehly virtuous. 
Hollsod may he called the China of £urope in reganl to the industry of 
the inhabitants, and mendicity Is prahihited throughont the kingdom. 

Literature, — Ever since the revival of learning in "Western Europe, 
the Datch have distinptished themselves in airaost every department 
of knowledge, but more especially in philology, criticism, and theo- 
logy. Of tne vast number of learned men to whom the Netherlands 
have given birth, the following ato a few ot the most illustrioiis : — 

Pobtet: Johannes Secnndus or Everai-d, James van Catz, Vondel, 
Caspar, Brandt, William Biiderdvk. Paintiso : John van de Meer, 
Bumamed "The Old," bom 1627; another ot the same name, styled 
" The Younger," famous for liis psatoral soenea, bom 1665 ; W. and D. 
Schellinga, Mmboreh, Jansaens, Moor. History : Dousa, Paul Meruk, 
HouBins, Bondam. JnHiBFKUDENOB ; Vinnen, Leeuwen, Meerman, 
GrotinB. PhTbtcaL Science : John and Zachary Janaen, Huyghens, 
Almeloveen, Kuysch, Lenwenhoeck, Swommordam, Sylvius, Boerliaave, 
Van Swieten, Gaubins, Camper, Van Swinden, Bragmans, S'Gravesande. 
BIctTAL SOIENCE ; Spinorn, Helvetius. Philolooi ; Heinains. Golius, 
Leiudeii, Schrevelins, Perizonius, Burman, Hemsterhusius, Wetstein, 
Oadandorp, Valkeuaer, Kuhnken, Lennep, Wytt*nbach, Tollius, Sluiter. 
Ounoieu : Erasmits <bom 1167), Erpeuius, Diaalus, Honralua, Orono- 
vioB, Cleiicna, Bos, Hoogeveen, Hngo Orotius. Thiolooy : Atminins, 
Gomar. Episoopins, Jansenins, Cocoeiiia, Philip van Limborch, Witsiua, 
Gerard Bnmdt, Viliinga, Voetius, 

HUtOTT, QoTenunant. Flnaucea, Ac. — Holland is a constitutiojjnl 
hereditary monarchy. The lepslative power is vested in the king 
Had two ohambers caller] the States-General, one of which consists 
of deputies elected by the people every three years, and the other 
of members nominated by the Crown for life. The reining sovereign 
is William 111., who aicanded the throne in 1849. From the year 
1000 to the end of the eleventh century, Holland was divided into 
~ ~ ' , counties, and imperial cities ; was subject to the Counts ot 
1 till 13S3, and then Co the Counts of Burgundy; became part 
mpire of (Carles V. in 1G4S ; descended to his son Philip, and 
an appanage to tho crown of Spain ; suffered severe reueious 

...cntionsm con sequence ; snccessfmly asserted ita independenao 

■ 1679, nnder William, Prince of Orange, and assumed the name of 

"Seraii United ProvinoeK;" was conqaered hy tlie Fre&ch ia 


1793, who established the Batavian Kepublic ; was formed into a 
kingdom by Napoleon I., for his brother Louis, in 1806 ; became a 
department of France in 1810 ; was united to Belgium in 1813, under 
the name of the Kin^om of the Netherlands, and this arrangement 
subsisted till 1830, when Belgium became an independent monarchy; 
and, finally, by the treaty of London (1839), Belgium ceded to Hol- 
land the eastern parts of Limbourg and Luxembourg. The European 
Army in 1874 numbered 61,776 men and officers. The Nwvy con- 
sists of 84 steamers, and 16 other ships, carrying 673 guns. The 
Fuhlic Debt, in 1874, amounted to £77,276,000, being about £21 ster- 
ling to each inhabitant ; the Revenue to £7,811,000 ; and the Expen- 
diture to £8,060,585. 

Commerce and Manufactures. — Commerce has ever been the most 
important element in the prosperity of the Netherlands. At one 
time it exceeded that of any other European State, and her foreign 
trade still remains inferior only to that of Great Britain. Her 
relative position with respect to other States, and her wonderful sys- 
tem of water-conmiunication, have been the main causes leading to 
this result. In 1872, the exports amounted to £38,788,000 in 
value ; of which £13,108,924 were sent to the United Kingdom, con- 
sisting chiefly of butter, cheese, live animals, oilcake, gin or hol- 
lands, bulbous roots, flower-seeds, linen, and refined sugar. The 
imports in the same year amounted to £50,000,000, of which 
£17,500,000 came from the British Isles, the principal articles being 
cotton and woollen manufactures. Her other principal exports are 
the products of her own colonies (as coflee, sugar, raw cotton, spices, 
tobacco, dried fruits, and tortoise-shell), which she exchanges for the 
corn, manufactured goods, wool, wines, and brandy of other European 
countries. Next to Britain her best customers are North Germany, 
Belgium, France, and Spain. In 1872, the number of vessels that 
entered and cleared was 1902, carrying 444,273 tons. The prin- 
cipal manufactures are linen, paper, woollen and silk cloths, gin, 
tobacco, snufi", leather, coidage, saltpetre, and tobacco-pipes, togeuer 
with sugar-reiining and shipbuilding. 

Inland Conununlcation. — For the most part the railways have 
been only recently constructed : one between Amsterdam and Haar- 
lem, and thence to Leyden, the Hague, and Rotterdam ; and another 
from Amsterdam to Utrecht, Arnhem, and the German frontier. In 
1871, the number of miles open for traffic was 1,033. The Canals are 
very numerous, and unrivalled in magnificence. They are found 
along all the great dykes which serve as barriers to the ocean, and 
have generally an excellent road beside them. The following are 
only some of the most important : — The Great Canal, between Am- 
sterdam and the Helder, 61 miles long, 125 feet broad, and 24 feet 
deep, admitting two frigates abreast ; the Nieuwer Sluis, between 
Amsterdam and Utrecht; another from Amsterdam to Haarlem, 
Leyden, Delft, the Hague, Rotterdam, and Gorkum ; and an immense 
canal from Bois-le-Duc to Maestricht. Passengers are conveyed along 
these canals at the rate of four miles per hour. 




Foreign FossesslonB. — "Wlien Holland was disiuilUd from Belgium 
(in 1830), the fecmer reUiiued all thaoolacial pOBsessious, which oare 
an aggregate area of 685,000 sq. m., and a population, in 1872, of 
21,386,000. The African poaseasiDns consist of Tarious settlements 
oa the Guinea Coast; the Asiatic dependencies comprise Java (by 
fai the tnost important, with an area of £0,000 an. m., aadapap. of 
17,000,000), parts of Sumatra, Bali, Lomhok, Timor, Banda, Am- 
lioyna, Molutcai, Celeliea, Bomwi, the western holt of Papua, Banks, 
and Bhio ; while those in South America embrace the extensive ter- 

Iiitoi; of Dntiih Guiana, with the islands Cuiu{oa and St EnatatinB. 
' Position and Boundaries- — N., the Skager Back, vhich 
teparatea it from Norway ; W., the North Sea ; S., Bohleawig ; 
IE., the Sound and Kattegat, which divide it from Sweden. 
i*t. 54° 35'— 57° 45' N. ; Ion. 8= B'— 12° 35' K Copenhagen. 
&e capital (lat. 55° 40'), is on the Bame parallel with Edinburgh; 
dioacow, Ekaterinburg, Komtachatka, and Nain in Labrador ; 
while the central meridian passes through Chriatiania, Kiel, 
Gotha, Lucca, Elba, and Tunis, 

Form ana Ooaat-Une.— The form ia eitreinEly irregular, consisting 
of a part of the Cinibrio peninsula and various groups of islands. 
Extreme length of the mainland, from the Skaw to Kibe, 140 milea j 
greatest breadth, from Elsinore on the Sound to the Horn in Jutland, 
ISG miles. The seaboard is veij extensive, amountiiig, if we inclnde 
the islands, to abont *000 miles, of which 800 miles belong to the 
mainland, which is greatly indented. The latter gives one mile uf 
•saboard to every four miles of area, a ratio higher than in any 
[«rantry in Europe, save Greece. 

aud PopnIattOB. — As the result of the lata war between Den- 
mark on the one side, and Pmssia and Austria, on the other, the 
duchies of Louenburg and Schlurwig-Holstein have been wrested 
from Denmark, and, by the Treaty of Prague (August 1866), have 
been incorporated with ths Pmssian domiuiona. The area now 
■monntB only to 14,733 aq. miles, or twice the size of Wales; but 
iocluiiing Iceland and the Faiiie Isles, the whole amounts to 54,935 
ftq. miles. In 1870 the population waa 1,784,741, or ISO persons 
to the sq. niilo; bat inclnding Iceland and the EarSe lalea, the 
popolatiaB amounted to 1,361,720. 
Political Di'Tislons. — Denmark Proper ia divided into two 
rinceB — viz., Jutland, or the peninsula, and the Dnniah 
hipelago, between the maialand and Sweden. Iceland lies 



700 miles W. of Norway, and 300 miles E. of Greenland ; 
while the Faroe Isles are nearly midway between Iceland and 

Jutland.*— Aalborg 10 (Lymfiord), Aarhuus 11 (Molle Aa). 
Towns bettoeen 5000 and 10,000 o/pofmtotton.— Fredericia, Horseii8, Banders, 

Danish Archipelago.— Copenhagen 181, Elsinore 8 (E. coast of Zea- 
land), Odense 14 (in the north of Flinen). 

Slagelse, Boeskilde, in Zealand ; Nyborg, Svendborg, in Fiinei> ; RSnne, in 

Iceland. — Reykiavik 1 (S.W. coast). 

FarGe Isles. — Thorshaven 1 (S. coast of Strom oe). 

Descriptive Notes. — Aalborg (Eeltown), near the month (»f the Lym- 
fiord, deriving its name from the great number of eels found in its neigh- 
bourhood, has a school of navigation, a soap-manufactory, a herring- 
fishery, and steam communication with the capitaL Aarhnns and Ban- 
ders, on the east coast, are small manufacturing towns with considerable 
trade. Copenhagen (Dan. Kj&benhavn, ** Merchants' Haven,"), tiie 
capital of Denmark since 1441, and the centre of its commerce, is a city 
of 180,000 inhabitants, elegantly built on the Soimd, and s1ax>ngly forti- 
fied; has an arsenal, shipbuilding docks, &c., being the sole station for 
the navy ; a celebrated university, several superb palaces, most of whidi 
are now converted into libraries, museums, and picture-galleries, among 
which may be mentioned the Museum of Northern Antiquities, and the 
Thorwaldsen Museum : Lord Nelson gained here a great naval victory 
over the Danish fleet in 1801, and in 1807 it was bombarded, and the 
Danish fleet taken to England. Elsinore, or Elsinenr (Dan. Hel*ingSr\ 
on the Sound, at its narrowest part, and only 3 miles from the Swedish 
coast, having on the north the strong castle of Kronborg : here were 
levied, previous to 1857, "the Sound dues" on all foreign merchant- 
vessels entering or leaving the Baltic, which, in 1851, amounted to nearly 
20,000 ships, yielding £154,000 of toll. Odense, the principal town in 
Flinen, has manufactures of woollens and iron wares. Bocwkilde, the 
cap. of Denmark till 1441. Beykiavik, the capital of Iceland, with only 
1200 inhabitants, is the principal town in the island ; it is an archbishop's 

* The following rales apply to Danish proper names : — 

a, «, t, o^ u = the same vowels in German and Italian ; but y = German t2; 
and w, which is found only in derivatives_firom the German, = English v. 

oa = d in stone, as Aalboig, Aarhnus (OUborg, Or'hoosy. 
doTae = ain fate, or German a, as Aeroe, Faroe (A'ro, Ft^ro}. 
ie = eeia feet, or German ie, as Kiel (Keel), 
io = English long tl, as Kioge, Lymfiord (Ku'ghee, LUm-iiilrth') 
ei and ey = iin pine, or ei in German, as Eyder, Schlei O'der, SeKtC). 
u or J/ = t2 in German, as Liimfiord or Lymfiord (Lvmrfiurthrj. 
oeoT 6 = 6 ia German, as RQnne, T^nningen {Ron'ne, Ton'ning'in). 
ttu = u in rale, as Aarhuus <Or'Aoo«). 

d between two vowels = th in this, or like Spanish d in a similar position, as 
Apenrade (Ap-en'rd'the). 
g is always hard, but at the end of a word it is sounded very slightly, so as to 

resemble h, as Viborg {Vee-horh). 
j = y in yes, as Jlitland {YiifULnd). 

n when followed by g is nasal, as Tonningen {Ton'ning-en) 
V is usually = v in English, but after a it has a vowel sound, as Frederiksbavn 

pital of the Faroe leles, 

Capes aoA. iBlaudB.— The Skaw, KE. of Jutland ; Horn, W. of 
Jatland -, North Capo in the N.W., and Skagen in tlio S.W. of Ice- 
land. Jilandi, — Zealand, Funen, Alsen, LanBeland, Aeriie, LaalanJ, 
Falater, Moen, bet. Schleswig and Sweden ; Bornholm, S. of Sweden; 
Anhalt and LossQe, in the Kattegat ; Iceland, E. of Greenland ; Faroe 
IsieB, bet. Iceland and the Shetland IsIbb. 

Iftland Ues TDD milea W. of Norvay. SOO E. ot Gnenland, and Immediately 8. 
of ths Folu <^rc]s ; area, BT.SDD squtve miles ; populatiau, M.MO. The aorfacs 

vholB laUnd l9 of voIbbdIc origin, cud Domnv ttum tlilrtf volcaaoes are ennine- 
nted, dglit of which have been sbtlvo wltMn Iha last lundied jaata. Of thrae, 
KomitHecla.fi210f^thlgh,lB the moat celebnted. There are several bolliag 
■ptiDgs, oneofiAIch, Bie Great Oeysar, throwa • colnnui of hot viter ftoni BD 
to IM bet hl^ and at the depth of T3 feet la SO* above the ballmg-poinL Tha 
-ffintas m uvete, hat Uie meui snnnal tempeiatnre (40* Fa^.) la higher than In 
■nr oQier coimtrT hi the same latitude. The island is deaUtute of trees, and no 
grain at any klna esn be raised ; bnt cabbage and potatoes are cultivated. Flsb 
andbinia aratJui chief aupport of tlie inhatiitanta. The Toelandeia belong to the 
BcandiniTian race. Their laneuaEe, called Norse or Icelandle, Is merely old 
DaalA, and la the leMt-cormpted dialect of tlia Scandinavian tuntly of tonmea. 
nut only eonunercs of tlie Island conslsla In the radianse of noDl. butter, skins, 
fiah, and aD. for Enropeou manufiietiireit The FatUt l3ti course ct a iroap of 
twen^-twD amali lalands, tying ncArlj midway between Iceland and Sheuaod, of 
irtiich eeventeen are loliablted ; uw, SIO square miles : popnlaUon, £661. They 

tainooa. The winters are veiy mild ; the mmnier is moist and lOGgy ; Icngcst 
day, twenty hours— shortest, four hours. Barley is Uie only grain that can be 
edtlvaled. Tlia inhabilnnta, who are Scandinavians, occupy Qieniselves la Bali- 
Ine, fowling, and tendiog sheep, Tborahavn, the capital, is a meie villsga. 

Bays, Btrslts, and FlordH. — Slcf^er Kack, bet. Jiitland and Nor- 
way ; Kattegat, bet, Jutland and Sweden ; the Sound, bet. Zealand 
and Sweden ; Great Beit, bet. Zealand and Ftinen ; Little Belt, bet, 
FUnenandSoMeBwig; Lymllord, Nyssuia Fiord, Kingkiobing Fiord, 
in Jutland; Odenace Fiord, in Filnen; Ibs Fiord, in Zealand, 

Bnl&cfl. — There are no moantains, or even bills, either on the 
mainland or in the adjacent ialands ; the surface ia one uniform 
plain, elevated only a few feet above tJie sea, with a few eminences 
rarely exceeding 500 feet, the Himnielsberj:; alone attaining an eleva- 
tion of G5Q feet. Iceland, however, ia highly mouutainoua ; Snil- 
fell, 8382 feet ; Orsfajoltull, 6426 feet ; and Heola, 6210 feet. Tha 
highest Humiait in the Faroe Islea nttaina an elevation of 2864 feeL 

Lakes, — TheBe are eitromely niimerouB, but all of them very small ; 
the most impoi'taot are MossOe and Fiel, in Jutland ; Aire and Tis, 
in Zealand. 

Ollm&te. — The climate ia considerably more severe than in the 
British Isles, though much milder than in Germany, notwithstand- 
ing its higher latitude, bnt very humid and cloudy : Gtonns are rare 
ai^ of idiort duration ; average rainy days, 137 ; snowy days, S2 ; 
prevailing ninda, W. in spring and auiumer, and S,^, in winter and 
autumn. Mean annual temperature at Copenhagen, 16° 56' ; winter, 
3r 31' i and ai 


Geology and Minerals. — ^The rock-formations are almost wholly 
tertiary ; but small patches of secondary are found in Jutland, Zea- 
land, and Bornholm; trap-rocks in the Faroe Isles, and trap and 
volcanic rocks in Iceland, enclosing numerous interesting minerals, 
as green-earth, galactite, lava, pitchstone, &c. Denmark is peculiarly 
devoid of minerals : an inferior variety of coal, with blue marble, 
potter's clay, and building-stone, are met with in Bornholm, btit 
peat is the general fuel throughout the kingdom ; and sulphur, green- 
earth, lava, and basalt are abundant in Iceland. 

Botany and Agriculture. — The indigenous vegetation does not 
differ essentially from that of N. Germany. Forests are not exten- 
sive, are mostly confined to the east coast and islands, and usually 
consist of ash, alder, oak, birch, beech, and fir. In Iceland, foreste 
were formerly numerous, but it is now destitute of trees, except a 
few stunted birches ; its flora is nearly allied to that of Scandinavia, 
comprising mosses, lichens, and a few shrubs and other flowering 
plants. According to Vahl and Babington, the number of flowering 
plants in Iceland amounts to 414 species, of which 282 are dicotyle- 
dons. Denmark is pre-eminently an agricultural country ; the soil, 
almost entirely alluvial, is well adapted for cultivation. The nume- 
rous marshy districts yield excellent pasturage : rearing of horses 
and cattle, and dairy produce, form the chief objects of rural indus- 
try. More corn is raised than is required for home consumption — ^the 
principal crops being rye, barley, oats, wheat, and buckwheat ; besides 
potatoes, hemp, lint, tobacco, and oats. No grain of any kind can 
be raised in Iceland, but cabbage and potatoes are cultivated ; and 
barley is the only grain that comes to maturity in the Faroe Isles. 

Zoology. — Since the decline of the great forests the larger wild 
animaLs have disappeared ; the wild-boar is sometimes met with, and 
deer, stags, roes, hares, foxes, martens, polecats, rats, and other 
small quadrupeds, are abundant Among birds may be mentioned 
the eider-duck, so famous for its down, the wild-goose, partridge, 
snipe, and thrush ; swans in the Lymfiord ; eagles and vultnres are 
rarely seen. Fishes comprise the stromming — a small but much- 
prized species of herring — ^turbot, torsk, and salmon. Oyster-banks 
occur on the east coast of Jutland, and seal-fish on the island of 
Anholt ; the cod, salmon, and whale fisheries of Iceland and the 
Faroe Isles are extensive. 

Ethnography. — The Danes, or Normans, belong to the Scandina- 
vian branch of the Teutonic family, and speak Danish, a Scandina- 
vian tongue closely allied to the Icelandic, Swedish, and FarGese. 
The Icelandic, or Norse, also called the Scandinavian Proper, is 
merely old Danish, and is the least-cornipted dialect of the Scandi- 
navian family of tongues ; but its pronunciation is harsher than the 
Danish, which is, perhaps, the softest language in Europe — the con- 
sonants being pronounced so softly as to be ahnost imperceptible. 

Rdigion, Education, and National Character, — Christianity became 
the national religion under Canute the Great, in the beginning of the 


elcvontli century ; the Lutheran forjna the cstablialied religion, and em- 
brrtres nine-tADths of Ihe populBtlon, hnt othur Becta are freely tolemteii. 
Education is widely diffused, atttndanta at the primary Bchoola being 
compulsory and gmtuitons ; and every adult inhabitant can read Bnrl 
write. There are ahoiit 20 aefondary or higher schools distributed over 
the kingdom, where fees are paid and where attendance is optional ; the 
solo anivoraity now ie that of Copenhageu, founded in 1478. Tlie Danea 
are charoct^riaed hy a strong, well-built, mnscular fVame, with regular 
features, bino eyes, and light hair ; not easily roused, bnt susceptible or 
iitrong feelings ; of a patient disposition, and requiriug niuoh lime for 
delib^tion; more remarkable for common-ienao than for wit, osd highly 

Utsmtiira. — The following list iiicluiles only a few of the most 
eminent litBrary names in Denmark : — 

POETRT : Baron Holhorg, tha dramatist and historian ; Ewald, the 
famoos lyric, poet; Falster, Sneedorf, TuJleu, Wessel, Oehlenschlliger, 
BaggesBu, Hertz. HISTORY : Suena, Saio-GrammaticuB, Hotbei-g, Suhm, 
MijUmann, and B, G. Niebnhr. GEOaHiPinr abd Thatels : Carsten 
Niebnbr, and Chevalier BtOnatadt. Science ; Tyeho Brahe, tha eminent 
aatmnamer ; Oersted, the electrician ; Schonw, the botanist ; Rask, and 
J. Olshauaen, the philologists ; GrunlVig, Peteraen, and Kafn, tlie arelue- 
ologislB ; Mynater, MUllor, Lindberg, TreachoT, Smith, and Twesten, 
the tlieologians. Fhilosufbt ash CmiiciBU : Bothe, Bahlieh, and 
Kraft. FiTiK Arts ; Thorvaldsen, the eminent aculptor ; Hansen anil 
Mailing, the architects ; Tiiel, the portrait-painter ; GehaueTj the animnl- 

K inter ; Ecberaherg, the hiatorical painter ; Dahl, the landscape-pamter, 
lUAitCE : Ingemann, Elicher, Erusa, and Hauch. 

3. — Denmark isalimited constitutional monan.!i;', 
T beins in the king and his responsible ministtrs. 
The Bigidag or Parliament is composed of two houses — the Lands- 
thing or Upper Honae, consisting of Bfi members; and the PollcstMng 
or Hoose of Commons, containing 101 members; being 1 for every 
J 16,000 of the population. The Bevenue for 1875 amounted to 
' X2,728,000 ; the Enpenditare to nn almoEt equal Bum ; and the 
Public Debt to £13,238,000. In 1874, the Army coDaiatod of i0,008 
men ; and the Navy of 31 steamers, 1 frigate, 1 corvette, 1 brig, and 
6 ironelada, carrying in all S14 guns. 

Commerce and HtumniCtuTea. — The commerce of Denmark is not 

ao Bitensive as its favourable position would warrant us to expect. 

There being few good roads in the interior, the coasting trade is very 

considerable. Its foreign commerce is chiefly with Germany, Britain, 

Sweden, and Russia. The chief exports are butter, bacon, hams, 

floor, hides, skins, com-meal, oilcake, horses, and cattle ; while the 

iinmnta cotzaist of woollens, aifka, cottons, salt, iron, hardware, wine, 

jinit, tea, and articles of colonial produce. In 1873, Denmark e;c- 

r, ported to Britain produce to the value of £3,670,000, which mainly 

I'^WliBisted of oata, barley, oxen, bulla, butter, bacon, flour, hides, 

I'Dilwke, cattle, and sheep. Of British eiporta to Denmark, the 

I principal are coal and iron, amounting together to £1,085,000, and 

\ jther articles to the value of £11,600,000. The articles wo send to 

*" ' ' e which we can beat spare, while those which wo 


receive from her are what we stand most in need of. There being 
no coal, and but little water-power in the country, Mannfactores are 
few in number and of limited extent, the metals being all imported. 
The peasantry manufacture for themselyes all the linen and woollen 
(ilothin^ they require, as well as utensils and articles of furniture. 
Some silk and cotton ^oods are manufactured in the large towns, 
and brewing and distillmg are extensively prosecuted; while in the 
capital are several establishments for manufacturing tobacco and 
porcelain, and for sugar-refining. 

Internal Commimicatlon. — Roads are very inferior, owing to the 
level and alluvial character of the country. There are three princi- 
pal canals — one connecting the Ljrmfiord with the North Sea, one in 
Zealand, and another in Fiinen ; while the country is largely bene- 
fited by the Schleswig Canal, connecting the Eyder with the Baltic 
There are several lines of railway now in operation — ^viz., one firom 
Aalborg, on the Lymfiord, to Kanders ; a second from Aarhuus to 
Viborg and the W. coast of Jutland ; a third crossing the island 
Fiinen, from Odense to Middelfart; a fourth from Copenhagen to 
Elsinore ; and a fifth from the capital, by Roeskilde, to Eorsor on 
the W. coast of Zealand. In 1867 there were 296 miles of railway 
in operation. 

Foreign PossessionB. — Besides Iceland and the Faroe IslandB, 
which have been already noticed, Denmark possesses the extensive 
region of Greenland, with its thirteen settlements and two mission 
stations, the principal of which are Frederikshaab, Julianshaab, and 
Good Hope ; Disco Island, in Greenland ; St Croix, St Thomas, and 
St John, in the W. Indies. The establishments on the Guinea 
coast were purchased by Britain in 1850 ; the town of Tranquebar, 
with its districts on the Coromandel coast, and the town of Seram- 
pore in Bengal, were transferred to Britain in 1846 ; while the 
Nicobar Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, were abandoned in 1848 on 
account of their insalubrity. The extra-European portion has an 
area of 46,878 sq. m., and a population in 1874 of 47,500. 


Germany (Germ. BeutscMand; Fr. Allemagne), in its widest 
acceptation, is an ethnographical, rather than a political, term. 
It properly denotes that extensive region in the heart of Eurojse 
occupied by the German race, which extends from the Baltic 
and North Sea to the Alps and Adriatic, and from the Rhine 
and Meuse on the W. to the Niemen and Carpathians on the 
E. It is of a square compact form, is bounded oy the parallels 
of 44° 46' and 55"* 30' N., and by the meridians of 6" and 19' 
E. ; has an area of about 280,000 sq. m., and a population 


(1868) of about 50,000,CM». From the ninth century till 18(IG, 
or for a period of 1000 years, Germany fonned an empire, gov- 
erned by a sovereign elected by the different states situated 
■within inis wide domain, whosa capital was Vienna. Its first 
and luoat iilustriooa aovereign Charlemagne, son of Pepin-le- 
Bref, king of the Franka, and grandfioa of Charles Martrf, was 
crowned emperor of the W. in a.d. 800. His dominions 
extended from the Ebro to the mouth of the Elbe, from the 
Atlantic to the mountains of Buhemia and the Raab, and from 
the British Chaimel to the Voltnmo. The last emperor was 
Francis IT. of Germany, who renounced that title in 1806, and 
■became Francia I. of Austria. The empire was succeeded by 
the " Confederation of the Rhine," established at Palis under 
the protection of Napoleon L, and consisting of the kings of 
■Wiirtembetg and Bavaria, and several petty sovereigns. In 181 5 
the Congress of Vienna established " the Qermamc Confedera- 
tion," being an alliance between the thirty-four independent 
states (then comprehended in Germany), for the purpose of 
mutual protection and defence. In tliis Confederation, Austria 
vas the most inflnential, as its territories embraced nearly a 
third of the whole extent of Germany, and the emperor of 
Anstria presided over the Federal Diet, or Parliament, which 
eat permanently at ifrankliirt-on-t he-Main. In 1866, Prussia 
declared war against Austria, and the contest ended by Prussia 
expelling Austria ^m the Confederation and becoming her- 
Beu the paramount power in Germany. The States that had 
aided Austria (Hanover, Nassau, Hesse-Cassd, Hesse-HomburL^, 
Frankfiirt) were annexed to Uie Prussian dominions, which, 
now embrace in addition Schleewig, Holstein, and I^uenburg, 
wrested from Denmark, together with portions of Hesse-Darm- 
etadt and Bavaria^ The whole of Northern Germany from the 
Baltic, Jutland, and the North Sea, as far south as the river 
Uain, wns then formed into the " North German Confederation" 
under the control of Prussia ; while South Germany, numbering 
five States, formed a loosely-connected group under the nominal 
ascendancy of Bavaria. The two dirisions were, moreover, con- 
nected t^ether by treaties of alliance, by which Prussia, in tha 
event of war with any foreign State, was virtually placed in 
command of the armies of the Southern States. The French 
Emperor, jealous of the rapidly increasing power of Prussia, 
waged war against that state (July 1870), and despatched a 
powerful army to the Ehine frontier. But Prussia, fully pre- 
pared for the contest, rallied around her all the minor states, 
and ronted the French armies in a series of sanguinary engage- 
ments. In Septeniber 1870, Napoleon, after the disastroua 
defeat at Sedan, unconditionally surrendered to King William 



of Prussia ; when 39 generals and 100,000 soldiers were made 
prisoners. Soon after this, Paris was besieged, and France was 
compelled to make peace ; agreeing to cede three departments 
(Hant Khin, £as Khm, and Moselle) to Germany, and to ^y a 
war indemnity of £200,000,000. King William was prodamied 
Emperor of Germany on the 18th January 1871 ; and the once 
famous Germanic Empire was reconstructed in all its pristine 


Position and Bonndaries. — N., the Baltic, Jiitland, and 
North Sea; W., the Netherlands, Belgium, and France; S., 
Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Bohemia; E., Russia. Lat 47® 
20'— 55*^ 50^ N.; Ion. 5° 57'— 23° E. 

Berlin, near the centre, is on the same parallel as Cambridge, Amst^- 
dam, Hanover, Warsaw, and Samara ; and on the same meridian as 
Copenhagen, Neu - Strelitz, Trieste, Naples, Malta, and Tripoli. The 
coast-line, though extensive, is confined to the northern frontier — 850 
miles thereof belonging to the Baltic, and 350 miles to the North Sea. 
For the most part the coast is very low (especially in Pomerania, Han- 
over, and Oldenburg), and requires to be fenced with dykes, as in the 
Netherlands, but in Mecklenburg it is considerably bolder. The principal 
indentations of the Baltic coast are the Gulfs of Danzig and Luoeck, and 
of the North Sea coast, the estuaries of the Elbe and Weser. 

Area and Population. — The united area of the 26 states is 
estimated at 213,370 sq. m., or one and three-fourths that of the 
British Isles; while the aggregate population, in 1872, amounted 
to 41,085,516, being one-third more than the population of the 
United Kingdom, and giving 194 persons to each 6(|. m. The area 
and population of each of the states will be found m the following 
table : — 


Area in 
sq. m. 

in 1872. 

Kingdom of Prussia, • . . . • 
Kingdom of Saxony, . . . . • 
Grand-Duchy of MecMenburg-Schwerin, 
Grand-Duchy of Oldenburg, .... 

Duchy of Brunswick , 

Grand-Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, . 









«q. m. 


Grand-Dacliy of Mecklenbui^-Strelitz, 



Duchy of Auhalt 





Daoliy of Sase-Cobui^-Gotha, 



Dncby of 8a<e-Altenburg, . 



Pnncipality of Lippe-DetmDld, , 





PnncipaJity ot Schwartibai?-EudolBtaat, . 



Prindpality of Eenfls-SchleitJ!, 


Principality of Schauinborg-ijippe, 




Priucipality of Eeuss-Greitz, 
Free aty of Hamtni^, . 







Free City of Lnbeok, . 




Free City of Bremen, . 




Kingdom of Bavaria, . 



Kingdom of Wurtemliorg, . 



Grand-Duchy of Baden, 



Graiid-Dneby of Hease-Darmatadt, 




ElsasB-Lothnngen, * 



Total, German Empire, 



described, wo must 
first treat o![ Priisaia, tben oE the smaller Germaa States nortli of 
the Main, and loatlj of Soutbem Geiinatij. 


f enlarged, com 


ta of tlia following elBvan pro- 

Fnuda Proper.— KosraBBSBO 112, Inaterbei^ 13 (Pregal), Memel 1 
Tilsiti; {Niemen), Eibing 28 (Hbing], Danzig 90, Graudeni 13, Thorn 
(Vfitula), Brauneberg 10 (Pasarge), 

" - - "■-- MM and 10,000. — Gonibinnan, Marienbnrg, Muienwetdi 

Brombetg 27 (Braha). 

Tas ConeONAxia b, d, /, h, t, 1, t 

< =1 (t, u Elake, Binria {SitCta, Eit-trieia). 


Silesia.*— Breslau 208, Glogau 18, Brieg 13, Oppeln 11, RatiborlS 
(Oder), G«rlitz 31 (Lower Neisse), Hirschberg 10 (Bober), Grlinberg 10 
(Lunze), Liegnitz 20 (Katzbach), Schweidnitz 16 (Waestritz), Neisse 19, 
Glatz 12 (Neisse), Gleiwitz 12, Benthem 13 (Klodnitz). 

Ohlau, Sa^n, Sprottau, Banzlau, Laben, Jnner, Goldberg, Striegaa, Reichen^ 
bach, Oels, Strehlin, Munsterberg, Frankenstein, Neustadt, LeobschUtz 

Pomerania.— Stettin 74 (Oder), Stargardl7 (Ihna), Stolpel4 (Stolpe), 
Greifswald 18, Stralsund 27 (Str. of GeUen), Koslin 13 (Niesenbecke), 
Colberg 13 (Persante), Anclam 12 (Peene). 

Demmin, GoUnow, Rugenwalde, Neu-Treptow, Greiffenberg. 

Brandenburg. — Berlin 826, Charlottenburg 13, Kottbuss 12 (Spree), 
Luckenwalde 12 (Nuthe), Brandenbui^ 26, Potsdam 43, Spandau 16 
(Havel), Rnppin 12 (Rhin), Kustrin 10, Frankfurt 41 (Oder), Prenzlow 16 
(Ucker), Landsbeiig 18 (Wartha), Guben 11 (Neisse), Sorau 10 (Bober). 

Spremberg, Rathenow, Jiiterbok, Perleberg, Wittstock, Schwedt, Wrietien, 
Crossen, Konigsberg. 

i = j in German, or y in English, as Jaslo, Jaworow {Ycuflo^ Ya-voi^cn). 

rz = zA, or French j, as Brzezany, Przmysl {Bzha-za'nyt Pzhem'Ut). 

8z = 8h in shall, as Kratoszyn, Zamosz (Kra-to'shin, Zd'moah). 

The Polish is spoken in Pnissian, Austrian, and Russian Poland, in the more 
elevated portions of Prussia Proper, and generally in the basins of the Niemen 
and Vistula. The sounds of the letters in Selavonian, Bohemian, and Illyrian. 
correspond, in general, with those of the Polish. The accent in Polish words or 
more than one syllable is uniformly on the penultimate, and it is the only Scla- 
vonic tongue that contains nasal sounds like the French «n, in, on, which ate 
represented by the letters a and 6, undermarked with an accent. 

* Rules for pronouncing German proper names, with appropriate examples : — 
' Vowels. — a long, as in far ; short, as in fat. e long = a in fate ; short, as in met 
t long, as % in machine, o long, as in stone ; short, as in yon. u long, as in role ; 
short, as in full. 

Diphthongs. — d. or ac = a in fate, as GrStz (praUs), 

ai, ay, ei, ey = eyia eye, as Main or Mayn, Leine, Leyden(Jftn«, Lt'neh, LVden). 

au = ou in hour, as Augsburg, Clausthal (Oug^boorg, Cloua^tcU). 

eu = oi in voice, as Reuss, Neuburg, Baireuth (Rois, Noilioorg, Bl'roit). 

ie = eem Wien, Nienburg, Wiesbaden (Fe«n, NeenlHtorg, Veea-bdh'deny. 

dor 06 = eu in French, or ao in Irish : there is no corresponding sound in Eng- 
lish — Gottingen, KOnigsberg, Schonberg. 

ii OT tie = u in the French word bruler: it has no parallel English sound— «.|^., 
Miinden, Niimberg, Ltineburg. 

The Consonants are sounded as in English, with the foUowing exceptions :— 

d final = t in English, as Detmold, Gmiind, 8tuttgard (DeVmott, QmUnt, Stut' 

c before «, i, y = ts, as Celle (TseVleh). 

ch = Scotch ch or Irish gh in Loch Ness, Lough Foyle, but before 8 rodieoZ =ik; 
as Eisenach, MUnchen, Sachsen (I'zen-izch, Mun'chen, SaJc'sen). 

g is hard before e, i, y, as Giessen, Melningen (Ghee^sen, MVning-en). 

h is pronoimced only at the beginning of a word or of a radical syllable ; when 
after a vowel, it lengthens the vowel, as Hanover, Jahde (Han*o-vert Ydfdeh). 

j = yia yes, as Jena, Jaxt (Ye'na, Yaact). 

8 between two vowels has the sound of z; but elsewhere it is always sharp, as 
Eisenach, Osnaburg (rzen-ach, Os-rM-boorg). 

88 and sz — sm this, as Cassel, Giessen (Cas'sel, Ghees^sen). 

8ch = 8h in shine, or ch in French and Portuguese, as Schleitz, Schwartsboif 
Shlitea, SchwarUfhoorg). 

th — t^Bs Gotha, Claucthal {Oo'ta, Clou^taT). 

V between two vowels is equal to v in English ; elsewhere it is equal to /in Ufs, 
as Hanover, Vogelberg (Han'o-ver, Fo'g?iet-berg). 

to is nearly equal to English v, as Waldeck, Wismar (VaVdeckt Vit^nuar). 

z and 12 = Ut as Zellerbach, Wartzburg {Ts6VUrA)ach, Varts'boorg). 


Burg 16 ( 

SohBneh',!!. Ihrhy, Gunielegen, nalrteiuleban, KnJbe, LuieeiisBltia, Sswrer- 
luBson, HeUlgcnatndt, SiiUl. 

HanOTBT.— Habotkb 104, GiJttingen 13 (Leine), Hildesliuim 13 (In- 
nente), Cells or Zell 15 (Aller), Claustlml 10 (Zellecbauh), Luneliiirg 16 
(Ilnieiiaii), Emden IS (Enidea canal), Osnabriick 18 (Uase), Hiibiu? 13 

Bmheck, OfitenxlB. VBrfBn, Qoalar, Nionburg, eBBoln, MUndsp, StsJe, Nor- 

Snhleiwie-Halstein and Laaenbnig. — Glitokstadi' 5, Altonn 74 
(Elbe), Kiel 32 (Kiel Fi), Scliiaawig 11 (Schlai Fd.), Flansburg 22 
(Flenshurg Fd.) 

Rendibu^, ItiehOe, eHmshom. Pr^eDi, HatleTslcljen. 

EeMenXBiESl and 3.<imhxag.'—Ci»BML 41, Fnlda 10 (Fnl<ia), Hanan 
17 (Uaiu). 

Hamburg, HersfHld, Eschirege, Sfihmalkalden, MarfaurK. 

), Hertord 11, Bie- 
re), Paderbora 12 (Lippe), Sflst 11 (Sasterhaoh), Dortmund 
44 (Emster), laerlolui 15 (Baareabaiih), BachuDi H n. (Eulir). 

BitniPi, IJppsUdC, Anisberg, Wltten. 

Khenuli Fnmla.— Cologne 125, Wessel IS, Crefeld G4 n., Diisaeldort 
83, Nenaa 11 d., Soltngan 12 n., Bonn 24, Coblenti 27 (Bhino), Diiia- 
bms 14, MUlhsim 14, Esaen 32 (BuLr), Bemscheid 18 n., Elberfeld 66, 
B«imen 65 (Wipper), Treyea 22 (MobbIU), Aii-la-Chapelle 74 (Wlirm), 
Enpen 14 (Tesdre), Gladbach 19, Vlersan 15, Blields 12 (Xiers), Esch- 
WlflT 14, Dunn 10 (Boer), SaarbrUck 13 (Saar), Kreimiach 12 ( Na1i«). 

EinmflrjQb, Cltivea, Uiiblheim, Neawlad, Roodadorf, Leiuiap, Uayen, Saar- 

DeacTlptlTa irotes.— The Prusaioa monareliy, aa now extended, 
contains foar cities of npwards of ]00,000 inhabitanta (Berlin, BrsB- 
lan, Colof;ne, KaniRSbflrg) : twelve between 100,000 ajid 60,000 
{Danz^, MagdebuiK, Fraukfdrt, Hanover, Stettin, Aii-Ia-Chapelle, 
Altona, Elberfeld, Bsnnen, DUsseldorf, Crefeld, Poaen) ; twen^-four 
between 60,000 and 20,000 (Halle, Potsdam. ErfUrt, Cassel, Frauk- 
fUrt-ou-Odar, Essen, Oisilitz, Dortmimd, 'WieBbttdan, Elbint Stral- 
sniid, Coblenz, Btomherg, Duiabnrg, Brandenbitrg, Monster, Halber- 
Btadt, Kiel, Bonn, Gladbaeh, Flenaburg, Treves, Nordluusen, Lieg- 
nitz) ; and eighty between 20,000 and 10,000. 

KSnigBberff, capital ot Pruaaia Proper, a popniona and strongly .fortl- 
Bed city on the Pregel, near Its month in the Frischa Uat! ; it ie the 
Fourth city in Pruaaia in point of population ; has shipbuilding docba, 
rreat trade in grain, numerotiB mannlaPtnrea, chiefly w( " " " — ' — - 


Olsliauson, Von Bohlen, Gebser, Dinter, Lobeck, and Graff; its obser- 
vatory has been rendered celebrated by the labours of the astronomer 
Bessel. Hemel, the most northern town in the kingdom, at the entrance 
of the Curische Haff, strongly fortified, and with extensive trade in tim- 
ber and com. Tilsit, on the Niemen, memorable for the treaty between 
France, Russia, and Prussia in 1807, which deprived Prussia of all her 
possessions between the Rhine and the Elbe, and the greater part of 
rrussian Poland ; nearly all of which were restored by the Congress of 
Vienna in 1815. Elbing, a fortified flourishing town, With considerable 
trade aud manufactures. Danzig, a large fortified city near the mouth of 
the Vistula, one of tlie greatest corn-shipping ports in the world ; great 
foreign commerce ; the birthplace of Fahrenheit, the inventor of the mer- 
curial thermometer. Thorn, a strongly-fortified town on the Vistula ; 
the birthplace of Copernicus, the eminent astronomer, in 1473. Fosen, 
a large fortified city on the Wartha, was at one time the capital of 
Poland; it is largely engaged in the export of agricultural produce. 
Bawitsch and Bromberg possess several manufactures, and an active 
transit trade : the Canal of Bromberg connects the Vistula with the 
Netze, an affluent of the Oder. Breslau, the second city in Prussia in 
point of population ; the great emporium for the linens of Silesia ; a 
great wool-market ; numerous manufactures ; trade in miningproduce, 
Hungarian wines, and other merchandise; the birthplace of Wolff, the 
mathematician and philosopher ; has a university adorned by the names 
of Von Colin, David Schulz, Bernstein, Middledorpf, Wachler the his- 
torian, Schleiemiacher the theologian, and Passow the lexicographer. 
Glogau, a strongly-fortified town on the Oder, with several manufactures, 
especially of sugar from beetroot. GOrlitz has a Protestant college, and 
extensive manufactures of linen and w^ooUen cloths. Liegniti : here the 
Prussians, under Frederick the Great, totally defeated ttie Austrisns in 
1760. Neisse, a fortified town on a river of same name, has various 
printing establishments, and manufactures of linen and woollen cloths. 
Stettin, a populous and fortified city at the mouth of the Oder, and, 
next to Danzig, the chief seaport of the kingdom, with shipbuilding, and 
numerous manufactures, the chief of which is woollen. Greifbwald. a 
fortified town, with a university. Stralsund, on the Baltic, a strongly- 
fortified seaport, with considerable trade. Berlin, the capital of the pro- 
vince Brandenburg and of the kingdom, is an elegant city, situated ontiie 
Spree, an affluent of the Havel, and containing 700,000 inhabitants; 
famous for the variety and extent of its manufactures, among whidh the 
most remarkable are its beautiful cast-iron articles called " Berlin jewel- 
lery," its paper, porcelain, and dye-works. There are numerous educa- 
tional establishments, including the university, the most celebrated in 
Germany, though only founded in 1810 : it is usually attended by about 
1800 students ; and among its professors are many of the most illustrious 
names in modem literature— as Neander, the celebrated church historian; 
Schleiermacher, Hengstenberg, Strauss, the neologist ; De Wette, Mar- 
heinecke ; Von Savigny, the jurist ; Hegel, the metaphysician ; Encke, 
the astronomer ; Von Raumer, the historian ; Karl Ritter. the prince of 
geographers; Beldcer, the indefatigable editor of Greek ana Roman 
classics ; Bockh, the Greek philologist ; Zumpt, the Latin grammarian ; 
and Bopp, the renowned Orientalist, and author of the ' CompaiatiTS 
Grammar of the Indo-European Languages:' the royal library contains 
600, 000 printed volumes. Berlin is indeed the great centre of intelleotaal 
development in the north of Germany. Fotsdam is, next to Berlin, the 
handsomest city in Prussia, the second royal residence in the kingpooiin. 


IB bur[iil-placo of Fraderict the Great, and tha Liilhplafe of Wilhelm 
m Hombolilt. the statesman oud philologist. FranlifUTt on Oder has 
Senriva conuneroe in German aiiii foreign produce, and is noted for 
m raanufactnrea of woollen and eilk fabrics, stockinga, aarthamtarB, 
— IT, ka. Hagdeborg', an ancient and populona city, and the strongeiBt 
jtsain tbe kingdom, has great trade, which is facilitated bynumerona 
unera on the Elbe. 'Wittenberg : here the Btfonnation commenced 
.517, and here are buried ita great promoters. Luther and Melancthon. 
il* , with a celebrated univaraitj adcmed by tbe namee ot Geaeniua, 
■— JPholuclc, tnimnn, Radiger, 8pener, ThoniasiuB, Breithaupt, tbe brotham 
' 'MicbBBlis, Cellarina, Bauinearten, Semler, Knapp, Wegacheider, and 
Mecliel : Halle ie also tbe birthplace of Handel the mnSdan. Herae- 
bnre, and Manmburg the birthplace of Riebard Lepaius, both on the 
Saale, are thiiTing induatrious towns. Qnedlinhnig;, the bii-tbpkce of 
Klopiitock and of Karl Hitter. Halbentbdt contains a superb cathedral 
and a Jewish ayna^giia. Elsleben, birthplace of Lather, 1483. Zeltl : 
licb copper-mines iti the vicinity. Unhlhausen and ITordhRiiseii, fortl- 
tied towna, with manufactnrea of carpets, coarse linens, and woollena. 
Erfnit, with woollen and linen manufactures ; its university (fonnded 
in 1378), where Lutber was educated, and at ona tinia the most cele- 
brated in Germany, was suppressed in 1816, while tbe monastery of St 
Angustlne, containing tbe liefoimec'e cell, is now an orplian asylum. 
~ W, formerly cap. of kingdom of same name, ia a well-built, 

I, and manntactuiing city, on the Leine, — " >i— '-"-•i—i '■•i— 

iouB astronomer, Sir W. Heracbel. Q 

famous uniTersity. ClauBthal, capital of the m _ 
with valuable lead and ailver mines. LunBbnig, a Hourisbing manufac- 
turing town, with salt-pits and saline springs in tba vicinity. Emdan, 
the moat commercial town in Hanover, with shipbuilding docks, Oeon- 
brock ia noted for tba manufacture of coarse linens called osmibtiTgi. 
Sluekrtadt, formerly cap. of tbe duchy of Holstein. Altona, im im- 
portant trading and commercial city on the Elbe, opposite Hamburg, wifli 
abipbuilding docks, various manufactures, and an obsan'atory. Kiel, at 
tbe eantem extremity of the Scbleswig- Holstein Canal, is an Important 
trading town, and tba seat of a nniveraity. Fleiublirg, in the district 
Angeln, inbahited anciently by the Angles, who, along with tha Jntes 
anifSaiODi, invaded Britain in A.D. 4t9, and gave England its present 
name. Cassel, formerly the cap. of tlie Electorate of aama name, and 
HacBin. are thriving mamifacturing towns. Schmalkaldan, where tbe 
celebrated league waa formed, in 1530, between the Protestant princes of 
Gsrniaiiy. Wieabadan, formerly cap. of the ducby of Nassau, ia one 
of the principal watering-pieces of Germany. FrBntfiirt, tonnerly a free 
city, ajid tbe seat of the Garinanio Diet, ia a populous commercial city 
on the Main, now chiefly noted for ita eiteusive hanking transactions : 
is tha birthnlaoo of Gotlia, in 1749. MUiutor : here waa concluded the 
Peace of Weatphttlit 
Buropflan Sti ' 

n its hardware gooda. Cologne, with 1 25,000 inhabltanta, is the third 
Qt; ia Prussia in point of population, ood by far tha most important in 
the western i^viiioQ of the kingdom : ita petition on the Rhine gives it 
great <!DTamercio,I facilities ; famous for ita distilled waters, called " Eau- 
de-Cologne," and for ita magniticent Gothic calhedral, one of the Quest 


in Europe : here the monk Barthold Schwarz invented gnnpowder in 1830 ; 
■nd here was bom Rubens, the most famous painter of the Flemish schooL 
in 1577. CrefUd, the principal town in Prussia for the manufacture uf 
silk goods. Doueldor^ a large commercial city, has a bridge of boati 
across the Rhine. Bonn has a celebrated uniTersity adorned by the 
names of Niebuhr, A. W. von Schlegel, Welcker, Freytag, Augusti, 
Nitsch, Bleek, and Gieseler : it is the birthplace of Beethoven the com- 
poser. Ooblentz, at the confluence of the Rhine and Moselle, the fonner 
of which is crossed here by a bridge of boats, 485 yards long, has manu- 
factures of cotton and woollen fabrics: on the oppc^te bank of the Rhine 
is tiie formidable fortress of Ehienbreitstein. . fLberfold and Bamien, 
great seats of the cotton, silk, and thread manufacture, and famous for 
dyeing Turkey red. Treves (Oer. Trier), at one time the residenca of 
Constantine the Great, is believed to be the oldest city in Germany : it 
contains numerous Roman remains, and maintains a brisk trade in oon, 
timber, and Moselle wines : here is exhibited a coat which the monks 
assert is "the seamless coat of the Saviour." Aix-la-ChapeUe {O^r. 
Aachen), the residence and burial-place of Charlemagne; celebnted 
for its mineral baths, its treaties of 1668 and 1748, and the congress of 
1818 : here were crowned the emperors of Germany from 814 till 15SL 

II. Saxony and the Smaller States. 

Saxony.— Dresden 177, Meissen 10 (Elbe). Bautzen 12 (Spree), Leipzig 
106. Plauen 21 (White Elster), Cnmmitzchau 12, Werdau 10 (Pleisse), 
Reichenbach 11 (Goltsch), Eilenburg 10, Glauchau 19, Meerane 16 n., 
Zwickau 25 (Mulde), Freiberg 21 (Miinzbach), Chemnitz 68, Annabeig 10 
(Chemnitz), Zittau 14 (Mandau). 

Oschatz, Pim&, Qrimma, Lossnitz, Schneebeig, Dobeln, Bosawein, NoMen, 
Mittweida, Hainicken. Frankenberg, Zschoppan, Orossenbain. 

Hecklenburg - Schwerin.— ScHWERiN 25 (L. Schwerin), Rostock 29 
(Wamow), Glistrow 11 (Nebal), Wismar 13 (N. coast). 
Giabow, Lndwigslost, Parchim. 

Oldenburg.— Oldenburg 12 (Hunte), Berne 8 (Berne). 

Bnmswick.— Brxtnswick 58, Wolfenbiittel 10 (Ocker). 

Saxe-Weimar.— Weimar 14 (Ilm), Eisenach 12 (Horsel). 

HecUenburg-Strelitz.— Neu-Strelitz 7 n. (Havel). 

Anhalt.— Dessau 16 (Mulde), Bembuig 12 (Saale), Zerbst 11 (JSaXbb), 
K6then 12 (Ziethe). 

Saxe-Meiningen.— Meininoen 7, Hildburghausen 5 (Werra). 

Saxe-ODbiixg-Gotha.-GoTHA 18 (Leine), Coburg 11 (Itz). 

Saxe-AItenburg. — Axtenburo 18 (Pleisse). 
Bchmollin, Bonneboi^. 

Idppe-Betmold.— Detmold 6 (Werra). 

Waldeck.— Arolsen 2 (Aar). 

Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt.— RxTDOLSTADT 6 (Saale). 

Schwartiburg-Sondershaiisen.— SoNDERSHAUSEN 6 (Wxpper). 

Senss-Schleitz.— Gera 15 (White Elster). 

Schaumburg-Lippe.— BucKEBURO 4 (Aue). 

SeuBS-Greitz.— Greitz 11 (White Elster). 

emnin, celebnited I'o 
ifacturiiig town in S&xon 


Free Citie*.— Hambnre 30* (Eltel, Liibeck *0 (Tt»Te), Bremeu SJ 

Descriptive Notes. — la the tweoty EtDalliir et&tes north cif the 
Main there are two cities CQntsiiimg apwards of lUO,(KN)iiilisbitajit« 
(Hwnbuj^, Dreaien) ; fonr between 100,000 and SO.OOO (Leiprig, 
Bremen, Chemniti, Brunswick) ; five between 50,000 nnd 20,008 
(Bostock, Schwerm, Zwickau, Freiljerg, Pliiuen); and twenty-five 
between 20,000 and 10,000. 

Srsiden, cap. of the kinzdnm of 3i 
North GermiuiT, ia renowned fur its . _ . , , 

magnificent bcid^ across the Elbo {1<24 ft. Inugl, and eitenaiTe mann- 
factntw. BJ^ieoiklly of china and porcelain ware, of great beanty. Xeli- 
Mm : here is inannfactiired the funoDi LlreadeQ china. Buitun, when 
Napoleon L defeated tbe Kussians and PnusianB in 161S. Leipiig, the 
great emporium of the German hook trade, is one of the most important 
commercial towns in Germany, the seat cf three eieat aonaal lain, at- 
tended by merchants from all parts of Kiirope and Western Asia, sjid the 
seat of a celebratod uniTeisity. FUnBn has eiteniire linan and cotton 
minofscturea. FndbGrg, chief town of the mining district of Soiony, 

, ._._. --'-^ing 100,000 Kpecimens, beqneathed by 

its cotton hosiery, is the most import' 
■. Schwerin. the residence of the Gi«ad 
Uuke of M. Schwerin, is an anciGnt town on the W. side of the lake of 
(iBUje name. Biwtock, a seaport town with a small university. Olden- 
burg, cap. of grand duchy of same name, is well fortified, riTer-prat, with 
I2.1HIU inltaliitante. Bnmiwick. cap. ot durhy of eune name, a popnlons 
city, largely engaged in the woollen trade ; hBre the Epiining-wheel vai 
invented. Geut^ ]., Electur of Hanurer, and Ihike of BnuiBwick, lie- 
eaine King of Great Britain in 1714. Wrimar, cap. of grand dochy, is a 
small town on the Em, noted for having been the residence of Giitiie, 
Schiller, Herder, Wielaud, and other men of genius. EIbbumIi : near it 
the castle of Wartbnrg, the Patmoe of Luther m J522. Ben-Streliti, cap, 
of gruid duchy, contains s collection nf anrinut antiqnities. Deaaan, a 

college sjid a nonual school. KeiniiiEen, cap. of duchy, a small town, 
with a fine collection of paintings, QoUia, abenutiiit] tciwn on the Leine, 
■odcap, of duchy, with mannfacturea of cotton, woollen, and porcelain, a 
pictnis-pallery, andalihrary of 130,000 toIb, Since 17(14, the 'AlmanMi 
de Gotha' has been published here. Coborg : near it Bosenau, the birtb- 
]jlace of the late lamented Prince Albert. Altenbiirg, cap. of dncby, ii 
a tiniving tonit with mannfacturea of ribbons and woollen cloths. Det- 
mold, cap. of principality, is a email town on the Werra, of no special 
interest. Eanibarg, a celebrated free city on the eatusry of the Elbe, 
witb 225,000 inhabitaate ; it ia said to have been founded about a-S. 
80[t by Charlemagne ; it is the most important commercial city on the 
continent, and the groat entrepflt for British and American goods U> 
Germany : its meruantile navy consists of ahoat !>0D vessels, carrying 1 
aw.OOOtons; the imports in 1B67 amounted to £68,000,000. Lnhed^ ' 
also B free city, has great Cairn, and a very citensiTa commerce with Den- 
mark, Sweden, and Kussia : here are kept the records of the Hanseatic 
Lea^e, so famous in the middle ages. Bren 
Weier.aDd leuond only to HamhiiiigaB a seat c 


the great port for emigration to America ; in 1867 the exports and importt 
amounted to about £15^000,000 each. 

Capes and Islands. — Bmster Head and Bixhoft Point, guarding 
the G. of Danzig ; C. Dars, N.W. of Pomerania ; Ritzebttttel Head, 
in Hanover. Islands. — Usedom and Wollin, at the mouth of the 
Oder ; Rttgen, N.W. of Pomerania ; Fehmern and Alsen, E. of 
Schleswig-Holstein; Sylt, Fohr, and R5m5, W. of Schleswig ; and 
a small archipelago between the mouths of the Weser and Ems. 

Gulfs, Bays, and Straits.— Curische Haff, at the mouth of the Nie- 
raen ; Frische Haff and G. of Dantzic, at the mouth of the Yistnla ; 
Swinemtlnde Bay and Stettiner Haff, N. of Pomerania ; West Deep 
and Str. of Gellen, between Ru^n and the mainland ; G. of Llibeck, 
at the mouth of the Trave ; Fehmern Sd. and Kiel Fd., N.K of 
Holstein ; Flensborg Fd. and G. of Apenrade, E of Schleswig ; 
Estuaries of the £1^, Weser, Jahde, and Ems. 

Sur&ce and Mountains. — The surface of the countries recently 
forming the North German Confederation is, generally speaking, ex* 
tremely level, Prussia and the Northern States being situated in the 
great northern plain of Central and Eastern Europe ; but the south- 
ern members of the confederation are bounded, or traversed, by rari- 
ous chains of hills, as the Sudetic range and the Riesengebirge, be- 
tween Pnissia and Bohemia; the TTiUringerwald in the Sachsen States; 
the Odenreald in Hesse Darmstadt ; the WesterwaZd in Nassau ; the 
Eifel in Rhenish Prussia ; and the Ilarz in Brunswick and Hanover,' 
for which see under ** South Germany." 

Biver-Baslns. — Beginning at the N.E. angle of Prussia, the prin- 
cipal river-basins of North Germany are the Niemen or Memel, with 
an area of 85,700 English sq. miles ; the Vistula, 72,300 sq. miles; 
the Oder, 45,200 sq. miles; the Elbe, 55,000 sq. miles; the Weser, 
17,700 sq. miles; and the Rhine, 75,000 sq. miles. Of these the 
first three fall into the Baltic, and the others into the North Sea. 
An extended table of the rivers and towns for the whole of Germany 
will be found under "Austria." 

Lalces. — The lakes of North Germany are exceedingly numerous; 
but are all very small, the principal being the Spirden See and Mauer 
See, in Prussia Proper, the former being drained by an affluent of the 
Pregel, and the latter by the Pissek, a sub-affluent of the Vistula ; 
Plau, Malchow, Flesen, Kolpin, and Miiritz, in Mecklenburg, all 
drained by the Elde, a tributary of the Elbe ; Dilmer, in Hanover, 
drained by the Hunte, an affluent of the Weser. 

Climate. — Prussia and the other States of North Germany being 
all situated in the great northern plain, and therefore exposed to the 
winds blowing from the Baltic, the North Sea, and the Arctic 
Ocean, the winter is long and severe, the lakes and rivers bdng 
covered with thick ice — sufficient to bear loaded waggons — and the 
ground with deep snow, for three or four months in the year ; bat 
the summer is usually warm, humid, and variable, and in Rhenish 
Prussia the vine is successfully cultivated. The mean annual tern* 



tierntiire of Berlin, nhicli ia one degrea farther north than London, 
u iS'-S, or three det^ties lower than in London ; the mean summer 
at Berliii ia nearly Ute same bs in the British metropolis (flj°.2), hat 
the mean winter is more than 3J dcgreea lower. The annual rain- 
fall at Berlin is about SS} inches, decreaaing towards the east; nam- 
beroftainy days 152; prevailing winds W. and S.W. 

Qeology and BDnerala. — The Khenish provinces of Praesia con- 
ElsC, for the inoet part, of ujiper palsozoh: beds, bnt nearly all the 
rest of Horthera Germany is covered with tertiary strata. Minerals 
are yory abundant, especially in the Erzgebirge and Harz Monn- 
taJns; the former containinjt the metals in great variety, b«flidofl 
nnmorons precioos stones, and the latter, mines of gold, sUver, iron, 
copper, lead, salt, coal, alum, and sulphur. Valnnble mines of coal 
and zinc are wrought in Silesia ; coal, iron, lead, copper, and mineral 
■prings abound in the Rhenish provinces; while recently have bean. 
diaooYored inexhaustible deposits of pure rock-salt in Pomerania, 
near Stettin, whence it can be shipped at a very low price. The 
most characteristic mineral of Prussia proper is amber, a fossil resin, 
which occurs in beds of lifluite on the Baltic coast, and which ia 
exported to Turkey and other places, to be manufactured into month- 
pieces for meerechaum pipes. Prussia has upwards of 100 mineral 
springs of varioaa properties and virtues, the most noted of which 
are those of Aii-la-Chapelle, Wiesbaden, Ems, Selters, and Homburg. 

Botttnr and Agiicnltnte. — The whole of Germany is embraced in 
Professor Sehouw's second " phyto-geogrsphia region," the eharae- 
teristicB of wliich are mentioned under "knrope. The indigenous 
|ilaDts are reckoned at abont 7000 spFcies, of which S666 are Hower- 
\ng, including 2037 dicotyledons and E29 monocotyledons. Forests 
and heaths are numerous, and the moat frequent forest-trees are the 
elm, poplar, oak, birch, and pine. Fruit-trees form of late years an 
important article of husbandry, and the vine, chestnut, and almond 
thrive well ia the valley of the Khino ; while the apple, pear, walnut, 
and apricot abound everywhere. Of all wine-producing countries, 
no vineyards are cultivated with such care as those of Hhenjsh 
Prussia, Nassau, and Ilhenish £avaria. There is a univeisal interest 
taken in the growth of the vines, and a nniversal pleasure in their 
■pioffnsa. The district which produces the best Kheniah wine is 
ths Rbeingan, a chain ol' hills in Sassau, extending along the right 
bank of the Khine for about 25 miles. The wines of Germany are popa- 
larly known in this country under the general name of Sock, but there 
■re nnmerona varieties, the chief feature of al! being their delicate 
flOiTonT and extraordinary durability. Within the last ton years the 
toportition of Eheniah wine into this country has nearly doubled 
itsalt Bye is the favourite grain, and forms, with potatoes, the 
prindpal food of the people ; bnt wheat, barley, oats, flax, hemp, 
>sd tobacea are extensively cultivated. Chicory and beetroot (for 
the manufacture of sugar) are cnltivated largely in Saxony. ""' 
■oil ia, generally speaking, fertile, and the various operatic 
igriculture are carefully conducted. About three-fourths of the 




the great port for emigration to America ; in 1867 the exports and imports 
amount^ to about £15,000,000 each. 

Capes and Islands. — Bmster Head and Bixhoft Point, guarding 
the G. of Danzig ; C. Dars, N. W, of Pomerania ; Ritzebttttel Head, 
in Hanover. Islands. — Usedom and Wollin, at the month of the 
Oder; RUgen, N.W. of Pomerania; Fehmem and Alsen, E. of 
Schleswig-Holstein; Sylt, Fohr, and K5m5, W. of Schleswig ; and 
a small archipelago between the months of the Weser and Ems. 

Gnlfii, Bays, and Straits.— Cnrische Haff, at the month of the Nie- 
men ; Frische Haff and G. of Dantzic, at the month of the Vistula ; 
Swinemtlnde Bay and Stettiner Haff, N. of Pomerania ; West Deep 
and Str. of G«llen, between Rngen and the mainland ; G. of LtlbeclC 
at the month of the Trave ; Fehmem Sd. and Kiel Fd., N.K of 
Holstein ; Flensborg Fd. and G. of Apenrade, K of Schleswig ; 
Estuaries of the £1^, Weser, Jahde, ana Ems. 

Sur&ce and Mountains. — The surface of the countries recently 
forming the North German Confederation is, generally speaking, ez« 
tremely level, Prussia and the Northern States being situated in the 
great northern plain of Central and Eastern Europe ; but the south- 
em members of the confederation are bounded, or traversed, by rari- 
ous chains of hills, as the Sudetic range and the Riesengebirge, be- 
tween Pnissia and Bohemia; the ThUringerwald in the Sachsen States; 
the Odenreald in Hesse Darmstadt ; the WesterwaJd in Nassau ; the 
Eifel in Rhenish Prussia ; and the JIarz in Brunswick and Hanovery 
for which see under ** South Germany." 

Blver-Baslns. — Beginning at the N.E. angle of Prassia, the jmn- 
cipal river-basins of North Germany are the Niemen or Memel, with 
an area of 85,700 English sq. miles ; the Vistula, 72,300 sq. miles ; 
the Oder, 45,200 sq. miles; the Elbe, 55,000 sq. miles; the Weser, 
17,700 sq. miles ; and the Rhine, 75,000 sq. miles. Of these tiie 
first three fall into the Baltic, and the others into the North Sim. 
An extended table of the rivers and towns for the whole of Germany 
will be found under "Austria." 

Laikes. — The lakes of North Germany are exceedingly numerous, 
but are all very small, the principal being the Spirden See and Mauer 
See, in Prussia Proper, the former being drained by an affluent of the 
Pregel, and the latter by the Pissek, a sub-afBuent of the Vistula ; 
Plau, Malchow, Flesen, E5lpin, and Miiritz, in Mecklenburg, all 
drained by the Elde, a tributary of the Elbe ; DUmer, in Hanover, 
drained by the Hunte, an affluent of the Weser. 

Climate. — Prussia and the other States of North Germany being 
all situated in the great northern plain, and therefore exposed to the 
winds blowing from the Baltic, the North Sea, and the Arctic 
Ocean, the winter is long and severe, the lakes and rivers being 
covered with thick ice — sufficient to bear loaded waggons — and the 
ground with deep snow, for three or four months in the year ; but 
the summer is usually warm, humid, and variable, and in Rhenish 
Prussia the vine Is successfully cultivated. The mean annual tem* 

5B of gold, 

VaJnable mines of cottl 
1, lend, copper, and mineral 
; wliile recently hare been 
e rock-salt in Pomerania, 
vary low price. Tha 


Berntore of Berlin, which is one ilegrpe farther north than London, 
B 48°.S, or three deffreea lower tlian in London ; the mean sammer 
fitt Berlin is nearly the eame S3 in the British metroTioUs (64°. 2), hut 
lean winter is more than SJ degrees lower. The annual rain- 
t Berlin is about 22^ inches, decreasing towards the east; num- 
ber of rainy days 152 ; prevailing winds W. and S.W. 

QeologT and BUnsrali. — The Bbenish provinces of Fmssia cod- 
mst. for the most part, of upper paleeozolc beds, but nearly all the 
rest of Northern Germany is covered with tertiai; strata. Minerals 
■re very abundant, especially in the Erzeebirge and Harz Monn- 
tains ; the former containing the metals in great variety, besides 
nnmerouB precious stones, snd the ktter, mines of gold, sUve: 
copper, lead, salt, coal, alum, and sulphur 
and lino are wrought in Silesia ; coal, ii ~ 
springs abound in the Rheniah provinci 
duNovered inexhauatibla deposits of pur 
near Stettin, whence it can be shipped a 

most characteristic mineral of Prussia proptii i> aiuum, a, •uoau icam, 
which occurs in beds of lignite on the Baltic coast, and which is 
exported to Turliey and other places, to be manufactured into month- 
pieces for meerBchaum pipes, Prussia has upwards of 100 mineral 
springi of various properties and virtuaa, the most noted of which 
«ra tiiose of Aii-ta-Chapelle, Wiesbaden, Ema, Sellers, and Horaburg. 
Botany and Agncnltore.— The whole of Germany is embraced in 
Professor Sch on w's Bccand "phyto-peographic region," the charao- 
teristics of which are mentioned under "Kurope. The indigenous 
plants are reckoned at about 7000 species, of wbich SSSS ara lower- 
ing, including 2037 dicotyledons and S2E> monocotyledons. Forests 
aim. heaths are numerons, and the most frequent forest-treea are ths 
elm, poplar, oak, birch, and pine. Frnit-tnes form of late years an 
important article of husbandry, and the vine, chestnut, and almond 
thnva well in the valley of the Rhine ; while the apple, pear, walnut, 
and aprieot abound everywhera. Of all wina-proilui:iiig countries, 
no vineyards are cultivated with such care as those of Khenisli 
Pmsaia, Nassau, a»d Rhenish Bavaria. There is a universal interest 
token in the growth of the vines, and a universal pleasure in thoir 
progress. The district which produces the best Rhenish wine ia 
the Rheingau, a chain of hills in Noflsan, extending along the right 
bank of the Rhine for about 25 milea. The wines of Gennany are popu- 
larly knownia this country under the general name of Itodc, but there 
■re numerous varieties, the chief feature of all being their delicate 
Savour and extraordinary dnrabOity. Within the last ten years the 
Importation of Rhenish wine into this country bos nearly doubled 
itMlf. Rye is the favourite grain, and forms, with potatoes, the 
principal food of the people ) but wheat, barley, oats, flax, hemp, 
and tobacco are extensively cultivated. Chieoiy and beetroot (for 
B manufacture of sugar) are cultivated lar^ly in Saxony. Tha 
1 ii, generally speaking, fertile, and the various operations of 
B agriculture are carefuUy conducted. About three-fourths of the 

248 rouTiCAL geography. 

Hengstenberg, Tholuck, Tiscliendorf, Stier, H. Olsliausen, UUmaim, 
Krammacher, Lange. Philologt : Reuchlin, Buztorf, Stockius, 
Ludolfy Fabricius, F. A. Wolf, Adelung, Schleusuer, Schneider, Yoesins, 
Freytag, Wahl, Gesenius, Bopp, Grimm, Reiske, Ernesti, Heyne, Butt- 
mann, MatthuB, Zumpt, Freund, Ewald, Passow, RSdiger, Furst, Koae- 
garten. Fine Arts : In Music some of the more celebrated names are — 
Handel, Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Weber, Mozart, Klein, Mendelssohn, 
Spohr ; in Painting — Albert Durer, Elzheimer, Sandrart, Van-der-Faes, 
Roos, Warner, G. Netscher, Mignon, Kneller, AnnaWaaer, Denner; and 
in Sculpture — Dannecker. Miscellaneous : Werner, Kotzebne, Jung 
Stilling, Zimmermann, Herder, Lessing, Bouterweck, Tieck, Jean Pam 
Bichter, Wagner, A. W. Schlegel, Bunsen, Richard Lepsius. 

OoYeniment. — The government of Prussia is a hereditary consti- 
tutional monarchy, the executive being invested in the king and two 
chambers— an Upper House, or House of Lords, and a Chamber of 
deputies, elected by the people, and consisting of 432 members. 
Every Prussian subject who has attained his 25th year is entitled to 
vote. The reigning sovereign is William I., brother of the late 
Frederick William IV., who died in 1861. The minor States, wilii 
the exception of the free cities (Hamburg, Bremen, and Llibeck), 
have a monarchical form of government, generally with two chambers, 
one of which is elected by the citizens. All the states of the Con« 
federation are represented in their corporate capacity by a parliament 
which sits at Berlin under the presidency of the Emperor of Germany. 
It consists of two bodies — a Federal Council of 43 members (17 
of whom represent Prussia), and a House of Representatives, elected 
by universal suffrage, at the rate of one member for every 100,000 
inhabitants. Army and Navy. — The army of the entire Confedera- 
tion, and which is under the exclusive control of Prussia, consisted, 
in 1869, of 546,505 men (on the war footing), with a reserve of 
214,700, and garrison troops, 270,000— forming a total of 1,021,000. 
But in time of peace the army amounts to 311,985. The navy con- 
sists of 87 vessels, with 547 guns, and 8870 horse-power, ^e total 
Beceipts o{ the various States amounted, in 1868, to £25,880,472; 
the Expenditure to about an equal sum, and the Public Debt to 
£62,120,000. The revenue of Frossia, for 1873> is estimated at 

Commerce, Manufactures, Exports, and Imports. — ^Until the for- 
mation of the ZoUverein or Customs' League in 1818, trade was 
greatly trammelled by each petty State in Germany esuusting dues 
from every vessel that touched its frontiers. Since then, however, 
only one charge has been levied, and the proceeds divided among the 
different states forming the League, in the ratio of their respectlva 
populations. The late war brought the ZoUverein to an end, but in 
1867 a new treaty, on an enlarged basis, was concluded, embracing 
all the States of both North and South Germany, with the exception 
of Hamburg, Bremen, Ltlbeck, and Altona, which for the present 
ore ports offree importation. In 1868 the gross receipts of the ZoU- 
verein amounted to 27,819,525 thalers, or £4,097,928. Of tiiis sum 
19,900,000 thalers were received by Prussia, 2,656,000 hj Sazonyi 
1,407,000 by Bavaria, 575,000 by WUrtembeT|^ and 1,106,000 t(r 


Baden. The iiierca.ntile tnarine of Prussia has been largely >u- 
creaaeil by the acquUition cf Hanover and Schleswig-HaUteiu, and in 
1873 numbered 5898 vesaala, carrying about 2,i8l},000 tons. TliB 
principal Bxports from Prussia and North Germany ars com, timber, 
wines, horses, homed cattle, coals, wool, oO. flax, hops, tobacco, 
mineral waters, and distilled liquors, together with woolleii and 
linen manufactured goods. Among the aiticlea exported from Prus- 
sia to Great Britain arc, com to the Talue of about £5,000,000 an- 
nually, and timber, £1,000,000 ; while she sends coal in vast <] nan ti- 
tiea to other parts of Germany, France, and Switzt;rland. In 1873 
the production of coal in Prussia amonnted to 38,000,000 tons. The 
chief articles imported into Prussia and North Germany from Great 
Britain are iron, wrought and unwrought, herrings, and cotton- 
yaru, amounting, in 1867, to £2,886,000, and colonial produce, raw 
cotton, and silhs. The exports from Danzig and Stettin in 186S 
amounted to £5,268,000, and the imports to £7,973,000. The 
manu^cturcB are numerous and important, but chiefly for homo con- 
Homption. Those of Prussia consist for the most part of textile 
{abncSj machinery, beet-root sugar, porcelain, earthenware, paper, 
leather, musical instruments. Cotton is manufactnred eitonsively at 
Elberfeld and Barmen, linen at Bielefeld and Liegnitz, cutlery and 
stms at Solingen. silks and velvets at Crcfeld, woollen stutfs at Pots- 
dan, while Berlin is the great seat of the mauufBctnre of artistic 
articles, such as " Berlin ware," jewellery, toys, and Busical and 
philosophical instruments. Brewing and distilling are estensively 
carried on in all parts of the kingdom. In the other states of the 
Confederation the principal manufactures are cotton and woollen 
poods, and " Dresden china " in Sssony and Brunswiei: ; beer, lea- 
fier, paper, wooden and straw ware, linen, &C., in the smaller States. 
Inland Commimieittlaii. — Internal communication, both by laud 
and water, is in a hif;hly efficient state, consisting of many navigable 
rivers connected by canals, excellent roads, and a perfect network of 
railways. At the beginning of 1867 there were in Pmssia E7II4 miles 
of railroad open for traffic, and in the other States of North Germany 
1092 miles— making a total of 88S3 miles, while in the end of 1873 
the munber of miles in the whole Confederation amounted to 12,700 
miles. Berlin is connected by rail with all the more important 
towns in Prussia, and with the capitals of all the other States of the 
Confederation ; while other important lines, following the courses of 
the Khine, Elba, and Oder, serve to connect Northern and SontherB 

III. Sooth Gbrmabt. 

Position and Boundarlee.— N.E,, Saxony j N.W., the Jloinft, 

teporating it from Pnisaia ; W., France, from which it is aepii- 

led for the most port by the Rhine ; S., Switzerland and tho 


Tyrol ; R, Upper Austria and Bohemia. Lat. 47" 20'— 50* 41' 
N.; Ion. 7^5'— 13M8'E. 

Carlsruhe, cap. of Baden, and on the central parallel of 4d% has the 
same latitade as Paris, Begensburg, Lemberg, Poltava, New Westmin- 
ster in British Columbia, and the southern boundary of British North 
America : and has the same longitude as Christiansand, Oldenbnig, 
Lucerne, Milan, Cagliari, and Old Calabar. The general outline is re^ 
angular, nearly square ; its greatest length, which is from K to W., is 
about 250 miles ; while its extreme breadth, from N. to S., does not 
exceed 220. South Grermany nowhere approaches the sea, but the Bhine, 
which is navigable for steamers up to Basle and for small craft to Chur, 
forms a large portion of the southern and western boundary ; while its 
tributary, the Maine, which bounds it on the N.W., is navigable as far 
up as Bamberg. 

Area and Population. — The united area of the five states compos- 
ing South Germany is 50,249 sq. miles, or about half the siae of 
Great Britain; whUe the aggregate population, 1872, amounted 
to 10,593,876, being about two-nfths the population of the latter. 
South Germany is very densely peopled, having 210 persons to each 
sq. UL The names, area, and population of the different states are 
as follows : — 

Bq. m. Pop. 1871 
Kingdom of Bavaria, .... 29,342 4,864,408 
Kingdom of Wurtemberg, 
Grand Duchy of Baden, . 
Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 

7,533 1,818,484 
5,912 1,461,438 

2,962 852,343 

4,500 1,597,319 

Total, . . 50,249 10,593,876 

Political Divisions. — South Germany consists of five distinct 
states, each of which is a member of tiie newly-constituted Grerman 
Empire. Their independence is so far sacrificed that, in tlie event 
of war with a foreign state, Prussia is entitled to claim the com- 
mand of their armies. 

Bavaria.— Munich 171, Landshut 12 (Isar), Passau 13, Straubi^ II, 
Ratisbon or Begensburg 30, Ingolstadt 17 (Danube), Amberg 12 (vUa), 
Kempten 11 (Iller), Augsburg 50 (Lech), Spires or Speyer 15, Germers- 
heim 10 (Rhine), Kaiserslautem 15 (Lauter), Aschaffenbuig 10, Wttrz- 
burg 42 (Maine), Landau 11 (Queich), Bamberg 26, Erlangen 12, FUrth 
22, Schwabach 10 (Begnitz), Nuremberg 83 (Pegnitz), Anspach 18 (Bezat). 
Baireuth 19 (Bed Maine), Hof 14 (Saale). 

Freising, Neubnrg, Eichstadt, Dinkelsbuhl, KordlingeOt Meminingen, Zwei- 
briicken, Pirmasens, Eissingen, Schweinfiirt, Rothenburg, HoIierUinden. 

Wnrtemberg.— Stuttgart 84 (Nesenbach), Reutlingen 14 (Eschati), 
Ludwigsburg 12, Heilbronn 17, Esslingen 17 (Neckar), Ulm 25 (Danube). 

Cannstadt, Eirchheim, Tubingen, Rottenbuig, Hall, GmQnd, GKJppingaa, 
Ehniiigen, Tuttlingen. 

Baden.— Carlsruhe 37 n., Mannheim 40 (Rhine), Heidelberg 20 
(Neckar), Pforzheim 16 (Ens), Rastadt 11 (Murg). Freiburg 21 (DieiBanOii 
Constance, Weinheim, Bruchsal, Bretten, Lahr, Baden-Baden. 


Euie-Dkniistadt.— Darmstadt 40 (Barm), Giisscn 10 (Labn), Msy- 
mcB or Mainz 51, Worms 12 (Rhine), Offenbaoli 23 (MaiDa). 

Elian-LotliTiiigeii.— See pnga 198. 

QBWTlptlTe Kotea.— The five States ahoro enmnei-ated Contain 
only one town above 100,000 inhabitaata (Munich) ; three between 
100,000 and 60,000 (Nnretaberg, Stnttgart, Augsburg) ; ten between 
fiO,000 and 20,000 (Mayence, Wllrabura Mannheim, CarUnihe, 
Darmstadt, Eatisbon, Bamberg, Fllrth, Freiburg, Offenbach); and 
twenty-ftve between 20,000 and 10,000. 

Knaioli {Ger. Munchen)^ cap. of Bavaria, in the midst of a sterile 

Elaln, is, with tbe eineption of Madrid, the loftient city in Europe, 
avii^ an elevatioa of 1690 feet : for the moat part it is of modern erec- 
tion, u by far the most populous city in South Germany, and, in regard 
to itA treasureH in painting and Hcolptnre, Is unrivalled in Germany. It 
baa been embellished and extended during the last century on a scale un- 
known in any other European city, Bicept Paris ; it contains nnmeroua 
■plendid edifices in every known style of architecture, among wbii:h are 
the university, the palace, and the picture-gallery. Near it is Hohenlin- 
den, mben), m 18D0, the French totally defeated the Auatrians. Fassan 
is strongly fortified, and forms t!ie defence of Bavaria against Austria. 
Slitisbmi, long the cap. of Bavaria, and, from 1663 to 1808, the permancnE 
seat of the Imperial Diet : here He the remains of Kepler, and here 
Mapoleon was wounded in hattle in 1809. Angshnrg, an miportant city, 
tlie principal arsenal of the kingdom, and ttie great emporium for Ger- 
an, Italian, and Greek wines ; in regard to banking and eichange 
leratjons, it is second only to FrankHirt ; but it is chiefly celebrated for 
e Confession of Faith wliich the Protestants presented here to Charles 
Y . in 16S0. Spires, noted as the place where the Reformers, in 1628, 
presenlfld their famous protest to the Emperor, which originated the re- 
ligions designation of Frotestants. 'Wiirzbnre, a university town, nas 
formerly the cap. of Franconia. Bamhere vi extensively engaged in 
rusiug and preporing liquorice and medicinal plants. ErlMieen contains 
the only Protestant university in Bavaiia. Piirth, next to Nuremberg, 
ilie most important manufacturing town in the kingdom, the staple com- 
modities being toys and fancy artjclea. Kiireinberg, the great toy-mart 
of Germany, is funous for its numerous inventions in the mechanical arts, 
aa the watch, gun-carriages, cnpperplate-engmving, musket, clarion, &c. 
St n t ty art, the most heautifully-aitnated capital in Germany, is of very 
recent origin ; contains the royal palace, adorned by Flemish paintings 
and aculptnres by Dannecker and Canovs, and the royal library of 
880,000 volames, including a unique collection of 9000 bibles, printed in 
80 different bnguagea. Dim, a fortilied town on the Dannbe, where it 
h^ins to be navigable, contains one of the finest Gothic catUedials in 
Oermauy : here the Austrian General, Mock, capitulated to Napoleon in 
1805. Oarlnniie {" Charles-a rest "), the cap. of Baden, in the valley of 
the Rhine, is an elegant city, with its 32 atroeta diverging from the palace 
like the rays of a fan; has manufactures of jewellery, carpets, and chemi- 
cal prodocts. Humhelm, at thecoaSuence of the Rhine and Neckar, i* 
well situated for commerce, and is the most populooa city In Baden. 
HaidelbBrg, famous forits romantic scenery, its flourishing uni' — "- 
•Dd an ancient castle, long the residence of the Electors- Pal°''"-> 
''-'m, noted as being the birthplace of EeuclJin. Eastadt, 

a of the late Ccrmanii; ConfederatiaD, is celebrated for the treaty of 

the Con 


1714 between Villars and Eugene, the battle of 1796 between the French 
and Austrians, and the congress of 1799. Freiburg, noted for its magni- 
ficent Gothic cathedral, with a pyramidal spire 380 feet high : contains a 
Roman Catholic university, which is well attended. Constance, the seat 
of a famous council in 1414, which sentenced John Huss and Jerome of 
Prague to the flames. Bretten, the b.p. of Melancthon, in 1497. Baden- 
Baden, with hot saline springs, is a celebrated watering-place. Daim- 
stadt, cap. of the grand duchy, is a handsome town, with a magnificent 
ducal library. Giessen, the seat of a famous university, rendered illns- 
trious by Baron Liebig's discoveries in organic chemistry. JKayenoe 
{Ger. Mainz), the most populous town in the grand duchy, and one of the 
strongest fortresses in Europe, forms the great bulwark of Germany 
against France : it is the b.p. of Guttemberg, the inventor of printing 
(1440). Offenbach, the chief industrial town in the state, is noted for 
its bookbinding and manufacture of carriages. Worms, famous for the 
Diet of 1521, where Luther was outlawed. 

SarflB.ce and Mountains. — The surface is hilly, and frequently 
mountainous. A branch of the Rhsetian Alps from Austria forma 
the southern boundary of Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, separating the 
Inn from the Isar, and the basin of the Rhine from that of the 
Danube, but nowhere attaining the limit of perennial snow, which 
in the Alps has an elevation of 8900 feet. Proceeding northwards^ 
the different ranges are as follows : — 

The Schwartswald, or " Black Forest," in Baden, separates the Rhine 
from the Neckar ; maximum elevation, 4675 feet. 

The RavM A /», or Swabian Alps, in Wiirtemberg. between the Danube 
and Neckar, 3300 feet. 

The Bdhmerwaldt between Bavaria and Bohemia, separates the Danube 
from the Moldau, an affluent of the Elbe, 4613 feet. 

The ErzgeHrgei between Saxony and Bohemia, separates the basins of 
the Elbe and Danube, 2500 feet. 

The FichtelgeMrge, in the N.E. of Bavaria, separates the affluents of the 
Danube from liie rivers that find their way nortnward, 3481 feet. 

The Thilringenoald, in the Sachsen States, and between the sources of 
the Werra and Saale, 3286 feet 

The Rhbngehirgei in the N.W. of Bavaria, separates the Fulda and 
Werra from the Kinzig and Maine,' 2300 feet. 

The Odenwald, in Hesse Darmstadt, forms a continuation of the 
Schwartzwald, and separates the Maine from the Neckar, 2300 feet. 

The WesterwcUdf in Nassau, between the Sieg and Lahn, 2850 feet. 

The JSifelf in Rhenish Prussia, between the Moselle and Ahr, 2200 

The Rarzgehirge, or Harz Mountains, in Brunswick, and the S. of Han- 
over, between the Weser and the Elbe, 3230 feet. 

Biyer-Basins. — For the river-basins see under ** Nortb Germany," 
and for the table of rivers and towns see under " Austria." 

Lakes. — Boden See or Lake of Constance, bet. South Germany and 
Switzerland, traversed by the Rhine, of which it forms the great 
reservoir; length 42 m., breadth 8 m., elevation 1255 feet, dflpth 
964 feet ; the Siores are generally flat, but the snow-clad Alps in the 
distance have an imposing effect ; its waters are subject to a snddea 
rise and fall, without apparent cause. Other lakes are Ammsr Ste, 

PS8 i 

B difTe 


Warn Sen, Hnd Chiem See ia the S. of Bavaria, drained by Bffli'eiita 
of the Isor and Inn, tributaries of the DaDiibe. 

CUm&ts. — In all parts of Germany the mean annual teniperntura is 

nearly the sama, the greater elevation ol Southern Germany oompen- 

gating for its lower latitude. Hera the sky ia mora aerene and the 

climate much drier than io North Germany, The mean annual 

' Carlsrahe, in the central parallel, is fil°.B — winter, 34°.B ; 

fifl'.S. At Ulm, on the Danube, the annual fall of tain ia 

S8 inches, and in N. Germany 2Si inches, but it varies greatly in 
different parts. Encept in the yalley of the Khine, the climate is 
generally Tery cold, and the mountains rarely free from snow. 

Oeology uid mUnsTals.— The rFgica south of the Danube ia oc- 
cupied with tertiary strata; the large district lying between the 
Khine, Maine, Naab, and Danube is covered ivitb secondary rocha ; 
the palteoMic aeries rarely appears, \FhitB E. of the Naab, granitic 
rocks prevail, especially in the Bdhmerwald, 

The principal mineral products of the various states of South Germany 
aje—Savaria .- salt (formerly a Government monojioly), obtainod from the 
rock and bj eraporatiou ; iron and coal, found m many places ; copper, 
manganese, quicksilver, and cobalt, in Rhenish Bavaria. WHiitmiera ; 
Bait, iron, and coal are abundant, while silver, copper, Isad, bismuth, 
&nd malachite are fouud in small quantities. The mineral products of 
Baden are chieHy alum, sulphur, silver, iron, copper, lead, and coal; 
Bold-washing, formerly geueral along the Rhine, is now insiKniflcant. 
Iron, coal, and salt abound in Heise-Darmttadt, The princindT mineral 
springs are thone of Ei^singen, Briickcuan, and Rosenheim, m Bavaria; 
Wildbad, in Wurlemberg ; Baden-Baden, in the Grand Ducliy of Baden. 

Bataii7 end leTieuItnre. — For the nnmber of apeciea of plants in 
Germany, as also for a description of the culture and exportation of 
the German wices, we refer the student to the corresponding article 
under " Fruasia and North Germany." 

In South Gennany, about, three- fifths of the entire area is under culti- 
vation, and the soil is gioierally very fertile. >>ear1y all the cereals are 
grown on the lower grounds, and considerable quantities of corn are ex- 
poltedtrora the various states. The vine is extensively cultivated in the 
Talleya of the Rhine and Maine, and to a smaller extent in the plain of 
the Dannbe, and on the sboroa of Lake Constance. Baden alone pro- 
duces annually about 14.000,000 ^Is. of excellent vriue, Wijrtembsn 
nearly 5,000,000 gala., -while Rheuish Bavaria has been long celebrated 

a Ettein and Leisten wines. Hops and the tobacco-plimt are very 

'~ "ind Bavaria exports largo quantities of beer, neaily 

,__,...,_._ „ being annnally producpd. Abont one third of Bonth 

QeiinaaT ii covered wifli forests, chiefly pi[]e and Br trees, TheSchwan- 

„. _ . , ._ espHciallycalebratedforil . . 

finest of gigantic trees, some of them attaining the height of 180 feet. 

Zoology. — The fauna of all Germany has been noticed above. In 

TWard to tame animals, cattle-rearing is the exclusive industry of the 

B itX^ and other niountainoos districts, -while horses, sheep, and goats 

■ •— Bitensively rsiBod in all the southern slates. The silkworm has 

u recently introduced into Bavaria, and the rearing of bees forms 


an important occupation in Baden. The other domestic animals are 
the same as in England. 

Ethnograpliy. — The people and language are the same as in North 
Grermany (which see). 

Religion and Education. — Of the 8,567,000 inhabitants of the southern 
states, 4,672,000 are Roman Catholics, being 54 per cent of the whole 
population ; while 3,818,000 are Protestants, being 44 per cent of the 
whole. Bavaria and Baden may be styled Catholic coimtries, the Catho- 
lics being to the Protestants as 2 to 1 in the former state, and 8 to 1 in 
the latter. Protestants, however, greatly outnumber the Roman Catho- 
lics in Wurtemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt, being in the former as 2 to ], 
and in the latter as 3 to 1. The number of Jews in the five states is 
estimate at 105,000. In Bavaria, the Roman Catholic Church is richly 
endowed, possessing property amoimting to above £8,500^000, besides 
which the State pays £130,000 annually to the clergy. Protestants, 
however, enjoy complete religious liberty, and are eligible to all civil and 
military appointments. In Baden, the Roman Catholic Church is under 
the supreme management of an archbishop appointed by the Pope, and 
is quite independent of the Government, frequent disputes biotween 
the Church and the state have been the result. In Wiirtemberg, the 
supreme direction of the Protestant Church is vested in the King, and 
Protestantism is virtually, though not formally, the religion of the state. 
Education is in a very advanced state throughout South Grermany, espe- 
cially in Wurtemberg, where it is rare to &id any one who cannot rrad 
and write. Attendance at school is compulsory in all the states ; every 
village, and even hamlet, has its primary school, and in WUrtembeig a 
fall sixth of the population is under tuition. There are 8 universities 
— viz. , those of Munich, WUrzburg, and Erlangen, in Bavaria ; TUbingen, 
in Wiirtemberg ; Heidelbei-g and Freiburg, in Baden ; Giessen, in Hesse- 
Darmstadt ; and Strasburg, in Alsace. 

GovernmeTU. — In all the states the form of government is monarchical, 
but the title of King is confined to the sovereigns of Bavaria and Wtir- 
tembei^. Representative institutions are common to all the states, the 
executive power resting in the sovereign, the legislative in a parliament 
consisting of two houses, and all functionaries being responsible. The 
total armed force amounts, in time of war, to 142,895 men. or to 902421 
in time of peace. Of the latter, 49,949 belong to Bavaria. 14,150 to Wiir- 
temberg, 14,812 to Baden, and 11,510 to Hesse-Darmstadt. By Tlrtua of 
special treaties between Prussia and each of the states of South Qermanj, 
the former, in time of war, is virtually placed in command of their anniesy 
wMle, as a matter of course, none of them possesses a navy. The ama- 
gate revenue and expenditure of these states, in 1866, amoontea to 
£7,684,804, about one-half of which pertained to Bavaria, while the 
aggregate public debt amounted to £45,324,167. 

Commeroe, Mannfturtnres, and Inland ^'»««*»^"*<fffffn. — These 
states, being wholly inland, cannot vie with their neigjhbonra in 
regard to the extent of their commerce. Still the transit trade 
between Italy, Switzerland, Austria, and North Germany, oanied on 
mainly by steamers on the Rhine, Maine, Neckar, and eren the 
Danube (below Ulm), is very considerable. The ]>uinbe alao com- 
municates by the Ludwig's canal with the Maine and Bhincb and 
thus materially facilitates internal commnnioation. Uaan&otaziBg 



Industry ia highly developed, encept in Bavaria, where wine-niRlting 
■nd the brewing of beer are the principal products. Coarse linens, 
woollen, and silk atulTs are largely manufactured, together 

with tob&cco, leather, iron and steel goods, machinery, paper, cabi- 
net-work, papier-mache, porcelain. Jewellery, toys, so-called Dutch 
clocks, and mathematical and optical instmments, which ai ' " 

high repute. Bookbinding and the construction of carriages are 
largely carried on in Hesse -Darmstadt. The exports consist chiefly 
of wine, timber, corn, salt, beer, leather, tobacco, cattle, glass, jewel- 
lery, otia, and drags ; and the imports, of sugar, ooffee, silk, wool, 
hemp, and Rai. Railway communication has made great progress : 

. In 1889 tie total number of miles in operation was 2977, together 

ridthl3e2 miles of telegraph wires. 


I Boundaries. — N., Poland, Silesia, and the kin^om of 
b SMony; W., Bavaria, Switzerland, and Lombardy; S., Veuetia, 
■ the Adriatic, and Turkey ; E., Moldavia and Russia. 

I Omitting Dalmal 
■onthward along tl 
allel, the remainder u< iiis bui|>i 
between Ion. 9° 41' and 26° Sy I 
18" 231, in the centre of the ei . . 
Brest, Mnnicli, Czemowitz, Ekaterinoslav, 
I.}, sndSt jDhD'a(NewfDnndland); and oa the same meridian as Stock- 
holm, Fosen, Cape Spartivento, Lake Tuhad, and tlie mouth of the Orange 
Hiver. Omitting the Tyrol and Dalmatia, the general form is that of an 
oblong aqnare, 6i0 miles long by 420 miles broad, having Buria, the cap- 
ital of Hungary, in the centra ; but the eiUeroe length of the ampire. 
From Lake Constance on the W. to the esstom confines of Transylvania, 
la about aOO miles, and the extreme breadth, from N. to S., 630 miles. 
Austria is essentially an inland country, her ooait-line, which does not 
■ieeed480m.,heuigwhollyaonSned to the E. side of the Adriatic. This 
eiTeii only 1 mile ofooaatto every 500 aq. m. of surface. With her pretent 
boundaries, therefore, Austria can never become a great maritime power. 
AiMi and PoimlAtioiL — By the ceasion to Italy of Lombardy in 
ISSe, and of Venetia in IMtl, the area is now reduced to*210,361 sq. 
miles, or considerably less than twice the area of the British Islea. 
With the exception of Kussio, however, Austria is still by far the 
largest state in Europe. By the oeoaus of December 18S9 the 
population was 35,904,435, being one-eighth more than that of tha 
Uaited Kingdom, and one million less tbaa the population of 
Franoe. This allows 108 persons to eaoh aq. mile of surface. About 
le-tourlh of the entire population (9,D4l',0U0) are GennaaB, one- 

jU (16,000,0001 Sclavoninns, while the remaiuiog fourth is made 

|p of Magym, Italians, and other races. 

* roc Boutin, lleneipTliu. aa<l yovl-Buii, l«e p. W- ■ 


Political DlYlslons. — The Austrian empire, or Austro-Hangarian 
luonarchy as it is now called, is at present divided into eighteen 
crown-lands or provinces, of which ten are German, two Polish, and 
six Hungarian. 

Ten German Proviscks. 

Bohemia.*— Prague 190, Budweis 15 (Moldau>, Pilsen 14 (Bradawka>, 
Kuttenbei^ 13 (Elbe), Leipa 10 (Pulnitz), Egerll (Eger), Reichenb«rg 19 
(Lower Neisse). 

Konig^tz. Sadrnoa, Krnman, Klattao, Leitmeritz, Saatx, Chmdim, Leito- 
mischl, Karlsbad, T5plitz, Marienbad. 

Silesia.— Troppau 20 (Oppa, affi. Oder). 
Teschen, Bielitz. 

Moravia.— Brunn 73 (Schwartza, suh.-affl. March), Iglau 17 (Iglawa), 
OhnUtz 14, Sternberg 13 n. (March), Prossnitz 12 (Rumza). 
Neutitschein, AuaterlUz, Nicolsburg, Znayra. 

Lower Austria.— Vienna 834 (Danube), Neustadt 15 (Leitha). 
8. Polten, Baden- 
Upper Austria.— LiNZ 31 (Danube), Steyer 11 (Ens). 
Salzburg.- Salzburg 17 (Salza, o^. Inn). 
Styria. — Gratz 87 (Mur, affl. Drave). 

niyria (Carinthia and Camiola). — Latbacr 23 (Laybach), Klagenfurt 
14 (Glan). 
Idria, Bleibach. 

GOrz, Trieste, and Istria.— Gorz 13 (Isonzo), Trieste 109 (G. of Trieste^, 
Rovigno 11, Pola 11 (W. coast). 

Capo d'Istria, Pirano. 

Tyrol and Vorarlberg.- Innsbruck 23 (Inn), Trent 14 (Adige), Botzon 
10 (Eisack). 

Two Polish Provinces. 

Galicia.t— Lemberg 87 (Peltew, affl. Bug), Oacow 49 (Vistula), Kolo- 
mea 15, Sniatyn 11 (Pruth). Sambor 11 (Dniester), Tamopol 17 (Sered). 
Stanislau 13 (Bistrica), Drohobicz 11 (Tiszmanicka), Brody 19 (Styr). 

Przemysl, Bzeszow, Bochnia, Brzezany, Wieliczka. 

Buckowina.— CzERNOwiTZ 34 (Pruth). 

Six Hungarian Provinces. 
Hungary Proper. t—BuDA or Ofen 55, Pesth 202, Mohacsll, yUnf-Kir- 

* For the pronanciation of the German names, see above, p. 238. 

t Rules for the pronunciation of Polish names will be found under '* German 
Empire," p. 237. 

X The following rules will assist the pupil In pronouncing Hungarian proper 
names : — 

o,ii = same characters in German. 

a = ^ in go ; this consonant is always hard. gn = ng Eng. 

J = yin yonder ; as Baja (Bd'ya). 

s^8h in shall ; as Sajo (Shd'yo). t before t = e«, as Croatia ((Oroa'tsiaL), 

ez = tain wits ; as in Debreczen (Debretsen). 

C8 = ch in church ; as in Mohacs, Pancsova (Mo-hateh't Pan'-eJu/va.) 

8Z = 8 ia Eng. ; as Szegedin, Veszprim (5<^-ed-in' Vea-prem'), 

zs = sin vision or French j ; Zsolna, (Zhol'na). 

ay = di in French Dieu ; as Magyar, GyongyOs {Mod'yar, Dyon'dyon), 

ly — Uia. million = gl in Italian ; as Vasarhely ( Va-mar-hK), 


n 11, PressbuTg 

Chen, 9* n.. Fadvar 11, AU-Ofen 12, Vaci 
a {Danube), Sieged 69, VsaairhGl; 43 n., Szentes 2a, Keci 
FsieeyhiizH IB n., Nngy-KSrCs 20, Czecled 1 9, TokKy 6 (Theiss), Msko 26. 
Arad 39 ^aroa), Siarraa 19, Bekes 90, Caaba 28 (KHrBs), Groeswardein 
29 (BebsB Ktiriis), Debreczen 41 ■a. (Eassa), Eaachau 16 (Hemad), MiakolU 
28 (Saio), Eperins 10 (Tarcia), StuhlweisssBbarg 23 (SarriU), Qran 11, 
Schemiiita 14 n., Krenmita 5 n. (Gran), Eaab 20 (Eaab), VaBarhely- 
Somla 25, Oedenburg 10 (Raaboitz). 

TransflTanla.-'KLAnsKHBaHO 25 (Si^thob), Maraa-Vasuliely 11 (Moi- 
mV Kronstadt ^7 n. (Aluta), HennaimBtadt 19 ^Zibin). 

Kariabutg, BUtriU. Kaey-Enred, Sinm-Itegen, Thords. 

Burnt and Servla.— Teubswab 33 n. (Temea), Versstz 21 n. (Earaahl, 
Kensati 16, Zombor 25 n., B^ja IB (Danube), NaCT-Kikinda 15, Zenla 17, 
ThereaieaBtadt 66 o. (Tb«isa), Becskerek IS (Alt-Bega). 

LDgoS, ApBtio, LlppB. 

Croatia and Sclavonia.— Aorah 21 (Sava), Eszek H, Warasdln 10 
(Drava), Fiuma 16 {Adriatic). 

PoBSgH, Petrluia, RarUUdt, ZsBEg' 

Dalmatia. — Zara 19, BencoTss 10 n., Sebenino 14, Spalatro 16, Ragusa 
21 (W. CO,), ImoEchi 23 n. (Biatritia), Kuin 23 (Kerka), Demis 18 (Cicola), 
Sign 26 (Cettina), Caatel-Nuovo 8 (O. of Cattaro), 

HiliUry Frontier.*— Petebwabdeoi 7, Pancaova 12, SemUn 13, Milro. 
Ticz B (Ssrs). 

DeserlpUve Notea There are, intbe Austrian emrare, three cities 

of upwards of 100,000 inhabitants (Vienna, Feath, Prague); aeven 
between 100,000 and 60,000 {Lemberg, Trieste, GrStz, Szegedln, 
BrOon, Bnda, TheresiQuatadt) ; twenty-one between 60,000 and 20,000 
(Preasbarg, Vaaarhely, Cracow, Kecskemet, Bebreczeu, Caaba, Linz, 
Arad, Kronstadt, Sign, Czemowitz, Szentes, Make, Imoaohi, Knin, 
Temeawar, Grosswardein, Zombor, Laybach, Klausenburg, Bekea); 
and fifly-eifiht between 20,000 and 10,000. 

Fra^ne lOer. Prog), an ancient, large, and fortified city, on both aides 
of the Moldau, ia one of the finest in the empire, and of gieat historic 
celebrity : it ia tie thief seat of the Bohemian manufactures, which ron- 
■ist of thread, linen, cotton, iron, woollen, glass, and paper; contains 
the oldest univetsity In Auelria. Prague coutaina the tomb of Tycho 
Brahe, and was the scene of the labours of Jerome of Prague aud of John 
Hoes, the celebrated martyrs. Pllsen is noted for its iron-mmea. ^gn, 
■where Wallenstein and his friends were aasasamated in 1634. Ssicben- 
a busy manufacturing town on the Neisse. Edni^grtttx ; near it 
■ — ■ ' Tictory over the 


■V = ni in opinion = fl Bpanlati^im la Frencb, aa S6ti 

onocny {Boi-or- 

etter of a simple 

Miaiiri, UHe Ih and tfc Jn English. 

• Tbe MilltaiT Frontier la a atrip of eomtrj cnmptising an »rt 
nUM, and eitandi along tbs Tnrltlali ftontier (roni the Adrfall 

« of 18,115 iqmre 

eastwird u. Mol- 

devla. It i!0»Jil.tB of parti of Croatia, Hclavonla, th= Bunt, 

Uhelil by iMnitofmllllaryflefon condition of mlUtaryaervIca 


Inliineorwir it fnmiahEB 00,000 iuBn. This uitem of Eoienun 

ent nu oigufsed 

In IMT, «i a protection igainrtUw Taika 


factiires of Austria : near it the castle of Spielber^^, a strong prison for 

{>olitical offenders ; and at a short distance Austerlilz, the scene of Napo- 
eon's triumph in 1805. Iglan has numerous manufactures, and silver 
and lead mines in the vicinity. Olmiitz, a strongly-fortified city, once 
the capital of Moravia, contains a university, and has important woolleD, 
linen, and cotton manufactures. Vienna, the capital of the Archduchy 
of Austria and of the Austrian empire, is the fourtli largest and one of ths 
most elegant cities on the Continent : it is situated on the right bank of 
the Danube, and near the centre of the empire ; contains numerous splen- 
did palaces, several of which are converted into magnificent public lib- 
raries, one of which, the Imperial Library (founded m 1440, the vear in 
which printing was invented) contains 320,000 volumes and 16,000 MSS. 
The university is celebrated as a medical school, and had, in 1868, 150 
professors. Vienna is surrounded by noble botanic gardens, containing 
the richest and rarest plants. It is the chief manufacturing city hi the 
empire ; has great commerce on tiie Danube and by railways, and three 
great annual fairs. Here sat the celebrated Congress of Vienna (in 1815) 
which fixed the present limits of the diiferent European states. Idns, a 
fortified city on the Danube, 100 miles above Vienna, occupies an import- 
ant military position. Salxburg is famous for its salt-mines, and for 
being the birthplace of Mozart, the eminent musical composer, 
Gratz, a populous city on the Mur, contains a university ; an institutioB, 
called the Johanneum, containing rich museums of zoolo^, botany, 
mineralogy, and coins ; numerous manufactures of textile and hardware 

foods, and the centre of the trade between the capital and Trieste, 
laybach, capital of Camiola, has an active transit trade between Vienna 
and Trieste, with manufactures of porcelain, refined sugar, and linen 
fabrics. Idria is celebrated for its valuable quicksilver-mines. Gorz, on 
the Isonzo, has manufactures of silk, leather, &c., and a brisk general 
trade : here died Charles X., the ex-king of France. Trieste, a populous 
city on the Adriatic, and the great seat of the foreign commerce of the 
empire ; it possesses the same importance for Southern Grermany as Ham- 
burg for Northern ; maintains a large mercantile fleet ; and here reside 
consuls from most commercial nations. Fola, the great naval depot of 
the empire, is a very ancient town. Innsbruck, capital of the Tyrol, has 
a university with 24 professors, and a number of other educatioiial estab- 
lishments ; with manufactures of silk, woollen, and cotton goods, and 
considerable trade. Trent {Oer, Trient), on the left bank of the Adige, 
is chiefly memorable for the Council of ecclesiastics held here, 164^ 
1563. Botzen, the most important commercial town in the TyroL Lan- 
berg has a university, attended by 1000 students, and numerous other 
literary establishments ; great trade in com, cattle, and coal ; and several 
manufactures. One-third of the population are Jews, who are also numer- 
ous in all parts of Galicia. Cracow {GertfMn Krakau), the ancient 
capital of Poland, and more recently of a small republic which was 
annexed to Austria in 1846, is celebrated for its cathedral, which contains 
the tombs of many Polish kings ; it has a university, the library of which 
is rich in MSS., and near it is a tumulus erected to the memory of the 
heroic Kosciusko, the William Tell uf Poland, who died in Switzerland in 
1817. Sambor, Bochnia, and Wieliczka, are famous for their magnificent 
mines of rock-salt, the last named being the most celebrated in the world. 
It contains a subterranean town, with streets, churches, statues, &c., all 
cut out of the solid salt rock, the effect of which is very strUdne ; but the 
most remarkable circumstance is that the mine contains a smaU lake and 
rivulet of fresh water. Drohobicz has iron-mines, salt-works, and pitch- 

Jtity. Brody maintains an extensive ttada with Rossis, 
roiiiBu, luiu iurkey. Ciemowltz, capital of the new province Bucko- 
WLCB,. has manufactures of docks, hardware, and aitver goods. Boda and 
PHta, on oppoaite aidsa of the Danuba, but connected by a huge snspan- 
alon-bridge, form together tlie capital of t)ia ancient tingdoDi of Uungarr, 
DOW restored to much of its former independencB. Buda (Oer. Ofen), 
dartvea its name from its hot sulphur-nprii^. It is an ancient city, was 
lung in possession of ths Turks, who were eipelied in 16G6, and still con- 
talua the r^alia of Hungary ; it carries on an eitenaive commerce in 
wine of excellent quality. Festh contains a university wliich has lOU pro- 
fHSoiB, and is attended by about 1300 students. Komoni, at the conflu- 
ence of the Danube and Waag, la uns of the Btrongeat fortresses In Europe. 
Frenbarg, the ancient capital of Huniraiy, the former seat of the Hun- 
Karian Diet, and the place where the Emperora of Austria were crowned 
kings of Hungary, is a quiet countiy town, surrounded by rich vineyards. 
Sz^edin, a fortified mnnufactiiri^ tonn in the centre of the Huugarian 
plom, is a place of great tiade. Vaaarhely, the seat of several annual 
faini. Eecakemet, with five great annual fairs for hordes and cattle, has 
a large trade in com, wine, and fruit. Tokay, a small town ou the Theiss, 
is famous for ita wine, ths most coatly in Europe. Hoko is largely en- 
caged in the manufacture of wine. Arfld, with the largest cattle-market 
in Uui^iary. Groaawardsin, with hot mineral springs, li strengly forti- 
fied. Bebreciin contains a Calvinistie college, the moat important insti- 
tution of the kind in the empire. Mi°koIti, a considerahla town, with 
irtm-mines, frem which is made the beat steel in the empire. Ediemniti 
sod Kremnitt, two celebrated miiimg towns, where mines of gold, silver, 
lead, copper, iron, sulphur, and arsenic are wrought. Eaab, where the 

French defeated the Anst '""" ' ' ' 

couth of the Roab and Dai 

ill raiaing wine and tobacco. Oedenbnrg, u^u .-^j-i i.<d>u<s<uc<, u. 
CiteusiVBinartfor the wine grown in itevicially. ElausBuhiiTg, the caji. 
of Transylvania, an important manufacturing town, is the birthplace of 
Alatthlaa Corvinus, one of the greatest kings of Hungary. Eranstadt, 
the most populous and commercial town in the prevince. Hermtuistadt, 
the naldencs of the miUtary commander of Transylrania, a Greek 
bishop's nee, and the seat of Roman Catholic and Lutheran gymnasia, 
has a fine national mnaeum. KarUburg, a small town, with the ricbeat 
gold-minei in the empire. Tsmeiwar, capital of Banat and Servia, is a 

woollen atutfa, iron-warss, paper, tobacco, and oil, and an eitenaive 
trade ; it waa taken by the Turks, under Solyman II., in 1651, and 
retaken by Prince Eugene in 1716. Veraetz, a fortified town near the 
Sana, engaged in raising wine, silk, and rice. Beusati, one of ths 
■Ceamboat stationa on the Danube, is a place of great trade. ZombDT, 
with ntanofactures of silk, and trade in grain and cattle. Theraaien- 
Mkdt, tha moat populoua town in the Eauat, consiala of an aggregation 
olTillaget, with manufactures of linen, leather, and tobacco. Agram, 
capital of the united province of Croatia and Sclavonia, a considerable 
tuvn on ths Sara, containK a Que cathedral and several monasteries, 
a ttrongly.fortided town on the Drava, with bnrracka capable o( 
nodating 30,000 men. Taraadin, a fortified town on tfie same 
rirer, with aulphor.batbs and extensive vineyards. Flume, a royal Jree 
■eapoit town on the Gulf of Q'jamero, and the outlet for the produce of 
Hnngary, Zara, a small town on the Adriatic, capita! of the kingdom 
of Dalmatia, the aee of an archbishop, and strongly fortified. Spalatia, 

trians in 1609, is a steam-packet station, at the 
inube. Vasaruely-Somlo la extensively engaged 
icco. Oedenbnrg, near lake Neuaiedler, is an 


noted for its Roman antiquities, is the most important seat of comirieroe 
in Dalmatia. Bag^sa, a strongly-fortified seaport town with an actiye 
coasting trade, is frequently visited by earthquakes. Feterwardein, so 
called after Peter the Hermit, who here marshalled the first crusade, is a 
most formidable military position on the south or right bank of tiie 
Danube, opposite Neusatz, with which it communicates by a bridge of 
boats : it was the scene of a great victory over the Turks, in 1716. 
Fancsova, a considerable trading town on the left bank of the Banube, 
is well fortified. 

Capes and Islands. — Salvatore and Funta di Promontore, S. of Istia, 
are the only capes. Islands. — Two groups in the Adriatic — viz., 
the lUyrian archipelago in the Gulf of Quamero, principal, Veglia, 
Cherso, and Lossini ; and the Dalmatian archipelago on the west 
coast of Dalmatia, principal, Ugliano, Grossa, Brazza, Lesina, Cor- 
zola, and Meleda. 

Seas, Qulfs, and Straits. — ^The Adriatic in the S.W., the chief 
branches of which on the eastern side are — Gulfs of Trieste and Quar- 
nero, S. of Illyria ; Morlacca Channel, between Croatia and the Dly- 
rian archipelago ; Gulf of Cattaro, S.W. of Dalmatia. 

Surface and Mountains. — Austria is ahighly-moantainous country, 
for although it contains several extensive plains, as the Plain of Hun- 
gary and the Plain of Lower Austria, it is traversed by three great 
mountain-systems — ^viz., the Alps, the Sudetic Mountains, and the 

The Alps in the S.W., extending from the Swiss frontier to near 
Vienna, and consisting of several chains, as the Camic Alps, between 
Venetia and the Tyrol ; highest summit. La Marmolata, in S.E, of Tyrol, 
11,500 feet, between the basins of the Piave and Drave : the BJuBtvan 
A Ips in Tyrol, between the basins of the Adige and Inn ; with Ortler 
Spitz, the culminating-point of Austria, 12,789 feet, in S.W. of the Tyrol : 
the Noric A Ips, extending from the Tyrol to near Vienna, and separating 
the Danube from the Drave ; highest summit. Gross Glockner, in £. <h 
Tyrol, 12,776 feet : the Jvlian Alps in Illyria, and the Dinaric Alps in 
Croatia and Dalmatia, between the Save and the Adriatic ; highest sum- 
mit. Mount Terglou, in central Illyria, 9343 feet. 

The Sudetic or Bohemian and Moravian Mountains, foimmg the 
N.W. frontier, and consisting of the BShmencald, Erzgdnrge, Hietengt- 
hirgCf and Sudetic Mountains (see p. 252). 

The Krafacks or Carpathians in the east, forming a great curve, 
one extremity of which abuts on the Danube at Pressburg, and after sepa- 
rating Hungary from Galicia, and Transylvania from Moldavia and Wal* 
lachia, returns to the Danube at Orsova. The Carpathians form a put 
of the great water-parting of Europe, separating the oasin of the Danube 
from those of the Vistula and Dmester. They are usually divided into 
two great sections — ^viz., the Western CarpcUhtans, between HungiiJ 
and Galicia, and forming a crescent-shaped rin^ around the head-wi^oi 
of the Theiss : highest summit, Gerlsdorfer Spitze, in the Tatia gnnip, 
8685 feet; and the Eastern Carpathians or Tran^lvantan Alps, tie* 
tween Transylvania and the Danubian principalities, Boparating tiw 
basin of the Theiss from that of the Lower Danube : higihett eleritiiOB, 
Mount Botschetje, south of Kronstadt, 9528 feet Xhia moantidi^ t^ 



„ ther with many other anmniita, riaaa far above the anow-llue, wl.ich, in 
this l&titude, is about 6000 f«et. 

Moobtaih-Pa^es. — The principal passes ara the Joi/unia Paa, on 
the route from Prasabuig to Cracow, Ion. 19° B. ; £ffrjio Pais, between 
Bistiitz and Bukowina ; Gy/nee Pass, between Transylvania and Mol- 
davia ; floM Pan, riiriSu™ Pan, MoUicitlAunn Pott, and VjUcan Pan, 
LHtween Tianeylraiiia atid Wsllachia ; Slelvio Pan, 6100 feet, from Bormia 
in Lomhardy to Oluiua in the Tyrol ; and the Srenatr Pna, between the 
vulleya of the Inn and Adige, 1650 feet high. The Austrian Goverament 
boa made all these passes available for wheeled earriagea af ....... 

Slvor-BaBlnB. — Notn'ithstanding the great extent of the Austrian 
empire, the only great river-basiu contained in it is that of tlio 
Dannbe, and even it odI; [lartislly, its sonroea being in South Ger- 
many, and its lower bobin in Turkey. Its direct length is estimated 
■t 9U0 miles, and its area at 306,001) English square miles. Tlie 
empire also emlirtiees the upper basins of the EUie (area of basin, 
CCOOO sq. m.), tlie Oder (15,200 sq. m.), and the Vistula (72,300 
sq. m.) 

Tlia BlTer-System of Contial EoropB. — The followiug tahle com- 
wis« the riTEr-ayatem of Caiitrttl Europe from the PrcEel to the 
Rhine, tJigether with the basin of the Danube and the N.K coast of 
the Adriatic, Capitals of kingdoms and provineea are distinguished 
bj 8HALI. CAPITALS, towns of more t!mn 10,000 inhabitants by 
I^Jtoman letters, and those b«tween 6000 and 10,000 by llalke. 

■.d to Ike Baitia. 

Itiveri. Tawiis. 

ilega, Kia-TTCplom, Gniftn- 

nl^berg, o., KUitrio, 

Qlogiu, Breblad, Oh- 
lau, BTiec, Oppela, 
Sttibor, AeutitecAain, 

tT<?liflr, 1 i'otciKilt, Pffidzlaw. 

Ihoa, OsUnau. ainrgtird. 

Watthi, ,. . . lAbdiiberg, Pose:;, Czan- 

N4tH) . - . . Inoariuiaa. 

yUlBt^ .'.'.'.Onarn. 

LDWur Nela-'Oaben', OUr]^ 'iteicbeTi- 
a, I berg. 

Handan. J.Zltbia. 

Liolier,! £i»an, SoiaD, n., fiuni- 

bm, Hlmuhbaig. 

Birtwh Frauiii&t. a.. Bawitach. 

Orta, .-.-.Krotoajinr 
Kstabuli. i T.iegBl1x,Jauer,a.,QM- 



Basins inclined to the BaUie (continaed). 

Rivers. Towns. 

WeiBtritz, { Schweidnitz. 

Peile, Reiehenbach. 

Oelsa, Oels. 

Upper Neis- Neisse, Frankenstein, n., 

86, 1 Glatz. 

H o 1 z e m- Netutadt, n. 

plotz, I 
Klodnitz....Gleiwitz, Benthen. 

Rivers. Towns. 

Zinna, { Lsobsehutt. 

Olsa, Tesehen. 

Oppa, I Troppau. 

Peene, Wolgast, n. Anclam, 

Str. of Oellen, Greifgwald,n., Stralsoad. 
Warnow, Rostock. 

Nebal, Gostrow. 

Co. of ]f eck- Wismar. 


Basins inclined to the North Sea. 


Gluckbtadt, Altona, 

Hamburg, Harborg, 
Magdeburg, Schime- 
beck, Dessau, Witten- 
berg, Toigan, O^hatz, 
MeisseD, Dresden, 
Pima, TiiplitZy Leit- 
meritZj Kuttenberg, 
Schwinge, 2 Stade. 

Stor, Itzehoe. 

Ilmenau, ^Lttnebarff. 

Elde, &ra6oto, Ludwigslust, n. , 

Biese, I .,.. Oardelegen, n. 

Uchte, StendaL 

Stepnitz, — PerUbera. 
Dosse, I . . Wittstock. 

Have], RathevMu, Brandenburg, 

Potsdam, Spandau, 

Rhin, Rnppin. 

Nuthe, I . . Luckenwalde, JUterbogk. 
Spree, I ..Berlin, Charlottenburg, 
Kottbns, Sprewberg, 

Ihle, Burg. 

Ohre, I Neu-HaHdenslehen. 

Nathe, Zerbst 

Saale, { £a2&«, Bernburo, Halle, 

Merseburg, Weisseu- 
fels, Naumburg, Jena, 


Bode, I . . .Qnedlinburg. 
Fnhne, . . . Eothen, n. 
Wipper, 2 Aschersleben, n. 
Bose, 2 ...Eisleben. 
White El- Herseburg.Leipsic, Zeitz, 
ster, Gera, Ronneburg, 

Grbitz, Plauen. 
Plci88e,.Altenbnrg, SuhmSUin, 
Unstruth, La/ngensdtzat MiihUuLn- 
'B%\TiM,l8angerhausen, n. 
Zerza,2 Nordhausen. 

Wipper,2 Sondbrshausrn. 
Gera, . . . Erfort, Anutadt. 
11m, 2 ....Weimar. 

Mulde, 2 Eilenbarg, Grimma, 

Glauchao, Meerane,s.* 

Zwickau, L6ssniiz^ 


M U n z - Dobeln^ Rossumn, Nos- 

bach, sen, Freibera. 

ZBchov-Mittweida, Hainiehenf 

pau, 2. Frankenberg, Zschop- 

Chem- Cnemnitz, Annaberg. 
Black £1-Wittenbei^, n. 
Roda, I ... OrossenhoAn. 
Puluitz, .... Leipa. 

Eger, 2 Levtmeritz, Saatz, E^ 

Moldau, 2 ..Prague, Budweis. 
Beraun, 2 Pilsen, Marienbad^ n. 
Czidlina,' ...GUsehin. 

Isar, Jurt^funzlau. 

Lauchna, 2 LeitomiseheL 
W e s e r and BRBMmr Nienlwra, Uiii- 
Werra, dem.HamelnJivmdm: 

Esehwege, AihmaikaUl 
n., Mbihingbv, SUir 
Hiinte, 2 . ..Oldexburo. 
Berne, ...Berne, 

Aller Celle, Heknstadt, n. 

Leine, 2 . .Haxotkb, JSunbfeft^GM- 

Ruhine, Kordkeim. 
Ocker, 2 ..BBumviCK, ITol^lniM^ 
tel Goskw, 
Zeltefw KtmuaOaL 

Werre,I....H erford , Bldtftl^ ■« 


Diemel I . 



VarlA 5ea (aoDUnDed). 



JivMM, Tumn* 

1 &'■■ 

.Cum!. Henfald, Fuldi. 

Nodda. ..HoMBDM, n. 



Bapdlz.l Biraberg, Brinnson.Flirth, 



K. lud. 

■ Eo>8 

.Effiden, Leer, 

Iti, CobS. 

W Hun, .. 

■ Abe.[.... 


Hmm. ,... 

S^nlW, F^IaS^' 

Hwrn Die 

Vecht, .. 

Neckar, ....Minnlieliii, HeldBlbem, 

Zwuta, .. 


Hdlbnna, Lndwigs- 
bmg, C»»n«tflrff, fia- 




Kvniiea, Jtiulrc. Derenttr, 



ftitwen RaoUinKCB, a.. 

BHii, doiidi, eortura, 

K(Mh8r,..Ho«. "^ 

Ens. J....Ffonheiiii. 

mericA, Cfetwf fl, Vs- 

Rema Snuiiui. 

«l,c™fcld.i.. DtoMl- 

dorf, BeuM. BollDg™, 


D.. UUhdni, CoUHViE, 

'is-SK =«■„,. 

Bgnn, J(r<«i.iid. Co- 

blCDt., Bi»fl«n. M»r- 

atarMl, ..HBohlngen. 

Bnce, Wi>™«, Miinn- 

■»■"■' ■"•fS"--"-'" 

biifoi, Bp«TBr, OarmBi- 


SalEbsdi. ..Btuclaat. 

Quelcii,( ..Laidau. 


Murg Rastadt. 

»IB«™, V.nuz, COIBB. 

Ooabach, I Baden-BadiTt. 

lirre, ... 

Modar, J . . . HatTienau, eitdiwUUr- 


Zoio.l ..Sobct™. 



Klnalg, ,..,Z,eAr,n. 



chnSf n., "(W.; n.. 

CouiAR, Uilldbauiea. 
LtEpTrat- BtHariiHiui-Minee. 


Tbur, i ..MuMbanaen, TAonn. 


Ell, Pvaihnre, d. 


BrgoU, (...LIEBTHAI. 


.BeBMhoid.n., Solinjun. 
ilofijdor/, Klbatfuid, 

Aar.i 4.aiD,8<.iEuni.,B™»iL 




,»tg. .... 


LSSi.'.'.'zm':""' '""'■ ^^^1 


icoWeM, TrevM. TAion. 

BsTDsr Baiuiek. ^^^^H 

VOHlll. i 






Kih^f . 

01.d. . 



S«b.e.(.-Piut™oiic. ■ 

.M.Tmo(, FrankfQrt, Of. 

tealncn. Bompiu), a., 


8itWrn, ..fljriisu, ireimssj.. ■ 




Basins inclined to the Black Sea. 



Danube, Baha-Dagh, Tultcha, 

Kilia, Ismail, Isaktchi, 
Jtenif Galacz, Braila, 
Hirsova, Raswva^Silia- 
tria, Oltenitza, Oiur- 

?evo, RuBtchuk, Sis- 
Dva, NIcopoli, Widdin, 
Semendria, Pancsova, 
n., Belgrade, Semlin, 
Peterwardein, Neusatz, 
Apatin, Zombar, n., 
MohacB, Fanfkircheii, 
n., Baja, Kalocsa,Pdks, 
Solt, Fttldvar, JDuna- 
VeczBy Pesth, Buda, 
Alt-Ofen, Waltz en, 
Gran, Dorog, Eomorn, 
Pressburg, Vienna, 
Linz, Passaa. Strau- 
bing, Ratisbon, Ingol- 
Btadt, Neutnirg, Ulm, 
Pruth, I... .Czernowitz, 8 ni atyn, 
Beretn, I.... Galacz, Baku, Roman. 

Milkov, ..Foktchany. 
Jalomnitza, I Tergcnnst. 

Lorn, Ra^grad^ n. 

Argish, I .... Buchabest, n. 

Jantra, Timova. 

Alt, I Kronstadt, n. 

Zibin, .... Hermannstadt. 

Isker, Sophia. 

Schyl, I Kn^jova, 

Harasch, I. . Verssetz, n. 
Morava, ....Semendria, n,, Passar(h 
W. Mor- Kara7iov€icz. 
ava, I 
Ibar, . . . Novi - Bazar, Pristlna, 
Nis8awa,..Ni88a or Nisch. 
Karasch, (..Verset^ n. 
Temes, 2 . . . . Pancsova, Tembbwar, 

Save, B B L o R ADB, Mitrovitz, 


Drina, .... Zvomik. 

Bosna, . ...Bobna-Serai, n. 

Posega, I Poseaa. 

Verbas, ..BanuUuka. 

Unna, .... Dubicza, Novi. 

Eulpa, . . ..Karlstadt. 

Lay bach, , . Laybach. 

Theiss, I Nagy - Eikinda, Zenta, 

Theresienstadt, Szege- 
din. VaBarheIy,Szente8, 
Felegyhaza, n., Kesz- 
kemet. n.|Nagy-EOrOs, 

Rivers. Toums. 

Theisa — n., Nyiregyhaza, Czeg- 

continued, led. Szolnok, Mikhs, 

Tokay, Szigeth. 
Alt-Bega,2 Becskerek. 
MaroB, 2..Sategedin, Arad, Lippa, 
Mako, Karlshurgt 
E5r0s, I . . Szarvas, Bekes, Czaba, 
Berettyo,HezO-Tar, Kardzag. 
Sebes- BOszKrmeny, Grosswar- 
E5r58, dein. 
Zagyva,. ..Gyongyos, a. 
Eoselo, ...Debreczin, Szoboszlo. 
Hemad, . . Easphaa, Iglo, LetU' 
Si^o,....MiBkoltz, Rosenau, 

TaT<^l Eperies. 
' Bodrog, I Vjhely, n., Jf unXrocf, n. 
Szamos, { Szathmary, Elaosbn- 


Eraazna, INagy-Karoly. 
LapoB, . .Nagy-Bany. 
Sz&moa, Bistritz, n. (on the Bia- 

Drave, Essek, Warasdin, Bfei- 

Mur, {....GrAtz. 

Glan, ElagenfUrt. 

Sarvitz Szexard, StUhlweisseu- 

Eapos, . . ..Keszthely. 

Sed, Veszprim. 

Gran, I Qranf Schemnitz, n., 

Kremnitz, ii.,NeusokL 

Waag, I Eomom, Tymau. 

Raab, Raab, Papa, n. 

Leitha, { . . Nenstadt. 
Toma, . ...Vasarhely-Sonilo. 
Raabnitz, Oedenbuig, n. 
Guns, 2 ..OuTU. 
March or Pres8barg,01m1itz, Stem* 
Morava,^ berg, n. 

Thaya NikoMmrgt n. , Znayrn. 

za, { 

Litta- AusterlUz. 
Miava, l..Miava. 
Rumza, . . .Prossnitz. 

Trasen, St Polten 

Enns, Steyer. 

Inn, Passau, iNNSSBttCK. 

Salza, Salzburg. 


M aielinfd la Iht Slack Sea (continued}. 

Tomu. I liivtn. Tani. 

ihnt, FTttiingA Woniiti. 1 , . BinHfeWW. 
ICH. EBet,,....NirMiingtn 

ODirDtTriaate.TrlealA, Capo <rjitria. 

I take*. — In the taBin of tLe Dannte are Balaton or Platkn See 
' Bad JVeasiedler See, in tbe west of Hungary ;" Traun See and Atter 
See, in Upper Austria ; WSrt/i See aud Weiteen See, in Cstintliia. The 
Itoazo drama Lake Zirkailz, in Carniola. 

OUmaitc. — The climatn differs yeiy Rreatly in the different pro- 
TincBS, 'but the entire empire ia coinpriaed between the iaotherms of 
60' and flO° Fabr. The mean annual temperature of Vienna, in the 
centra of the Austrian dominions, is 51°. 46, winter 32°, and summer 


German writeniiivide the empire into three zones—a northern, middle, 
and BOolhem. The first, -which emhrsces Bohemia, Moravia, Sileaia, 
with the higher parts of Hungary and Galicia— in all, about 715,000 sq. 
miles— greatly reseniblBS in its average temperature the British IbIbb and 
Northem France ; wheat, barley, oats, and rye forming the usual crops. 
This may be called the lont ^gmin, /una, aid /unap. The central zone, 
ntending from Ist. 49° to 4^, is the lone of mtue, whtat, and the Tine, 
embracing an area of about 150,000 sq. miles; while the third or eoutbern 
Hma, embracing the part of the empwe south of 46°, is that of the olive, 
BHUberry, figi, and rice. The Une of equal rahifall of 40 to 45 inches 
proceeds from Lake Oarda in the Tyrol, to Trieste, Flume, and Karl- 
(tadt in Croatia ; in the Alps it rises to S5, 60, and even to 70 inches ; 
but ia Vienna and the low-lying diatricts 2S inches are a frequent aier- 
■Ea. Storma are cars In Lower Austria, but in the provinces at the head 
of the Adriatic they are very frequent and viuleut. Barthquakos, alsn, 
and thnnderstorms, are very frequent in the latter region, as well as iu 
Hungary and Transylvania. 

OMlog; and BUienaa.— A fqll half of the empiro ia ooTored with 
tertiary and post-tertiary accumulations, which prevail eBpeciaUy in 
tlie biulQ of the Danube, between tlio Save and the Oerpathian 
Monntaius. Secondary ab^ta occupy extensive areas in the Comic 

• TliB Hnngari 

If Bsltburg are vei; smill. 

\i, but Id liunuuir its bed Is dry and regularly iiultlvatsd. 


and Julian Alps, in the Carpathians, in the greater part of Dalmatia, 
Croatia, and Illyria, together with &la^e TOlt in the N.W., extend- 
ing from Vienna to I^ake Constance. Tne palaeozoic series are prin- 
cipally confined to the W. of Bohemia, the N. of Moravia, Central 
Silesia, parts of Tyrol, Upper Austria, and Styria, extending in 
a long belt from Innsbruck to Neustadt, and in detached patches in 
Illyria and Croatia. Crystalline rocks prevail in the Eastern Carpa- 
thians, and occupy a large portion of the surface of the north-western 
provinces, especially between Regensburg and Linz on the Danube, 
to Brtinn on the Schwartza. Igneous rocks line the southern flank 
of the Carpathians, and occur also in Transylvania; and granitic 
rocks are common in the S.E. of Bohemia and the N. of Upper 

Minerals. — No country in Europe excels Austria in regard to mineral 
wealth. Almost every valuable kind of mineral is found in inexhaustible 
quantities. The precious metals are very abundant in Hungary (the 
only country in which the true opal has been found), Transylvania, and 
Bohemia ; the most celebrated mines being those of Schenmitz and ^em- 
nitz, in North- Western Hungary. Coal, iron, and copper, are abundant in 
all the provinces. Native steel, more valuable than that made by arti- 
licial means, is found in Styria, Carinthia, and Camiola. Tin, so rare in 
most countries, abounds in Bohemia. A very valuable mine of quick- 
silver, second only to that of Almaden in Spain, is worked at Idria in 
Camiola. Lead is found in Carinthia, antimony in Hungary, sulphur 
and arsenic at Schenmitz. Salt, building-stones of every variety, and 
precious stones, are widely diffused; and thermal and mineral springs 
are numerous — ^the most celebrated being those of Karlsbad, Toplito, 
I^er, Sedlitz, and Marienbad, in Bohemia ; of Baden in Lower Austria; 
of Gastein in the Tyrol ; and the Hercules baths in the Banat. 

Botany and Agricrdtnre. — The portion of Austria situated N. of 
lat 46° is embraced within Schouw's second botanical r^on, or the 
region of the UmbellijercB ; the remainder, consisting of Dalmatia, 
Croatia, &c., is included within the third ot Mediterranean region 
of that naturalist ; while the higher elevations of both pertain to hh 
Arctic-Alpine region — (see under ** Europe **). The total number of 
indigenous plants in the empire has not been ascertained, but the 
whole of Germany, using the term in its widest acceptation, is said 
to contain 7000 species, of which 2566 are flowering-plants, subdi- 
vided into 529 monocotyledons and 2087 dicotyledons. The vege- 
tation of the empire is therefore very extensive and varied, that of 
Hungary alone embracing nearly all the plants indigenous to Europe, 
with many others that have been imported. About a fourth part of 
the entire surface is covered with forests. The Alps and Sudetic 
Mountains produce the pine, birch, and larch ; the Carpathians, firs, 
pines, and beeches ; while the magnificent forests of the Hungarian 
and Polish provinces consist for the most part of the oak, beedh, and 
elm. The trees attain in many places a gigantic size ; and the 
timber, which is of excellent quality, and weU aidapted for house and 
ship building, is largely exported. 

Agriailiure. — Though the soil is characterised by great divenity^ H ii 



tbr the mOEt part highly Tertile ; and notwithftanding the antiquated atid 
niukilfu! methods employed iu husliaDdry, the crops are rich aad abun- 
dant. In the vicinitji of the large rivers the soil conaiata of a blaek vege- 
tahle mould, wlikh ia adniirahly suited for the grovth of wheat, lu 
some parts of Uun^jary no manure ia reijuired for the pi'oduction of tho 
ehoicest cropa. It is estimated that About one-third of the whole surface 
U under tillage. In the northein provinces, the usual cereals raised am 
vheat, buckwheat, rye, oats, and barley ; in the central provinces, luaiza 
and wlieat; while tn the southern are mai» and rice. The Banat, 
Hndgary, and Galicia, are the principal corn-^^rowin^ pitivinces, and rye 
XonnB everywhere the chief food of the people, \ines, hopa, tobacco, 
safiroa, Has, hemp, and a great variety of fruit-trees, are also cultivated ; 
and mulberry-trees, for sllk-wornis, are extensively ^wn in Dalmatia 
and Hungary. Vineyards occnw about half a million acres of the 
nuface, and yield between 4 andSmillion hhds. of wine aonnally. The 
ports of the country best adapted for the culture of the vino are Styrin, 
Lower Austria, and the N. B. of Hungary ; but the wines are of inferior 
quality, eicept those produced in the upper basin of the Theiss, espe- 
dally those of Tokay, which have been long celebrated for their eicel- 
lenee. The vine cannot be cultivated at a hi{;her elevation than 1750 
feet; the oak extends to the height of 3O0O feet, the cereala generally to 
4600 feet, nines to 6000 feet, and pasture to the limit of perennial con- 

Sslation, which in the Alps is at a height of 8900 feet. Pasture-lands are 
mited in exteot, save in the Alpine iirovincES and Moravia, where cattle 
■re numerous and the produce of the dairy considerable. In Hungary' 
and Oalicia great attention is paid to the rearing of sheep, horses, and 
cattle ; great quantities of wool are exported from the Buckowlna ; and 
goats, swine, and poultry from most of the provinces. The oil of Southern 
Jllyria is superior to that of Spain and Italy. 

ZouiOBJ. — The fauna of Austria is, in f^eneral, the same as that of 
Germany, and the remaiuder is common to Italy and Europeau 
Turkey. Of the 73 apecies of Hamnialia iitbabitiiii; Ceotral Enri^, 
41 ore camivora, 22 rodentia, 9 rumiuantia, and 1 pachyderm. The 
foUowiDg are the prindpol apeoiea :— the bear, wolf, iox, lynx, and 
chamois, in the Alps and Carpathians ; the marten, otter, marmot, 
beaver, wild-boar, wild-cat, jaekat, stag, deer, hare, and rabbit, in 
Dalmatia. Of the 305 species of birds beloiiRing to the same zoo- 
logical province, the eagle, vulture, hawk, and other birda of prey, 
■re common, in the mountains ; and the pheasant, wild-duck, white 
heron, and game of all kinda, in the plains. Canaries are reared in 
(peat numbers in the Tyrol, whence they are largely eiported. 
Among the 31 reptiles the most remarkable is the Pnleui anguinrvt, 
an animal resembling the water-lizard, found in Lake Zirknitz in 
Camiola. Fishes are abnndant in most of the rivers, especially in 
the Theiss and Lower DaDQbe, where the sturgeon and pike attain 
to ■ vast size. The &esli-WRter iishes of Camiola alone amount, 
Mcordiufc to Freyer, to 32 species. The inoriue specif which in- 
dnde the mackerel, tunny, nnd anchavy, are embraced within 
Forbea'a ' Mediterranean Region of Marine Ufe,' whii:1i also embraces 
_ the Black Sea. A pearl-hearing mollusc inhabits the waters of 
LXansarr, Bohemia, and the Archduchy of Austria, and a regular 
""•rPfisnerj is established on the Vatava. Insects are abundant 


in the low marshy grounds of Hungary, especially gnats and flies ; 
bees, Spanish flies, and the cochineal insect, are reared in ffreat 
numbers ; leeches are numerous on the Neusiedler See, and are 
largely exported for medicinal purposes ; and corals are collected on 
the coast of Dalmatia. 

Ethnograpliy.— The people of Austria comprise four great races, 
which, in 1869, existed in the following proportions, — ^viz., Sclavo- 
nians, 16,200,000 ; Roumans (including Italians and Wallachians), 
3,450,000; Germans, 9,040,000; Magyars, 6,430,000; Jews, Gyp- 
sies, and other races, 1,354,000. The Sclavonians fonn the majority 
in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Illyria, Dalmatia, and Hungary, and 
constitute almost the entire population of Galicia. The Koumans, 
or people speaking Komannic languages, are numerous in the southern 
part of the Tyrol and tlie maiitime distiicts of Illyria and Dalmatia. 
The Germans predominate in Styria and the Tyrol, are very numer- 
ous in Bohemia, and are almost the sole inhabitants of Upper Aus- 
tria, Lower Austria, and Salzburg. The Magyars are the dominant 
i-ace in Hungary and Transylvania. The Jews are most numerous 
in the towns of Galicia, Bohemia, Moravia, and Hungary ; and the 
Gypsies, Armenians, and Greeks, are scattered over all the eastern 
provinces of the empire. 

Language. — ^The languages spoken in this extensive empire belong to 
four distinct families — viz., the Sclavonic, Teutonic, Greco-Latin, and 
Finno-Tartarian. To the first belong the Rutsniaky spoken by the Sola- 
vonian population of Galicia and Hungary; the Servian, in parts of 
Dalmatia, Sclavonia, and Military Croatia, where it forms the vernacular 
of about 1,300,000 ; the Bohemian or Tchekhian, spoken by from 8,000,000 
to 4,000,000 of the population of Bohemia and Moravia, the Swwub or 
Slovakiauy by about 1,800,000 in the N.W. of Hungary. The Slowaks 
are descendants of the original Sclavonic settlers in Hungary, who, in 884^ 
were conquered by the Magyars ; but though a subjugated race, they 
still retain their original language, as a remnant of their ancient national 
existence. The second or Teutonic family of languages is represented by 
the German, which is the language of the Court and of literature, and is 
spoken by nearly 9,000,000 of the population, who reside for the most part 
in the nine German provinces, and especially in the Archduchy of Austria, 
Salzburg, Styria, and the Tyrol.— (See under "Germany,* where the 
literature wiU also be found. ) The Greco-Latin family is mainly confined 
to the coasts of the Adriatic, and is represented by three languages — ^?ii., 
the Italian, in the south of the Tyrol ; the WaMachian or Daea-Bemtnti, 
in the south of Transylvania, into which it has spread from the TcuiJsh 
provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia ; and the Albanian orAmamte, the 
remains of a language long extinct, and which formed an intermediate 
link between several distinct families, in the southern parts of Dalmatia. 
The Amauts differ in language and physical conformation tmm all tiie 
other nations of Europe, and are supposed *to be descended firom the 
ancient lUyrians. The Finno-Tartanan family is represented hj the 
Magyar or Hungarian^ which is spoken by 4,820,000 of the populatioii 
of Hungary— the remamder consisting of Slowaks, Groatians, GennauL 
RuBsniaks, Wallachians, and Jews. Tlie Masyars are a pecmle of Finnkii 
extraction, and closely allied to the OstiaJcs and WognliL beriMrau 
nordes who lead a wandering life in the upper and centnl usin of tti 


Obi. Tliey catered Europe Id tlie iimtti century, sjid Etufadued Hungary 
'n the short space of tea years ; anii though then di"^ ' " ' ' 

eawcta from the other SAvage tribflH of Central ^ 

BDk among the "~ 

in the short space of teu years ; anii though then diifering in few oi 
Is from the other savage triboa of Central Asia, theT aow t 
mong the rorBmost nsdons of Enrope in phyaiml, moral, and ii 


lectual qnalitiflB. Their language l:aa eiperienced a similar transmuta- 
tion, froin ita long-continued contact with Enropeaji civilisation ; hut it 
■till retains those weli-mailied features nhich have always characteris(d 
the Finniah branch of the linguistic family to which It belongs. For 
example, tlie Magyar resolves its vowels into two classes, one of which 
(a, □, n) denotes the masculine, and the other (e, I, H, il) the feminine : 
and the individual words of the language are so formed that a masculine 
■nd a feminine vowel are never allowed to meet in tha same vocable, 
whether simple or compound. This curious characteristic of the Finnish 

dialects strongly reminds the Celtic scholar of the well-known principle, 
ItalAan rt Iml&jin it coot ri caolj or "broad to broad, and Hmair to 

Jieligimi Accoriing to the 'Alraannch de Gotha ' for 1870, the dif- 
ferent religlDufl persuasions in the empire contained the following nnra- 
beiB in 1864 : Roman Cathnlics, 23,2S5,(K»[I ; Greek Catholics, 3,861,000; 
Prol«»tanta (chiefly Reformed), S,1G5,00U; Jews, 1,121,000 ; Unitarians 

d other sects, 63,000. The Protestants are chiefly found in the Hun 

garian |iravinceB ; about half the Magyars are Calviuista, and a lai|:e 
proportion of the remainder Lutherans, who are also nuTiierons in the 

aprovinces. The adherents of the Greek Church are moat numer- 



all the eaatem provhicea. 
SdHcaiion.— 01 late years education has made rapid advances througL- 
out tho empire, though it is still far behind Prussia. In the German 

and eastern pravinces a great obstacle to efficiency is presented by the 
different larignages spoken by the pupils, there being sometimes no 
fewer than three or four in a single school. The law requires that every 
child between tlio ages of six aud twelve shall ha educated either in 
sehcol or at home; while in the manufacturing districts no child is 
allowed to he sent to a factory before completing bis ninth year, and even 
then he is obliged to attend clossea twice a-week until fifteen years of 
age. In some parts of the empire mairiage is prohibited until the parties 
can prove their ability to read, wril«, and cipher. Tliere are eight iini- 
Terailies in the empire — viz., at Vienna, ProgUB, GrStn, Olnilitz, Inns- 
bitick, Leoiberg, Cracow, and Pesth. The number of students atten'ling 
these, bi 1670, was 900(1, nne-tourth of wlioni belonged to the University 
of Vienna, whicL is tlie aeat of the most famous medical school in 

GovBnunent, Army ajid Hav?, Berenne, ftc, — The form of gov- 
etoment is an herediCaiy, and, in some respects, a couKtitntional 
monarchy. Previona to the late war with Prusaiit, tho Emperor of 
' *a was all but absolute in Lis own domintona, and also occu- 
lie first rank in the Qarmanic Confederation. Aa tlie result of 

. It the liberties of his own aolijeotB. The entire empire m 
sort of double state, one half consisting of the German pro- 
3T Aostria Proper, and the other of the Magyar or Hungarian 


provinces. Each of these divisions has its own parliament, laws, 
ministers, and government, but are united into one whole by the 
emperor, and by a common parliament, named the Delegations, con- 
sisting of 120 members, chosen in equal numbers by the two grand 
divisions of the empire. All matters affecting the common interests 
of the two sections — especially foreign affairs, war, and finance — 
come under the jurisdiction of this body. Army and Navy. — In 
January 1871, the total number of troops, on the x)eace footing, 
numbered 278,470, with 42,200 horses. The navy consisted of 45 
steamers, carrying 639 guns, with 11,730 horse-i)ower, together with 
10 sailing vessels, with 79 guns. Austria also possesses 24 fort- 
resses, many of them of great strength. The Revenue, in 1870, 
amounted to £51,241,000; the ^a;;>e7u2i^r«, to £58,438,000 ; and the 
Public Debt, to £302,531,000. About a third of the entire revenue 
is derived from direct taxes on land, houses, industry, and income, 
and the remainder from indirect imposts, the chief items being 
customs, and the duties on salt, timber, and tobacco. The public 
debt is advancing at a rate which threatens national bankruptcy. 
In 1846 it was only £103,000,000 ; in 1856, £241,207,000 ; while it 
is now £348,531,000. 

Commerce, ManufiBrCtureB, Exports, and Imports. — ^The foreign 
commerce of Austria is comparatively unimportant, the sole outlets 
being Trieste and Fiume on the Adriatic, and Constantinople and 
Trebizond on the Black Sea, to which the only access is by steam 
navigation on the Danube. The inland ti-ado, however, is very con- 
siderable, the empire, owing to its vast dimensions, being compara- 
tively independent of other countries. In 1868, the number of 
merchant vessels that entered the port of Trieste was 11,056, carry- 
ing 1,006,211 tons ; cleared, 10,956 vessels, carrying 1,052,068 tons. 
The total value of the imports of the empire in 1871, excluding 
bullion, amounted to £30,628,031, and the exports to £40,085,668. 
Nearly two-thirds of both exports and imports is carried on with 
North and South Germany. Austria's next best customer is Turkey, 
which sends into the empire about £3,000,000 worth of goods annu- 
ally, and receives Austrian exports to the value of above £5,000,000. 
Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom follow next in order, but at 
a great distance. The principal commodities exported from Austria 
to the British Isles are com, flour, hemp, tallow, glass beads, olive- 
oil, wine, quicksilver, currants, cream of tartar, lard, seeds, shumac, 
sponge, wood, and wool; while our chief exports to Austria are 
cotton and woollen manufactures, averaging annually about £880,000. 
Very little Hungarian wine finds its way to British ports, though, as 
a wine-producing country, Austria is second only to France. The 
manufactures of the empire are mainly confined to the Grerman pro- 
vinces, and especially to Bohemia and Moravia. The former is cele- 
brated for its linen, cotton, and woollen fabrics, and still more for 
its manufacture of glass. Moravia is also much engaged in tiis 
woollen industry, and has, in Brunn, the second largest manitfactiir- 
ing town in the empire. The capital, however, is &e great seat of 

wiiziii(L,vxD. 271 

r tte manufacture of artii'lea of taste, as jtwfUerj-, glass, carriagi-s, 
porcelain, silk, and books. Hungnry is very largely tngagcd in the 
produution of wine and the metals. Mining alao forma an imiiortaiit 
branch of industry in Bohemia and the mouutainoua parts of Upfier 
Austria, Styria, and Cariuthia. Woodeu articles ai'e executed with 
muah ingenuity in the Tyrol, while leather and linen gooda are 
prodnced in all parts of the empire. 

Intantal CommonicattoiL — The Danube, with its navigable ti'ihn- 
taries the Theiei^ Save, and Dtave, is the great comujacuifl thorou"li' 
fare of the amplre. The cun'ent of the main river ia so rapid that 

__ 1 — J c. — .__ jjg j,[g(, eitenaively 

The total extent of 
4300 miles. There 

a alone are now employed. Steamers 
used on the other navigable rivers and lakes, 
river navigatiou itt the empire ia estimated a 
are few Canals, except ia lower HuDgaiy. 

Kailwatb have made great progress, and onnnect the capital with tlie 
most distant points of the empire. In 1B59, 208B miles were open tor 
troiBG I andluIS?!, no fewer thaulD.DODm., embracing thefoUowIngprin- 
oipal lines : Vienna to SHlmi, OlmUti. and Prague, and thence to Drert- 
dsn and Berlin. Vienna to Troppau, Cracow, Lembetg, and Czemowitz. 
Vienna to PressbuiB, Perth, SzBgsdin, and Tenieswar ; with n branch from 
Ciegled to Grossuardein, Debruczin, and Tokay. Vienna to Baab, Eo- 
mom, StUhlweissenburg, andWarssdin. Vienna to Gr£tz. Cilly, Laybach, 
and Trieste ; with a branch from Cilly \a Agram. Vienna to Linz, and 
thenoe to Rattsbon and Inuabriick. Another important line traverses the 
Tyrol from Mniiich, in Bavaria, through the Brenner Pass, to Verona 
and Venice. Excellent earriage-road) have also been constructed at 
nvst eipenae between all the leading cities of the empire. That froni 
Pavia in Italy to Czemowitz in Galicia, 1120 milea in leneth, Is carried 
oorosa rivers and monntain-chaiiu, and ia niacadunised throuEhout, 
^ Similar roads connect the capital with Prague, Buda, Trieste, and Milan. 

I of aiity maimlaiii-pawei have bean rendered proeticBble for 
leled carriages, at an enormous expense. Tlie principal of these are 
* ' ■ le p. 261. 

aerated above, s< 


Position and Boandaries. — N., Lake Constance and 
\ Qrand-duchy of Baden ; W,, France ; S., Italy ; E., the Tyrol 
Lat. 45° Stf— 47° 60' N. ; loa B° 55'~10° 31/ E. 

Bern, the federal capital, is nearly on the same parallel with Xantea, 

GAtz, Jassy, Azov, and Astrakhan ; and nearly on the same meridian 

M the Naze, MUnater, Straabourg, and Turin. The general outline is 

elliptiaal; greatest length &om E. to W., 216 miles; eitreme breadth, 

110 miles. The surface is more mountainous than in any other eountry 

in Europe, two-thhils of the whole being occupied with lofty monntiiin. 

chaial, and the remaining third consisting of an elevated plateau, about 

ISOO feet above the level of the sea, and stndded with many beautiful 

.-lakes. This plateau forms an elongated, undniathig plain, crossing the 

■ -mntry from S.W. to N.E., with a length of about 140 m., and an aver- 

9 breadth of betwi'an 20 and 30 m. 


Area and Population. — The area of the Confederation amounts to 
15,716 so. m., being a little more than the half of Scotland; while 
the population, in 1870, was 2,669,095, or four-fifths of the popula- 
tion of Scotland, being 161 persons to each sq. m. 

Political Divisions. — Switzerland is divided into twenty-two can- 
tons, which comprise, however, twenty-five distinct states, three of 
the cantons — Basle, Appenzell, and Unterwalden — ^being subdivided 
into two states each. There are seven western cantons ; twdve 
north-eastern, including the four forest cantoos of Schwyt^ lAizeniy 
Unterwalden, and Uri ; and three southern cantons. 

Seven Western Cantons. 

Geneva.— Geneva 47 (Rhone), Carouge 6 (Arve). 
Vand. — Lausanne 27, Vevay 6 (Lake of Geneva). 
Pribourg.— FRiBOURa 11 (Sarine), Moral (Lake Morat). 
Neuch&teL— Neuchatel 13, Vallengin 6 n. (Lake NeuchAtel), Chauz- 
de-Fonds 20 n., Locle 8 n. (Doubs). 

Bern.— Bern 36, Thun 5 (Aar), Bienne 6 (Lake Bienne), Langnaa 5 
(Emmen), Laupen (Sarine). 

Soleure.— Soleure 5, Olten 2 (Aar). 

Basel- Basle or BIle 45, cap. of BMe Ville (Bhine); Liesthal 8, cap^ 
of B^e Campagne (Eigolz). 

Twelve North-Eastern Cantons. 

Aarg^u. — Aarau 5 (Aar), Baden 3 (Limmat). 
Zurich.— Zurich 21, Wadenschyl 5 (Limmat), Winterthur 7 (Toess). 
Schaffhausen.— Sohaffhausen, 10 (Khine). 
Thurgau. — Frauenpeld 2 (Muig). 

St GalL— St Gall 17 (Steinach), Sargans, Pfeffers (Bhine). 
Appenzell. — Appenzell 3, cap. of Inner Rhoden, Herisaii 3 n. (SittemJ^ 
Trogen 3, cap. of Ausser-Ehoden (Goldach). 

Glams.— Glarus 5, N&fels (Linth). 
Schwytz. — Schwttz 2 (Muota), Morgarten (L. Sgeri). 
Zng.— ZuG 4 (Lorze). 

Luzem. — Luzern 15 (Beuss), Sempach (L. Sempach). 
Unterwalden.— Stanz 2, cap. of Nidwalden (Engelbeig Aa), Sainai 
8, cap. of Obwalden (Saruer Aa). 
Uri—ALTORP 2, BUrglen, n. (Lake Luzem). 

Three Southern Cantons. 

Grisons.— CoiRE or Chub 5 (Rhine), Bemhardin, SplHigvn, 
Ticino or Tessin.— Bellinzona 2, Locarno 8 (Tidno), Lugano 5 (Li3bs 
Valais.- Sign or Sittbn 4, MarHgny, Leui (Rhone). 

Descriptive Kotes. — The towns are remarkably few injofoportiaB 
to the XK>pulation, there being only five (Geneva^ Blle^ Bcn^ Lm^ 



GenarSi, finely sitanted on the Blinne, where it Usups from tlie lake, 
is the largest city io Switzerland ; noted for its mannfactnre of watches 
■nd jeweUsry ; has a Protestant college, and contains the federal araeoaL 
The names of Calvin, Beza, Knoi, Cranmer, Lesage, Deluc, Lefort, Kona- 
sean, Hecker, Saussnca, and De Candotle odoni the annala of this famooi 
dty. lAoaanne, on the Lake of Geneva, in the midet of enchanting 

tlons, Frlbonn;, a bnsy manufacturing town on the Sarine. fien- 
chfttel, or Neofthitel, on the lake of same name, is a place of great 
trade, eepeciall; in nine, com, cattle, and vatchea ; has a college, and a 
cathedra! where the doctriiiea of the Eeformation were preached as early 
aa 1530. ChaniHle-FondB, Uke QeneTa, la noted for ita mannractnra of 
watches. Bern, the aeat of the federal diet, and therefore usually 
regarded as the capital of Switzerland, pleasantly aitnated on the Aar, 
and in pop. inferior only to Geneva and BMe ; baa a university, fonnded in 
1H34 ; a puhlic library, containing nnmeroua books and MSS. on Bwiaa 
history; numerous manufactures, especially of gunpowder, Rrearma, 
mathematical Instrumanta, etraw-hats, paper, and leather ; the birthplace 
of Haller the poet. Thun (pronounced Toon), on the Aar, near where it 
issaea from the lake, is lenowned for its romantic situation. Soleora, a 
■maJl town on the Aar, with a colleee, a pnblic library, and botanio 
garden; here Kosciusko died in 1817. Basle or BUe {Gcr. Basel), a 
celebrated and ancient city on the Rhine, near its great bend. It dates 
from the fourth century, and in the eleyenth was the most powerful city 
in Eelvetia; itwoa the seat oF a great council (1431-1437), and of a 
inemorabia treaty between France and Prasaia in 179C : it la now the 
■econd city in the confederatioa in point of population ; contains a univei- 
■itr, and numerous mannfacturea of ailk ribbona : the birthplace of Euler 
and Bemouilli, the celebrated algebraists, and of the two Holbeina ; here 
also EraamuB died in 1536. Znnch, the Athens of Switzerland, contains 
s university ; has important manubctures of silk and cotton fabrics ; 
hflra Zwingle preached, and here the first entire English version of the 
BcTiptures (CoTeniale'ai was printed in 1535 ; it is the birthplace of Gess- 
ner, lAvater, and FestalouL Bchaifliausen, on the Rhine, near its pic' 
tuiesqae falls, has a college, and several manufactures. I^anenfeld,a 
small towa on the Murg, with cotton-mills and dye-works. St Gall, 
Appeniell, and HsriMW., have eitensive manufactures of muslin and of 
Bilk and cotton fabrics. Glama eiports cheese in great quantities, and 
has printing and dyeing works. Lnlem.the cajj. of Catholic Switzer- 
land, is celebrated for its beautiful sceoery, and has s lyceutn with It 
professors. Altorf, famous for the resistance of William Tell to tha 
tyrant Geaalar, in 1307. Coire {Fr. Chnr), in tha valley of the Upper 
Rhine, bos an active trauait-trade and aoma manniacturea. 

Uonntalna.— Switzerland is by far the most n 
in Europe, and the one which coutaina the grandest scenery. Thero 
are three principal rangea : — 

Ttie Paniiu Alpi, in the 8.W., betnean Switzerland and Piedmont, 
— ■• "letwean the basins of the Rhone and Po, contain Mont Blanc, ir 
y, the loftiest aummit of the Alps, and now (sioce 1860) the col- , 
"-g point of France, 16.781 feet high; Great St Bernard, 11,080 J 


feet ; Mont Cervin, 14,705 feet ; and Monte Rosa.- the culminating point 
of Switzerland, 15,217 feet : height of snow-line, 8900 feet. 

The Lepontine or Helvetian Alps, between Switzerland and Lombardy, 
form the water-parting between the basins of the Rhine, Rhone, and Po : 
highest summits, the Simplon, 11,510 feet, and Mount St Gothard, 
10,900 feet. 

The Bernese A Ips, between the cantons Bern and Valais, and between 
the Aar and Upper Rhone : highest summits, Jungfrau, 18,718^ feat ; 
Schreckhoni, 13,386 feet; Finster-aar-hom, 14,100 feet; the Qiimael, 
9700 feet. 

Mountain-FasBes. — The following are some of the most celebrated 
passes among the Swiss Alps, arranged in the same order as the 
mountain-chains : — 

1. Pass of Great St Bernard, 8150 feet high, leads through the Pennine 
Alps from Aosta, in Piedmont, to Martigny, in the ValaiB; travened 
by Napoleon with his army in 1800 : the Hospice, erected at its highest 
point, IS the most celebrated institution of the kind in all the Alps. 2. 
The Cervin Pass, 10,938 feet high— the loftiest in Europe — ^leads from 
Chatlllon, on the Dora-Baltea, to Visp, in Canton ValaLs. 3. The 
SimpUm Pass, 6578 feet high, leads from Milan and Domodossola to 
Canton Valais : it is a great work, executed by Napoleon at prodigious 
labour and expense ; is 88 miles long, 30 feet wide, passes oyer 611 
bridges, and through several extensive tunnels. 4. Pass qf St Ooth<ud, 
6808 feet high, from Bellinzona on the Ticino, to Altorf on the Renss : 
it is the only road carried over the crest of the mountains, aJl the others 
being conducted through deep gorges and beds of mountain -torrents. 
It is now a good carriage-way, and has long been a line of great commer- 
cial Importance. 5. Pass of BemJyardin, 7015 feet high, from Bellin- 
zona to Chur, one of the principal routes of commerce between Italy, 
Switzerland, and Germany. 6. The Splikgen Pass, 6946 feet hi^h, frmn 
Chiavenna in Lombardy to the Grisons, was pas»3d by a French aimv 
in 1800, but greatly improved by the Austrian government in 1828, ani 
carried through three covered galleries, which are the longest in the Alps. 
It has now nearly superseded the Septimer Pass, 7611 feet high, wMch 
was formerly the ordinary route from Eastern Switzerland into Italy. 
7. The Oemmi Pass, through the Bernese Alps, 7595 feet high, leading 
from Canton Bern to Valais, about 24 miles south of Thnn. 8. The 
Grimsd Pass^ 7126 feet high, through the same chain, at the sontheni 
extremity of the Hasll Valley. For the remaining passes across the Alpsb 
see under "Italy" and "Austria." 

Glaciers, fto. — The glaciers of the Swiss and Italian Alps are 
among the grandest and most remarkable phenomena in nature. 
They consist of huge masses of ice, or of snow that has been partially 
melted by the heat of summer, but which has afterwarda been con- 
gealed, and which, quitting the higher level, descend fax below the 
usual snow-limit, into the region of cultiyatian. 

This descent is owing to the inclination of the bed. the annual aoonmn- 
lation of snow during winter in the higher levels, the vlseoiiiB or 
fluid character of its structure, and other causes. The late of moti' 
the descent is different in different glaciers, aocoiduig aa i^* 
lust specified vary ; and it is continuous, though not iM^/bn 
Delng wholly arrested, even during the most seven' 


IncrettFes with the alope, while the aurfaeo and central psrtu movs faatar 
than the bottom and aides. Ona celebrBted glacier (Mer de Olace) mores 
■lown the sides of Mont BUnc, ia Bumoiei and sutunin, at the rate ot 
4 feet per da; in some parts of its conrse. while in others it does not 
exceed 8 or 9 inches. The total number of glaciers in the Alpa ii e«ti- 
niated at 400, cnvering an ari^a of 1440 aqnare miles, and forming tha 
Bonrces of several of the largest rivers in Europe, as wall as of their 
principal afBuenta. Thus, the Rhine and Rhone originate in glaciers of 
same name, on the opposiM sides of MontlSt Gothara ; and many of the 
liead-watera of the Bhine, Rhona, Po, and Daunbe Jmci in the glnciera 
a Dever-faillng supply of water. The princlpat region of the tme glacien 
extends iroic Mount Pelvoui, in Dauphin^, to the Gross Olockner, in tha 
Rhation Alps, east of ivhjch very few occur. llVo gronpa of glaciers are 
partkularly celebrated— cue in the Pennine and the other in the Beruesa 
Alps, or Obertand. The tirst ia the Group of Alont Blane, consisting of 
34 anormoua glaciers, some of which are £0 miles long by 2 broad. It 
includes the Mer da Glace, covering an area of IH sq. m. , one of the 
laif;s3t glaciers in the Alps, which forms the source of the river Arveiroa, 
sbotit 2 miles above the village Cbamonni ; and the Glacier de ia Brenva, 
near Conimaysur, one of tha most beantit'nl and most accessible of all 
known glaciera. The other is the Oroup of t6t Oberland, iti tha Bemeso 
Alps, greatly moiH extensive than the former. It includes the great 
Aletech Glacier, which has an area of 32 square mites, and which ia fed by 
the snows of Mont Aletsch ; and the Claciar of the Lower Aar, which has 
bean described and repeatedly visited by the celebrated Swiss natnmlist, 

Avalaathti are tha most dangerous and terrible phenomena to which 
the Alpine valleys are exposed. Tiiey originate in tiie higher regions ot 
tha mountains, when ths accumulation of snow becomes SQ groat that 
the inclined plane on which the mass rests cannot any lon^r lupport it : 

niccesaive leap, both greater dimeosiona and increased spe«l, till, 
riving at the lower vi^eyn, it covers, destroys, or carries a' — — ■ 
thing that opposes its course — tress, forests, honsss, rocks, 

Walatfalu. — Among tha most oslsbtatad waterfalls h 
may be enumerated the following : Fall of Lanuta, near SchaShauaea, 
on tbe Rhine: it has a total dascsnt of 100 feet, and forms one of tlir 
moat imposing phenomena of the kind In Europe. The Slaai-harh, ii 
the I*nterbrunnen, Canton Bam, on the White Lutchine, an affluent a 
tha Aar. This is one of the highest falls in Europe, the river piojecting> 1 
itself over a precivics trom SOQ to 900 feet high. I'aU of Sandtk, on I 
the Aar, sear tha Grimssl glacier. Fall qf OiuAadi, also on tha A" 
near Lake Brienz. Fall ^ Rtitheihadi (a tributary of the Aar), n 
MeyriBgan, in the Hasli Valley, and in the S.E. ot Canton Bern, f . 
t)f Tola, on the river Toccia, m the Val Fornioiza, above DomodossDlSf 
noted (or it* great volnme of water. Fait of SallmcAe, o " "* - 
L «___. .. It. n,.„. i_ r'— ■-„ valais. and 10 m 

fjliaeral Springt and JtarAi.—Switierland contains upwards of 3 
■'^~' apriagi. 18 bath eatabUalmiants of the lint, i— ' '^° -' ' 


re thoia of 3chini 

1 LiiuBiat. both in Cantol 

D the ValaiB ; of Iavbi, 1) 

'I UoriU, In the Vpe 


Ei^adine ; Grisons, &c. The first mentioned is chiefly fireqiiented hy 
French visitors : the great bath-honse contains 160 baths, 360 beds, and 
saloons in which 500 persons can dine tcmther : the temperature of tha 
waters is abont 60° Falir. Those of Baden are sulphureous, have a trai- 
perature of 117** Fahr., and are chiefly frequented by the Swiss. 

Places of Historical Interest. — ^There arc many such in Switzer- 
land, but the following are especially famous : — 

Morqarten^ on the boundary between Schwytz and Zug, where, on the 
15th l^ovember 1315, 1300 Swiss defeated an army of 20,000 men, under 
Leopold of Austria, this being the first battle fought for Swiss independ- 
ence. In 1798, the Swiss also defeated a French force in the same place. 
TelVg Platte f by the lake of Luzem, where William Tell, the Wallace of 
Switzerland, escaped from the tyrant Gessler. Sem-pack, on the lake of 
that name, in Cimton Luzem, where, on the 9th July 1386, 1400 Swiss 
routed 4000 Austrians : the action is rendered memorable by the heroic 
death of Arnold von Winkelreid, and is celebrated by an annual festiTaL 
Burglen, in Uri, where Tell was bom ; and A Itorf, in the same canton, 
where he is said to have shot the apple off* his son's head. Morai, in 
Fribourg, where the Swiss totally defeated the invading army of Chaiies 
the Bold, Duke of Burerundy, 22d June 1476. Lawpen, Canton Bern, 
where the Swiss, under Rudolf of Erlach, totally defeated the Austrians, 
21st June 1339. Fravhrunnen, near Bern, where Enguerrand de Oouey, 
a French noble, with an army of adventurers, was defeated by the Bern- 
ese, in 1375. NdffiUy where the Austrians, invading Glams, were de- 
feated, in 1388. * WildhavseUj in St Gall, where Zwingle was bom, in 
1484 ; and Cappel, in Zurich, where he was killed in a skirmisih against 
the Ositholics, in 1531. 

Biver-Basins. — Switzerland comprises portions of four great 
river-basins — ^those of the Rhine, Rhone, JPo, and Danube. It 
is principally embraced, however, in the Rliine basin, wbich 
contains an area of 75,000 sq. m., and 21 out of the 25 capitalB 
of Switzerland ; while the Rhone basin (in all 37,900 sq^m.) 
contains only 3, and the Po basin 1 capital For Tabular view 
of Rivers and Towns, see " River System of Central Europe^" 
imder " Austria," p. 261. 

Lakes.— These are more numerous, in proportion to its dse, than 
in any other European country, except Scandinavia and Finland. 
The two largest are the Lake of Geneva (area 221 aq, m., heij^t 
above the sea, 1230 feet) and the Lrake of Ck>n8tance (188 aq. m., 
height above the sea, 1200 feet). They all belong to the same three 
river-basins as contain the 25 capitals : there are 10 in the basin of 
the Rhine, viz., Z/oke Constcmce, or Boden See, in t^e l^.B., diained 
by the main river ; 77tun and Brienz, by the Aar ; ^mrkh and 
Wallenstadtj by the Limmat ; Ztig and Luzem, by fhe BensB ; 
Bienney Neuchdtd, and Moral, by the Thiele. The Lake if Cmjw 
is drained by the Shone ; and Maggiore and Lugano by tiia Tbdno^ 
an affluent of the Pa 

Climate. — Owing to the great elevaticm of tha i 
which is not less tl^ 1800 fee^ and the lofty xam 


wfcioh cover tte greater part of the enrfane, thti climnte of Switzer- 
land is GODsidBr&bly tdotb severe l^nji its ^ograpliical sitiiatioa 
TFonld indiuote. Lying miflirny between the Pole End the Equfltor, 
and in the same latitude as the central porta of France, its climate ii 
tai more riRormis ajid variable, preaanting in rapid snoccssiuo the 
graateBt eitremes of temperature and the inostTJoleDt contraata of 
■weather. In Geneva, at an elevation of 12S0 feet above the sea. 
tike thermometCT' ranges from SS°.9, the mean in winter, to 6S°,SS 
In Bmnmer, whOe the mean annual iemjierature of the whole plateau 
ia 4° lower than that of Engl&nd, The mean preeanre of the bar- 
ometer at Geoeva is 27 inches, and the annnul fall of rain 29 inches ; 
while on Mont St Bernard, which is 20 miles farther south, the thrai- 
mometar ranges from 18° to 43° Fahi., the mean height of the hai- 
ometer being 21 inches, and the fall of rain 65 inches. At elevatioua 
of from IDOO to 1600 feet, the climate is pure and healthy ; but in 
tbe deep and narrow vaUeya it is usually inaalnbrionB, and gcttre, or 
lierl^mre neck, as also eretiniimi, are very prevalent. The vine 
grows in the Talleys, and extends to an elevation of 1900 feet ; whila 
oransei, olives, and pomegranatea come to maturity in the threa 

Owtlog;. — The Alpine region in the B. contdsts for the most part 
of crystalline rocks reposing on a granitic basis : a narrow belt of 
secondary strata eitands N.E. from Martieny, dd the Eboue, to Chni 
OD the Rhin e, in the line of the Bernese Alps ; and another belt from 
Geneva to Basle, in ths line of the Jura Monntains. The elevated 
platean, between the Bernese Alps and the Jura Chaiit, constats of 
tertiary strata. PaheoEoic rocks do not oocor. 

^t?irraii.— The mineiBl products ore somewhat nnmenniB, hot not Bi- 
tensively wrought : iron, lead, zinc, tin, and copper combined with ailrar, 
are Tonnd in the QrisoiiH, but the mines are now ahandoned. Iron i* 
woriied with advantage in the Jura Mountains ; coal in Zurich, St Gall, 
AargBu, and Bnale ; rock-salt in Vaud ; saline and other mineml springs 
at Berg, audinnonieraus other localities, a: also sulphur, Bsphalt. gj^panm, 
marble, aiahaster, and limestone, 

Satan;. — The indigenons yegetstion ia pecnh'arly rich and varied. 
The chorsi^ristic Hums of all countries, from the Mediterranean to 
the Sorth Pole, are here found arranged in aucceBsive belts on ths 
ddes of the mountains, as we ascend from the deep sheltered vaUeya 

to the Buow-i:iad smnmita. The following lones of '— ' 

easUy marked — (1. ) The vine. zone, in the Talleya, a 
eieyation of !S0O fcct; (2.) Oak, 2600 feet; (8.) The E 
nutsimd chestnota to 30D0 feet; (i.) Beechea, S2D0feet: (6.) Birchea. J 
^_4£0llleet : (6.) Pine forests, spruce, larch, Scotch fir, and dwarf pii 
■mod feet; (7.) Bhododendra, esODfeet; (S.) Alpine herbs, 7500 fe 
^^K) Hosses and lichens, extending to the region of perennial sr 

lor taoti 

Jlffneullmt is well conducted, hnt 

i woatUi is the rich 


Switzerland. There are several short Canals, one of which connects 
the Lake of Geneva with Lake Neuch&tel, and another the lakes of 
Zurich and Wallenstadt. RaUwaya have made ^reat progress within 
the last few years, the following being the principal Imes : — ^That 
from Yverdun to Lausanne connects the lakes or Neuchfttel and 
Geneva; a second from Basle proceeds S. to Bern, and S.K to Lucerne ; 
a third joins this in the E. of Soleure, and proceeds eastward through 
Aarau, Zurich, and Frauenfeld, to Rheineck on Lake Constance, and 
thence S. to Pfeffers (in St Gall), Chur, and Bellinzona, with branches 
to Locarno and Lugano ; a fourth connects Winterthur with St Gall, 
and another important line sets out from Geneva, skirts the lake to 
Villeneuve, and thence to Martigny, in Valais. In 1868, there were 
810 miles of railway open for traffic ; but, in 1870, there were 848 ul 


Position and Boundaries. — Italy — the central and by far 
the most interesting of the three great peninsulas of Sonthem 
Europe — ^is bounded on the N. by the Alps, which separate it 
from the Tyrol and "Switzerland ; on the W., by France and the 
Mediterranean ; on the S., by the Mediterranean and Ionian 
seas ; and on the E., by the Strait of Otranto, the Adriatic^ and 

Including Sicily, it is comprised between the parallels of 36* 42^ and 
46** 42^ N., and the meridians of 6"* 55' and 18"* SO' E., and hence embraces 
10^ of lat. and 12** of Ion. Rome, the ancient capital of Itahr, sHoated 
almost exactly in the centre of this area (lat. 41 54', Ion. \V w'K\ is 
nearly on the same parallel of latitude as Oporto, Saraffossa, Ajaodo^ 
Scutari, Adrianople, Sinope, Tifiis, Khiva, Pekin, Great Salt Lake Qty, 
Iowa, and New York ; and nearly on the same meridian as OopenhagBO. 
Leipzig, Munich, Venice, Tripoli, and St Paul de Loando. Toe genmu 
outline bears a striking resemblance to that of a high-heeled bwt, ths 
toe of which approaches Sicily, while the heel is directed against TnnE^y. 
The extreme length of the peninsula, from the Alps to Cape Sptrti'vent(H 
is 750 miles ; the average breadth is about 110 mues ; but between Xonfe 
Blanc and the Isonzo it is 330 miles, while at the namywest part^ b e l wes u 
Gaeta and Vasto, it is only 80 miles. The coast-line is estimated at S174 
miles ; but, except in the S., the shores are but di^^TtiidAiited. Tbs 
N.E. coast is low and flat, especially around Venice. The wes te rn sidtt 
of Tuscany and Campagna di Boma are also low and InsdnMom^ bat 
the remainder of the coast is considerably more elevated. 

Area and Population. — Including Lombardy and VenfltMi leosnlly 
acquired from Austria, but omitting Savoy and Nios^ now oedad to 
France, the total area of the peninsula and iduida aiiioimti ft 
112,677 sq. m., or considerably less than the area of ihs r ^ 
Isles; whue, in 1872, the population was 26,80l9000y or a] 
elevenths of that of the United Eingdom. In x^ 
of population, the Kingdom of Italy xa;^ m ti|A 


rTALT. 281 

Europe, being only suroaBsed by Belgium, lie Netherlands, and 
the United Kingdom. There are 237 iJerKons to each eq. m., Lom. 
bardj, Venice, and what was receo'tly known ns the States of the 
Cburch, being the most popiilDiiB, and the old Kingdom of Sardinia 
the least. 

loUtlcal DlTlBlonR. — As the resolt of recent revolutionB in Ttaly, 
out of the eix independent etates formerly existing ia the jieninsiila 
— via,, Sajilinia, Parma, Modeca, Tuscany, Najiles, and the Ponti- 
fical States — there ia now only one atate— the Kingdom of Italy, 
formed in 1861, whose sovereign is Victor Emmanuel, and which 
has Rome (and no longer Florence) for its capital. Parma, Modena, 
TuHCany, and part of the Papal States were annexed to Sardinia in 
1859 ; tombardy and Venetia in ISSS ; and the entire remainder of 
the Papal States in 1870. For administrative prnTioaes the former 
seven monarchies — Sardioia, Forma, Modana, Tuecany, Ifaples. 
with parts of Austria, and the States of the Cburch — now embraced 
within that kingdom, were, in 1S62, divided into 69 diatricta, 
named in general after their respective chief towns. These are 
grouped into 16 provinces, which, with their principal towns, are aa 
followa :— 

Piedmont and L^ila.*— Turin2I3. Casa]e2G, CarmognolalS.Salnzzo 
16 {Po), Vigevano 18 (Tidno), Norara 37 {Tenioppio), Voghera 13 
(Staffoia), Alesaandria 57, Asti SO (Tanaro), Fossano 17, Coni 20 ISturs), 
Mondori 11 |Pes[o), Veroelli 25 (Seaia). Bacconigi II, aavigliano 17 
(Malra), Pinerolo 16 (ansone), San Benjo 10, Genoa 130, Savona 11, 
Chiavari 10. Speida H (G. of Genoa). Tortona 13, Novi 11 (ScriTio). 

Tdubu hL BOOO ana 10.000 InkoMftinU— Yaleaa, Trtno, OhlvuBO, Wonoig- 
Ilul, Carigluno, VilloftimisB, Cavone, Barge, Treoate, Olegglo, Jtrannjro- 

* !□ prDQonnalng Ttaljia proper names, tha stadent will 
lowing nilea : — 
H ^ a In EDgUih/w. as In Uortin, Noviro, 

( = MiiinMi(. SBMpHiDalFisa. ArplDO(ifH-«!s'Tia.i>ee', 

ltd bfth 



a, Pe-na'Ja, P 

Lncoi, Porogfa, Poimolt (Loot'jto 

ai = ai In oiih, u Main, Cafro (JTf 'ni, Kin). 

(W = am In ndu, aa In Asw (Ow'w). 

at makes two Byllahlm. u in OaeU (Oo'e-M). 

is alio makes two ejUables, u Pienia, Pimnonto, Tri«te {Pt-ta'ia, Fit-mm'li, 
IVi-Mf or IVi-rfU). 

e and M bflfoie a, o, u = it. *■ Cassia, Uoauoo, Lncca ; hot bnftin r, 1, u = ;A 
in ehvmh, m in Tlcino. Placmn, Lecea (Ti-ehf-no, IH-a<hm'ta, LifeM. 

— --■ s,C]DsaM(A«'M4,St^'na.i:^'Uk 

c/i = ehtamimank,i»B«xULObita»,ia<SeaU 
Bio, ew, «<u = «Aa, «Mi Shu In BagUslL ■* Ptsa 
benin s. a, n = g In gmt, as Qnela, Borga, I? 
itlt, u Oenova, Olrgenti (Jt-nn'm. Jir^m'U). 


1. MFagUnni 
•r A SfUil- 

\ PUMi, 

Ptsoli. UlMIO (fWsiu), Jf 



Island Sardinia.— Cagliari 31 (S. coast), SaHsari 25 (Turritano), Orla- 
tano 7 (Oristano). 
Quarto, Bosa, Alghero, Ozieri, Sempio, Igleaias. 

Lombard^. — Milan 200, fiusto-Arsizio 10 n. (Olona), Viadana 14, 
Casal-Ma^ore 15, Cremona 31, Codogno 10 n. (Po), Brescia 40 (Mella), 
Lodi 19, Como 18 (Adda), Bergamo 39 (Brembo), Monza 16 (Lambro^ 
Pa^^a 30 (Ticino), Voghera 10 (Staffora). 

Varese, Revere, Villafinanca, Lonato, Sale, Pontevico, Boresina, Chiari, Trevig- 
lio, Lecco, Sondrio, Crema, Caravaggio, Boighetta, Binasco, Abbiate-Grasso. 

Venetia.— Venice 129, Bassano 12(Brenta), Adria 11 (Po), Oonzagol6 
n. (Secchia), Mantua 30 (Mincio), Cavarzere 12, L^^nago 10, Bovigo 86, 
Verona 67 (Adi^e), Est^ 11 (Agno), C!hioggia 27, Padna 66, Vicenza 23 
(Bacchiglione), Treviso 18 (Sile), Belluno 14 (Piave), Udine 28 (Boja). 

Mestre, Cittaddla, Lendinara Tiene, Schio, Conegliano, Feltre, SerravaUa. 

Emilia.— Parma 46 (Parma), Ferrara 68, Guastalla 10, Piacenza 40 
(Po), Pontremoli 11 (Magra), Modena 32 (Secchia), Finale 12 (Panaro), 
Keggio 30 (Crostolo), Carrara 6 (Avenza), Massa 15 (Frigido), Bologna 
116 (Reno), Imola 11 (Santemo), Faenza 30 (Lamone), Ravenna 50, Forli 
38 (Montone), Rimini 38 (Ansa). 

Comacchio, Cervia, Lugo, Borgo, San Donino-Mirandola. 

Umbria and the Harcbes.— Pesaro 11 (Fc^lia), Ancona 46, Rinigaglia 
11, Fano 20 (Adriatic). Jesi 19, Fabriano 17 (Esino), Osimo 16 (Miu(me), 
Recanati 19, Macerata 19 (Potenza), Tolentino 11, OBmerino 12 (Chienti), 
Fermo 18 (Fermo), Ascoli 11 (Tronto) : Perugia 44 (Tiber), Tenii 15 
(Nera), Rieti 14 (Velino), Spoleto 7 (Marogia). 

Urbmo, Ixneto, Orvieto, Gubbio, Fo^gno. 

Tuscany.— Florence 167, Empoli 16, Pisa 51 (Amo), Volterra 18 (En), 
Peschia 12 (Nievoli), Pistoja 22 (Ombrone), Prato 12 (Bisenzio), Arezzo 
37, Montepulciano 12 n. (Cbiana), Lucca 65 (Serchio), Leghorn 97 (W. 
coast), Siena 25 (Arbia). 

Montevarchi, Foppi, Vinci, Ck)lle, Cortona, Castel-Fiorentino, Torta-Vvmio, 
Grosseto. * 

latium.— Rome 244 (Tiber), Viterbo 14 (Arcone), CivitaVeccUa 10 
(W. coast), Velletri 13 (Astura), Alatri 11 n. (Cossa). 

Frosinone, Tivoli, Cometo, Bolsena, Astura, Albano, Teixadna, AoM^ai, 
Falestrina, Pontecorvo. 

Campania.— Naples 447, Portici 12, Giugliano 11, Afira|g;ola 16 s., 
Pozzuoli 15, Torre del Annuuziata 15, CasteUamare 20, Resma 12 (Bar 
of Naples), Gaeta 15 (G. of Gaeta), Teano 12, Aipino 12 n.. Son IS 
(Gari^liano), Capua 8 (Voltumo), Benevento 20, Anano 18 n. (Galon), 
Avellmo 21 (Sabbato), Caserta 28 n., Maddaloni 18 il, ATena 16 n., 
Aceira 12, Nola 12 (Lagni), Samo 15 n. (Samo), Salerno 21 (G. of SalemoX 

Fondi, Sorrento, Nocera, Amalfl, Baccino, Sala, Policastro, Trqfa, Bovino. 

Calabria and Baailicata.- Reggio 80 (Star. Messina), Oatansaro 18, 
Rossano 14 (E. co.), Cosenza 18 (Crati), Potenza 9 (Basente), Mateia 14, 

Marsico, Oppido, Paola, Pizzo, Falmi, Scylla, Cotrone, fhiiiiwmo, GHtaorilkiL 

Apulia.— Altamura 17, Gravina 14 (Gravina), Tuanto 27 (G. of Tn^ 
anto), Lecce 15, Brindisi 10, FrancaviUa 17 jl, Gioja 17 Jl, Oskodlflb 
Mola 12, Bari 50, Bitonto 22, Molfetta 22, Tnmi ^Ooiato 26^ Andria 
80, Terlizzi 18, Barletta 27 (E. coast), Cerignola 17, Minsrviiio U s.. 

rHelfl 10 (Ofanto), Fpgyia 34, Lncera IS (Salsola), San Severn 17 (iladi- 
Gsllipoli, Nardo. MajJredonia, ■Vieitl, 
AbnuEO and MolisB. — Caropoliasao 14, Vaeta 12, Lanciano 1 8 n., Ortons 

13 (AdriBtict, C!iieti 16, Snlmona 13 E., Aquila 10 n. (PeBcara), Teramo 
lU (Trontino). 

Island of Sicily.— Palermo 220, Termini 26, Cafiiln 11, MiatrdU 11, 
Milazio 10, Partinico 19, Alcamo 19 n., Monrealo 12 n. (N. coast), Tra- 
[lani 30, Marsala 31, CastelVBtrano IS fW. cobeII, Sciacca 14, QirgenU MO 
n., Alicflta 13, Terranova 14, Soicli 10 (S. coaatj. Nota 13, SyracusB 14, 
Agosta 14, Calania 84, Acireale 35, Messina 112 (K coast), Corieone 16 
(Belid), Naro 10, Canicatli 20 (Naro), CaltanisettalS n., Caatrogiovanni 

14 (Salso). Maziaiino 11, Piiasa 20, CaltagironB 22 n. (Terranova), Vit- 
toria 15, ComiBO 16 (Comieo), Raeuaa 22 (RaensaJ, Modico 30 (Bcidi/, 
Paternol4, Nicosia 14 (Giaretta|, Lipari 14 (I. Lipari). 

Sm Utuino.~SAN Uasino fi (Ansa, above Eimini). 

Deaerlptlve MotM. — The Kingdom of Italy, after its alwofption ol 
the Papal Territory, contains ten cities of more than 100,000 in- 
habitants (Naples, Kome, Turio, Milan. Palermo, Gcdos, Florence, 
Bologna, Venice, and Measiua) ; twelve cities rangioe betweea 
100,000 andSO.OOO (LezliorQ, Catania, Ferrara, Verona, jUesaaadria, 
Kavenna, Modena, Fadna, Pisa, Reggio, Lucca, and Parma) ; sixty- 
live citiea with less than 50,000. bat above 20,100; while there are 
about one hundred and forty with between 20,000 and 10,000 in- 

Tniin {one. Augnata Taurinorum, llaL Torinoi, capital of Piedmont, 
ranks 08 the first eitj in Italy for lie namber and importance of its Utar- 
ary institutiona, araongat wMch the DnivBraitv occupies the Hnt place. It 
was an important placB even in the time of Hannibal, who deatroved it ; 
but Augustus made it a Roman colony. Near Turin, on tlie S.W., ars 
the three vaUeya which in the middle ages fonned the home of the Wal- 
denaes, the early pionacra of the reforroed religion. Casale, once ths 
capita! of the celebrated Maiijuisea of Montferrat, has an important 
maaufactoty of Bilk twist. Vigevano, occupied with the manirfaclure of 
■ilk stnSs, hats, soap, and macaroni. Alesaudila, a large fortified town , 
on tiia Tanara, wiUi extensive trade and two annual fans. Aiti, celo- 
bnted is the middle igea for its iudnst^ and commerce ; the birthtila<« ' 
of AlSeri, the dramatist, in 1749. The country around abonndi to 
mine™] spriuj^ and prodnces the heil wines in Piedmont. TercelU 
contains a valoabie library of old MSS., including a copy of the lav- -* 
the Lombards, and a US. of the Gospels, written by Eniebiui ii 

fourth century : it cairiee on a Urge trilB in rice, which is raised ii , 

vicinity. BMconigi and Bavigluno, with important manufBctiim of ] 
silk, Imen, and woollen fabrics. Tinerolo, a trading and mannfactnring j 
town it the foot of the Alpa. Marengo, memorable for the decisive vto» 1 
tcryotthe French over the Austrians, 14th June 1 BOO. Genoa(fIaL J 
Genova, tfitf , Genua), a celebrated and ancient city, originally the chkl 1 
town of the Lignnsnie, did not rise to any hiitonol ImporUnce ontU Uw ■ 
imjdgUsaeea from the lltb to the IStb century it wis Itaiq 
■callaleI1^laI lepBblic, which planted nmceroos colonics in tlw ^ 
. . . m thediomofthe Blseit Bco. It was taken by the Frendl T 
U 87, Mtd ceded t« Sudidla b U15. It ii a Qo>ariihing seaport, th» I 


seat of a nniversitr, and of extensive trade : was the birthplace of Colum- 
bus, in 1435. I^ovi: here the French were defeated by the Austro- 
Bussian army in 1799. Cagliari (anc. Caralis), originally a Carthaginian 
colony, and the capit-al of the island Sardinia under the Bomans, is a 
fortified maritime city, the residence of a viceroy, and the seat of a uni- 
versity. Sassari, the most important place in the island except Cagliari, 
has a university, museum, and public library, and a trade in tobacco and 
fruits. Milan {Ttal. Milano, anc. Mediolanum), formerly capital of the 
Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, an ancient, populous, and magnificent city 
on the left bank of the Olona ; adorned by numerous elegant public build- 
ings, is of a circular shape, enclosed on three sides by a wall surrounded 
by broad ramparts nearly eight miles in circumference. From its posi- 
tion on the great line of railway leading from Venice to Turin, and ott 
the principal route across the Alps, it is favourably situated for trade. 
Milan was the ancient capital of the Insubres, who founded it, B.O. 400 ; 
was taken by the Romans, B.o. 222; was inhabited and embeUished by 
many of the Roman emperors. On the division of the empire ondfflr 
Diocletian it became one of the capitals, and continued to be the resi- 
dence of the Emperors of the West till the invasion of the Huns, who 
took and plundered it. The poet Vu^gil studied at Milan ; it was the see 
of St Ambrose, and the birthplace of many popes and eminent men ; was 
capital of a republic in 1056 ; in the end of the 14th century was made 
the capital of the Duchy of Milan ; passed successively under the do- 
minion of Spain, Austria, and France ; in 1805 became capital of tiie 
Kingdom of Italy ; was restored to Austria in 1815 ; was taken by the 
French and Sardinian army in 1859, and ceded to Sardinia by the treaty 
of Villafranca in the same year. Cremona, a fortified city on the Po, long 
famous for its violins. Brescia, an important commeibial and manufac- 
turing city, noted for its fine wines, cutlery, and firearms. Lodi, cele- 
brated for the decisive victory obtained by Napoleon I. over the Aus* 
trians in 1796. Como, at the S.W. extremity of the beautiful lake of 
same name, has extensive manufactures of cloth and sil^ and is the 
Dirthplace of the Younger Pliny. Bergamo, a fortified city, with nume- 
rous manufactures, and a great annual fair, at which the sides some- 
times amount to £1,200,000. Honza : here are kept the r^pilia and 
iron crown of Lombardy. Pavia (Ticinum, and afterwards Papia) U a 
place of historical interest ; has a university, founded by Charlemagne^ 
m wL^h Spallanzani and Volta were professors. Venice {IkU, VenedUy 
ane. Venetia), a famous city of Italy, built on piles in the centre of a Ian 
lagoon, was for many centuries tne capital of a celelnated lepabll 
which dates its origin from the invasion of Attila in 46^ and whic 
attained its acme of x)rosperity in the 15th century, vhen it vai 
reckoned the first maritime and commercial power in the woricL It 
began to decline in the 16th century, and its overthrow was oom^etad 
by Napoleon in 1797 ; it was made over to Austria in 1814^ andnow vonni 
the capital of the province Venetia. It is the birthplaoe of Oanova, one 
of the greatest of modem scxdptors : and Titian, the pzfaice of poirtnifc- 
painters, was bom in its vicimty. Bagsaao : hero fha Fxench OBlfaatfid 
the Austrians in 1796. Adria, an ancient seaport town, vUdh gin« tti 
name to the Adriatic, is now fourteen miles inland, and in the oontn oC 

the delta of the Po : contains many remains of spHendid edifloei. 
a strong fortress on the Mincio ; the poet Vligu wu bom in f 
Verona, a large, strongly-fortified city on the AidUp^ '"'' 
interest, and containing numerous Boman zenwina. 
theatre, the most perfect of its kind now ezliti' 


mnks and Bilk-miUa ; and the birthplai^e or ComBlius Nepos, Catullus, 
the elder Pliny, Paul Veronese, nnd several otjier eminent men. Chiog- 
gia, on au island in the Venetian lagoon, is a fortified seaport town of 
eonsiderable commorcial importance. PadnSii acekbrated and strongl; 
fortified city on the Bocohiglioue, witli a university once very famona 

' ittended by 1800 atudents, among whom were Tasso and Coliuubiu. 

the tirthpUoe of Livy the historian, anil Belmni the traveller. 

^eenza, an important manHfactnring city, exlenaivcly engaged in the 

'^Ik trade ; birthplace of Palladio, Treviaa and Ddina have numerous 

urafaetareH of ailk, cotton, linen, snil paper. ParmB, formerly cap, 

durhy of some name, haa some silk mannfactiires and a fine picture- 
gallery. Piacenu (anc. Placential waa founded liy the Romans, b.c. 21(1. 
as a protoction gainst the recently-aabdaed Oaula. It is a weU-built 
and handsome city, adorned with many fine works of art. Hero Han- 
nibal defeated the Komans, B.C. 21S; it is the birthplace of Pope Grfr- 
gory X., Cardinal Alberane, Pidlavieiui, and Laurentius Valla. Uodena 
{anc Mntina), of Celtic oriein, and the hist place which the Romans took 
from tire Boii, was forraBrly cap. of duchy of same name ; contains a 
nnivorsity, botanic garden, and rich cabinets of natural history. Seggio, 
a fortified city on the Crostolo, the birthplace of Arioato in 1474, and 
of Corraggio, thepaintor,ii]1494. Canara ond Maaia have famous quar- 
ries of statuary marble. FlorenM lane. Florentia, I<at. Firinie), for- 
merly cap. of IliB Grand Duoliy of Tuscany, end then of the Kinedom 
of Italy, is a walled city on the Arno, surroundeii by most deli^htAil 
BfiBnery, and adorned by many magnificent works of art. The Ploi-en- 
tine Gallery contains the richest collections of paintings, acnlpturs, and 
antiqnitiea in the world; also a university, and nnmeroua scientific 
and educational estabUshinenls ; various manufactures of silk, carpets, 
Btraw-hats, mosaic work, porcelain, and .jewellery ; birthplace of Dante, 
Leonardo da Vinci, Boccaccio, Uadiiavetli, Amerigo Vespucci, Van- 
nuchi, Cellini, and Pope Leo. X. Pisa, an ancient decayed city on tlio 
Amo, containing many noble edifices built of marble— a fine cathedral — 
a famous leaning tower, 178 feet in height, the topmost story of which 
overhangs the base about 13 feet — au ancient university, which is still 
the great csntre of education In Tnscany. Pisa was one of the twelve 
cities of ancient Etruria ; from the lOth 1o the 14th century it was the 
capital of anenlerprisin^; republic; and here Galileo was bom In 1561. 
Tolterra, with numerous Etruscan antiquities : in the vicinity are singular 
borai lagoons, rich copper-mines, brine-aprings, aall-worka, and quar- I 
Ties of alabaster, fr«m which beanijfnl vasaa are largely ejiportod. FlI- I 
tcgft claims the mvention and first manufacture of pistols ; and continuM j 
to construct firearms, cutlery, and surgical instmments. ftatOinnma*' i 
roos manufactures and copper-works for smelting the copper found in I 
its vicinity. Aiexto {one. ArreUum), one of the twelve Etruscan citiel r J 
birthplace of Mecnuuia, Pettaroh, Michael Angelo, Vasari, Onido, aoA M 
Bsdi.«, originally a Ligorian town, has an ancient amphitheaUv J 
B state of preservation, and of great siie ; a cathedral « 

e paintings ; : 
d for its mine 

.-„. ; manufactures of silk, 
s mineral baths. Leghorn (ItaL Li 
twelve indepeni' ' "' 
U the fall of Ui 
g remains nf nntlqitlty : It 


the remains of Smollett the novelist. Siena was the capital of a power* 
fal republic in the middle ages, when it contained 100,1)00 inhabitants ; 
several magnificent public edifices adorned with paintings of the Sienneae 
school, and contains a university. The mountains in the vicinity contain 
rich marble quarries. Ferrara (Forum Allieni), capital of a delegation, 
and the most northern city of the Papal States, on an arm of the JPo ; is 
fortified and garrisoned by Austrian troops. It is the seat of a famous 
university, at which Ariosto was educatect ; contains a public library of 
80,000 voliunes, besides numerous MSS., including some of Ariosto and 
Tasso ; and was for a time the asylum of Calvin, Marot, and other re- 
formers. Bolonia (Bononia), once the cai>ital of the Etruscans, and now 
of a legation. In regard to population, it is the second city of the Papal 
States ; is the seat of a famous university, which, in 1841, had 560 stu- 
dents; the birthplace of Galvani, Aldrovandi, Malpighi, the painters 
Guido, Albano, Domenichino, and the three Caracd. Faensa (Faventia), 
long celebratea for its earthenware, and supposed to have been fhe first 
ItaUan city where the manufacture of that article was introduced. It 
was the birthplace of Torricelli. the inventor of the barometer. BaTenaa* 
a very ancient town, founded oy the Pelasgi ; the residence of the em- 
perors when Italy was threatened by the barbarians, and one of the prin- 
cipal stations of the fleet. It is rich in antiG[uitie8 of the eariy nuddle 
ages. Forli (Forum Livii), the seat of a umversity, and of a cardinal 
le^te; possesses considerable trade and manufactures. Tt-fmiTil (An- 
mmum), originally an Umbrian town, was colonised by the Romans, B.a 
268 ; became the seat of a great ecclesiastical council, A.D. 359 ; and has 
important sulphur-mines in the vicinity. Ancona, capital of a delegation, 
and a fortified seaport, which is one of the best frequented in Italy. 
Loreto owes its origin to a famous chapel of the Vimn, over wluch a 
magnificent church has been built. XTrbino (Urbinum Hortenae), capital 
of delegation Urbino e Pesaro ; contains a aucal palace, a cathedxal, a 
college, and a manufactory of pins, and was the birthplace of Baphaal in 
1483. Perugia {anc, Perusia) was one of the twelve Etmscan cities: 
under the empire it was the most important city of Etruria, and long de- 
fied the power of the Goths. Some of the most interesting Etruscan anti- 
quities niave been found here. It is now the capital of a delegatioin, soad 
only noted for its two great annual fairs. Tend, noted for t£e xna^mifi- 
cent waterfalls in the vicinity, unrivalled in Europe, though of artrndal 
origin. Sieti {anc. Reate), situated in a lovely valley, which is said to 
rival in beauty the Thessalian Tempe. Gubbio (one. Igavium) : here were 
discovered, in 1444, in the ruins of tne temple of Jupiter, seven bronze tabks 
with Umbrian inscriptions, forming most interesting remains of that lan- 
guage ; they are known as the Eugubian Tables, and ara stillpreseorved at 
Gubbio. XTaples, formerly capital of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 
beautifully situated on the bay of same name, is by far the most popul- 
ous city in Italy. It is very ancient, having been founded about roar 
centuries before the Christian era. It is the principal seaport of southern 
Italy, and the centre of its learned institutions. In its vicinity are the 
celebrated ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum, which wero buried during 
an eruption of Mount Vesuvius (a.d. 79), and accidentally discoyeredin 
1720, since which time the excavations have brought to light manyof tlie 
most valuable relics of antiquity. Castellamare : here the cdder Flfaiy 
perished in the catastrophe which buried Pompeii. A.D. 79. Gaitfti a 
fortified seaport town, which formed the asylum oif^ Pius IX., uriben, in 
1849, he fled from Rome, to join the fugitive King of Naples. Capu !■ 
strongly fortified, and is the only fortress that covers tna appcoach t9 


ITALY. 287 

Naplaa. BsnflTentO was the seal of several counnils in the eleventh anil 
twelfth centuries. AvBlllno : near it the Val di Gargano, famous for the 
Tiotar; of thB Bamnites over tbe RonuuiB, in the year of Rome 43S. 
Balamo, noted for its aaciant school of maiiicine, contains a uniTBisitj-. 
Baggio, DppDsits Meaaina, is the most southern city and seaport of con- 
tinental Italy, and very ancient. It was tmiohad at by St Paul on hii 
Toynga to jRome. Taranto, an aLcieiit city of great historic celebrity, 
but now a place of little importance. Barletta, a fortified seajJort town, 
carrying on a brisk coasting trade. Foggia, is considered the second city 
in Naplea far Health and im^iortance. Aqoila, birthplui^e of Sallust, is 
one of the most commercial cities In the kingdom of Naplea. Palermo, 
capital of Sicily, and the fourth city in Italy aa regards po^nlation, is of 
Tery ancient origin, having been rounded by the PhtBuiciana. It ia a 

rciona and wall-built city, with eitensive commerce. It was tlie scene 
the masaaera called the "Sicilian Vespers" (in 1283), which, com - 
mencing ia the freak of a Frenchman who had insulted a Sicilian lady 
going to church, ended in the extermination of every Franchman in the 
uland. Trapanl, a hnsy commercial town ei^aged in the coral fishery. 
Mareala, noted for its wines, which it largely eiporta to England. Qlr- 
nntl, a very nnoient and celebrated city, is the chief port in Sicily for 
the exportation of sulphor. Syracnae, founded hy Corinthian colonials, 
B.o. 734, was for ages a place of great hiatoric importance : it was ths 
birthplace of Archimedea, and the rssidanca of Plato and Cicero, but has 
now dwindled into inslgnihcence. Catania, at the foot of Mount Etna, 
and the third moat important city in Sicily, has been repeatedly ruiaed 
by earthquakes : the housea are built and the streets paved with lava : it 
has manufactures of silk, and warea made of lava and amber, and exports 
com, macaroni, olives, figs, raw silk, wine, and snow from Mount Etna, 
XeMina, the most populous city in Sicily, except the capital, which it 
equals in commercial importance. The harbour is reearded as one of the 
fi£est in Europe, and ia well fortiDed. The Strait of Messina, with a rock 
named Scylla on the one side, and an eddy called Charybdia on the other, 
ms much dreaded by ancient mariuera. Liparl, in an island of same 
name, exports pnmice-stone to all parts of the world, aa also anlphur, 
Dltn, and soda. Eome, on left bank of the Tiber, cap. of the Kingdom 
of Italy, is, next to Jerusalem, the most celebrated city in the world. It 
wai founded B.C. 763 ; at the beginning of our era it had upwnrda ol 
1,000,000 inhabitants, and was the mistress of the then known world; in 
A.D. ilO it WHS conquered by the Goths under Alaric ; it was given to the 
Jiopes by Pepin and Charlemagne in the eighth century, since which time 
It baa been the capital of the Pontifical States. Rome is unrivalled for ita 
artiatic and architectural riches, but has a sad and deaolata appearance. 
The Btreets are narrow, dirty, and unpaved, the finest palacea and the 
most -wretched hovels being in eloaeat jnitaposition. The Cathedral of 
8t Peter's is the largest and most snmptuons structure of tbe kind In the 
world, and the Vatican Palace adjoining is the permanent residence of tlio 
Dopes. The university, which dates from 124, is well attended, but is 
lesa celebrated than the college of the Propaganda, in which natives of all 
paita of Europe are trained aa miasiouaries for jpropagatiiig the " Catholic " 
faith throughout the world. Civita Tsodiia, the principal seaport of the 
Pontifieal States. Telletri, the birthplace of the Emperor Augustas, b.o. 
tS. SanHarina, the capital of one of the smallest and most ancient 
ope, which has an area of only H aqoare miles, luul a pop 
S Inhabitants, who are chiefly ocoapled in meal Induatr}' a] 


Capes and Islanda— Piombino and Argentaro, in Tuscany ; Cizw 
cello, S. of Latium ; Palinuro and Yaticano, W. of Campania, 
Spartivento, Nau or Colonna, and Leuca, S. of Calabria; Otrantoand 
Gargano, in the Adriatic ; Passaro, San Yito, and Bas Cidmo, in 
Sicily; Teulada and Carbonara, S. of Island of Sardinia. The 
Italian islands are arranged into fonr groups or clusters — yiz., the 
Sardo-Corsican, Sicilian, Maltese, and Ponza groups. 

The Sardo-Corsican Islands, separated from the mainland by the Tyr- 
rhenian Sea, are chiefly Sardinia (the second largest island in the Medi- 
terranean ; area, 9167 sq. m. ; pop. 588,064) ; Corsica, which belongs to 
France ; and Elba. The Sicilian Oroup, which nearly connects the Ita- 
lian peninsula with the African coast, consisting principally of SicUy 
(the largest island in the Mediterranean ; area, 11,1^ sq. m. ; popiUa- 
tion, 2,392,414) ; the Lipari Islands (Stromboli, la^iri, Vulcano, etc.), 
Ustica, Favignana, and Pantellaria. The Maltese Gfroup, belonging to 
Great Britain, and consisting of Malta (area, 98 sq. m. ; pop. 13i,0d6) ,* 
Gozo, and Comino. The Poma Oroup, W. of Naples, chiefly Ponay 
Ischia, and Capri 

Seas, Oulte, and Straits (all forming parts of the Mediterranean) : 
the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Italy and the Sardo-Corsican Islands ; 
Ionian Sea, between Italy and Greece ; Adriatic, between the Itab'an 
and Hellenic peninsulas. Gulfs of Genoa, Gaeta, Naples, Salerno, 
Policastro, and St Eufemia, on the W. side ; of Squillace and Taranto 
on the S. ; and of Manfredonia and Yenice in tne Adriatic Str. of 
Messina, between Calabria and Sicily ; Bonifacio, between the islands 
Corsica and Sardinia ; Otranto, between Apulia and Turkey. 

SurflEuse and Mountains. — Italy embraces three great natural 
divisions— viz., first, the great plain of Lombardy in the north, be- 
tween the Alps and the Apennines, sloping towards the Adriatic, 
watered by the Po, Adige, and other streams, and extremely fertile ; 
second, the long, narrow peninsular portion, projecting into the 
Mediterranean in a south-easterly direction, and having the long 
mountain-chain of the Apennines as its back-bone; and, third, Sicily, 
Corsica, and Sardinia, or the insular portion. Corresponding to 
these, there are, in like manner, three great mountain-ranges ; the 
first of which (the Alps) separates Italy from the rest of the contin- 
ent ; the second (the Apennines) traverses the mainland in the direc- 
tion of its greatest length, and extends to the farthest extremity of 
Sicily ; whue the third stretches from N. to S. through the Sardo- 
Corsican islands. The Aips have been alreadv described under 
'* Europe," as {dso under France, Switzerland, and Austria. 

The Apennines branch off from the Maritime Alps near Genoa, extend 
in a S.E. direction through the entire length of the peninsula, and form 
the water-parting between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic. They 
are of greatly less elevation than tne Alps, and nowhere attain the height 
of the snow-line, except in Sicily, though some of the continental sum- 
mits are covered with snow for nine months in the year. MowU Como, 
in the N. of Naples, the highest summit of the continental Apennines, 
9521 feet; Monte Velino, in N.W. of Naples, 8180 feet ; M. Vettmut, 

ITALY. 289 

,r Naples, 30i3 feet ; il. Etna in Sicily, tlie 
entire range, 10,874 feet : line of perennial anow. 

The Sanlo-Coriican range eiftands from ._...._.._ 

Corsica, to Oape Spartiveuto in t1ie S. of Sanlinin, and forma the nater- 
parting between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Meditenanean proper: 
highest Biunmita, Monle RotoTido, in Coisica, 9063 feet, and Monte Oen^ 
aiyBi/B, in Sardinia, 7000 feet. 

and leading from Coni to Nice. Paji ijf Mont GenivTe, in the Cottian 
Alpa, 6560 feet, from Susa to Bilanfon. Pati of Mont Cenii, from Suaa 
to 8. Jean de Maurienne, in SaToy, 677fi feet Paa qf Great St Bernard, 
8150 feet, between Piedmont and the Valaia, Slmplan Pan, 6582 feet, 
tnaa Milan and Domodosaola to Canton Valaia. For the remaining 
paeaes acrosa the Alps, see under " Switzerland " and " Austria." 

BJTer-Bnsliu.^ — Owing to the peninsular character of the conntry 
and the position of the jnonntain-chajns, there ia only one extensive 
river-baHm in all Italy— viz. , that of the Po, which ia limited by the 
Alps on the one side and the Northern Apenninas on the other, and 
embraces (if we include the rivers which flow into its delta) mt area 
of 31,600 s(). Tn. 

Table or Rivers and ToimB. — In the following table will be 
found all the principal rivers and affluents of rivers of the Italian 

KDinaula, beeintiiOK at the G. of Genoa and ending at th« G. of 
ieste, together with all the towna containing 6000 inhabitants and 
^BpwnrdH situated on their banks : — 

Saaint inelined to the IVr^eniaa Sea. 

,..8an Hbiuo, Pprto Mat 


», Chiavj 

Frlgido Masat--1[-C»rtiu». 

fiantalD, -. -. ,-LncQL 

Aaiy, Fiiia, Bmpoll. Fldrehck 

SiffnOt Jti/nteoarchi 
Pagpi, Pimii. 


BIsi. 1 CcBe. 

BlMlulo,. . . . Fmlo. 
Chlana, 1. . . , ArezEO. Moatepulclano 

Co-omiscKDy, Leghorn. 
OmbiODa Sen- OrDtMto. 

AtUta..'.... -Siena. 

Suta, .ComtU, Solatnjl. 

Akodb, l...VlteTba. 
f CD^RiDUllia] a>lta Vecchla. 

PigllB, Onieto. 

lopia, I ....Folitpio. 

CblB9«i,..OuAM0, n. 

UlTOgiii, ISpoleto. 

rtnis. T8lletri.J»ani),iL 

maaeHB, .... Trrradna. 
.oC<iiitAa,...Pondi, n.,<iiietii. 
Osrigllano Ponte Cwro, Atplno, b., 

Ss«o, Atioffni, B., Paltitrina. 

Cosaa, I . .Fraiinimt, Aiatri, o. 

BavoDB, Teino. 

Vollomo Capos, 7«mfa, B. 

Sablwto/lAvBlllno. ' 
Legnl Caserta, n.. Haddslnnl, 

G. of Nniilen.-.PoiiuoU, Afragola. n„ 
Fratta Magglore, QiB- 
gllano, HiPLES, Pur. 
tlid, Tom dBl AuBUd- 



Barifu inclin&d to th$ Tyrrhenian Sea (oontinuedX 

Rivera. Totnu, 

Sarno Koeera, Sarno, n. 

G. of Salerno, ,Amaifi, Salerno ; Ruins 
of PcBStum. 
Sele, BucdnOt Sola, 

Riverg. Towm, 

O. of Policas- Polieagtro. 

West Go. Ca- Nica8tro,n.,iH2Zo,Pao2a» 

labria, Palmi. 

St. of Messina, SeyUOt Beggio. 

Basine inclined to the Ionian Sea. 

East Go. Ca- Gatanzaro, CotronOf Ros- 

labria, sano. 

Crati Cosenxa. 

Sibari, l....Ca88ano, Ccutro-Villari. 
G. of Taiajito,,NardOtOaaipoli. 

Agri, Marsioo. 

Basente «... .Potema. 
Bradano,. ...Matera, n., Opvido. 
Gravina, ..Altanmra, n., Gra?ina> 

Basins inclined to the Adriatic. 

East Co. Ot-Lecce,n.,J3n9u2is<, Fran- 
ranto, cavilla, Ostuni 

Co. of Bari,...Mola, Gioja, n.* Bari, 
Bitonto, Molfetta, Tra- 
ni, Gorato, n., Andria, 
n., Terlizzi, Barletta. 

G. of Manf^- Mar^fredonia, Viesti. 
Ofanto, .... Cerignola, n. » Minervino, 

n., Melfl. 
Oervaro, .... Bovino, Troja, n. 

Cesone Foggia. 

Balsola, I .Lucera. 
Radicosa, ..SanSevero. 

BifernOy Gamx>o-Basso. 

Sangro, Atessa. 

Co.Abrazzo,..Va8to, Lanciano, n., Or- 

Pescara, Chieti, Solmona, Aqnila. 

Piomba, S. Angela. 

Trontino, Teramo. 

Tronto, AscolL 

Fermo Fermo. 

Chienti, Tolentino, Camerino. 

Potenza, Becanati, Maceiata. 

Mnsone, Loreto, Osima 

E. Co. Marches, Ancona. 

Esino, Jesi, Fabriano. 

Misa, Siniga^ia. 

Metauro, Fano, urbino, n. 

Foglia, Pesaro. 

Ansa, Rimini, San Marino. 

Savio, Cervia, n. 

Montone, Ravenna, ForlL 

Lamone Faenza. 

Sfuitemo, Comacchio, Imola. 

Reno, Bologna. 

Po, Adria, Ferrara, Revere, 

Guastalla, Viadana, Sa- 
bionetta, n.,Casal-Mag- 
giore, Cremona, Codog- 
no, Piacenza, Pavia, 
Fa^enza.Casale, Trino, 
Creseentino, Chivasso, 
TuBiK, Moneaglieri, 
CarignanOf Carmagno- 

Po— continued la, ViOafranca^Caieor- 
re,n. ,Salazs>,n. ,Bar9». 
Panaro, .... Finale. 
Secchia, ...Gonzago^HoDENA. 
Mincio, I Mantaa,Ki{2fl(/^rai>ca^ £•• 

(L. Garda), naJto, ScUo. 
Oglio, I (L. Pontevicot Soretina, Chi' 
Iseo), ari. 
Hella, I ..Brescia. 
Crostolo, ..GuastaUOf Reggio. 
Parma, .... Parma. 

Taro, Borgo-San-Oonlno, n. 

Adda, I (L. LodiI,Tr0i^Ito, n., Lecea, 
Como), Como, Sondrio. 
Serio, I ..Cremat Caravaggio. 
Brembo, I Bergamo, n. 
Lambro, I . . Bhoirgetta, Monza. 
Olona, I . . . .Milan, Busto-AndsIOyB., 

Ticino, I (L. Pavia, Binaaeo, n., Vig»- 
Maggiore), vano. Abbiate-Orasso, 
n., Treeate, Intra, Lo- 
carno, Beixinzona. 
Toccia, ..Domodossola. 
Tresa, 1{Il Lugano. 
Terdoppio, I Kovara, Oleggio, 
Staffora, .... Voghera. 
Gogna, ^....Jfortoro, n., Borgo-MO" 

Scrivlo, .. ..Tortona, NovL 
Tanaro, ....Marengo, Alessandria, 
San-Salvatore, Aati. 
Atha^ Bra, Cherasoo^ 
Bene, b., Oaressia. 
Bormida, Acqui. 
Orbe, ,.Ca8telkuuo, Qavi, Ova- 
Belbo^ . . . ,Ni3HM-Monferra^. 
Stnra, I ..Fossano, Coni. 
Pesio, I ..Mondovi, il, Chiusa. 
Sesia, I .. ..Vercelli. 

Cervo, .....Bie22d. 
Dora-Baltea,Ca2u«o, Ivrea^ Aotta, 


Orca, I .... CMvasso, Looama, 


Tbbih, Bicoli. 

BncdilglloDe, Chinggli, Pndiia.Yii 

..CiTariwo, HoYlgo, ten- 
dinara, LegDago, Ver 
oub, Baveredo, Trieni 

thetaBin of tliB _ . 

Coma, MaggiorB, Ic, are unrivalled for their enchantrng aoenery.* 
They are numerous also in Central Italj, lutween the brnnchea of 
the Apennines, where they sometimes oncupy the oratera of oitinct 
volcanoes, and have no visible outlet. The following are the priuci- 
pal lakes in tlia ordiir of the river-hasina in wliich they occur : — 

B«Bin of the Po—Gar^ (560 811. m.; elevation, 227 feel above tho aea), 
di«inod hy UiB Mincio ; 7s(o, by the Oglio; Cotao, by the Add?.; Maagiore, 
by the Tiiino ; Lagano, Ijy the Treea, Ombrona — CasUglione and Orbi- 
ttlla, in tlie Marerama of Tuscany. Arena — Bmcciano, In |)tovintB 
Latlum. Msrta — Bolsena, in province Latium. Tiber — Ferugia, with 
no visible discham. Garlgliano— Cefaiio or fWBO, in Abruizo, drained 
by an artiScisl channel Avenw, 10 milea W. of Naples, occopiea the 
crater of a volcano. 

OllinaM.— From its positian, foim, and configaration, Italy anjoya 
m eitremely delightful climate, which permits the productions of 
the temperate, and some of the torrid zone, to minde on its almost 
nniformly fertile aarfacfl. In the northern parts 3ie cold ia some- 
times severe ; but it is little felt in the centre and aouth, where the 
plaina enjoy an almost perpetnal spring. The valley of the Po con- 
wderably reseinhles in temperature the central pnrta of France : the 
lakes tteezB in winter, and the orange and lemon will not ripen in 
the open air. At Rome froat seldom lasts aver tha night, and snow 
hlls, on aa avers^^ on only two days In tha year, as also at Florence, 
Naples, and Palermo. At Veuice snow falls on live days anaually, 
at Milan on ten, while in Malta aoow-Sakea are nevEr seen. In the 
north the rainfall iagreat, bainffat Tnlmezzo, nearUdine, 100 inches; 
at Bome, 35 inchoa ; while at Palermo, in Sicily, it ia only 23 inehea, 
The aver^fB for the entire peninsula is about ^5 inches. The mean 
annual Mmperature of Rome is SS'.S; mean winter, 4fi°.2 ; and mean 
■ammer, If-i. The mean annual temperature of Milan is fiS* ; 

Naples, 61' 
Tha higher Alps 
• ThB laSM or N. Italy i 
la ia Uie Urgeat; anrl la 

to the level of 9600 

at betuttfat, and Coint 


feet. Nearly one-half T>f Mont Blanc is always protected by a snonry 
envelope, wnich thickens every winter by fresh accumulations, and ecu- 
tracts again in summer and autumn by ihe action of the sim's rays, and 
by the constant discharge, from its lower margin, of those famous glaciers 
which are the admiration of all travellers. — (See under " Switzemi^") 
The climate is, generally speaking, highly salubrious, save in the pesti- 
lential marshes of Tuscany, called the Maremma, and the Campagna di 
Romaf in the Pontifical States, the malaria from which is extremely ii^- 
ious to human life. The prevailing winds are W. and S.W., and during 
their continuance the air is pure and healthy ; but the soumem portion 
of the country is frequently visited by the pestilential winds of AMca, 
during which vegetation is arrested, and the human frame becomes languid 
and feeble. 

Geology and Minerals. — ^Tertiary and post-tertiary strata cover 
greatly more than a half of Italy, especially the extensive basin of 
the Po ; the northern portion of the peninsula from Genoa to 
Civita Vecchia, on the W. side ; and the entire belt lying between 
the Apennines and the Adriatic, on the E. ; together wiw a large 
part of Sicily and Malta. Secondary strata occupy considerable 
areas in central and southern Italy, especially from the Tiber to the 
G. of St Eufemia ; a large tract in the centre of Sicily ; and the 
southern slope of the Rhsetian and Carnic Alps. The central and 
higher ridges of the Alps consist of gneiss and other primary rocks, 
flanked by limestone, sandstone, and slate ; and primary strata pre- 
vail on both sides of the Strait of Messina, and in the east side of 
Corsica and Sardinia. Granite rarely occurs except in the islands 
just named, where it covers large areas. Trap-rocks are found in 
numerous small patches around the G. of Genoa and N. of the Po ; 
and volcanic formations are extensive, especially around Rome, 
Naples, Malfi, the E. side of Sicily, and the N.W. comer of the 
island Sardinia, more particularly in the neighbourhood of Syracnse 
and Mount Etna, as also in the Lipari Isles, where StromboU, Ynl- 
cano, and Vulcanello are still active volcanoes. 

Minerals. — ^The mineral products of Italy, though numerous, are not 
turned to much account, mining being everywhere neglected. Th^re are 
few metals, except iron and lead, the first of which is very abundant in 
Elba, while copper, manganese, cobalt, and quicksilver are found in the 
Apennines : coal is plentiful in Venetia, Sardinia, and Tuscany ; salt, 
alum, and borax in many localities ; alabaster in Tuscany ; and beautifiil 
statuary marble at Carrara and other places. But the volcanic products 
of Italy, especially sulphur, nitre, and lava, are of greater value than all 
its other mmerals, nearly all the sulphur required in Europe bdng ob- 
tained from Sicily. The principal mmerals of the Alps are iron, copper, 
lead ; but quicksilver, rock-salt, and some gold and silver, are met with. 

Botany and Agriculture. — The indigenous vegetation of Ital^, 
including the Alpine region in the N., is mainly embraced withm 
Schouw's first and third phyto-geographic regions. The first, or 
Arctic- A Ipine Region^ comprehends liie summits of the lofty moun- 
tain-ranges, while the low grounds belong to the third or Meditem* 
nean Region. Italy, as a whole, presents an admirable epitome of 
the characteristic floras of all the countries of Europe, Western Afiii^ 

and Nortliern Africn. According to Cesati, the nnmlier of flower- 
in^-planta in Lombardy alone nmoants to 2S6S species, of whicli 514 
are monocotyledons, and 2064 dicotyledons. 

In Sicily, Xaples, and Malta, in addition to tliB planta common to bU 
tlie peniusuln, not a few tropicnl species appear, sucti hb the cotton-plant^ 
Hugar-cane, papyrus, piataehio, nod date-palin. The Indian fig also, s 
Epocies of cactus, grows wild in Siyily. All these ripen at an elevation of 
about 600 feet ; BTergreens flourish at 2O00 feet ; tTie oak and chestnut 
grow on the mountam-Bidos as high as 4000 fiset ; wheat thrives at 4500 
feet ; and the heecli at 6000 feet. In Central Italy we And the flanks of 
the Apennines covered with a rich and varied vegetation up to S2D0 feet ; 
the lower aine is occupied by the orange, citron, oJive, and palm ; -fnrests 
are rare ; and the mountaina, above the level indicated, present bare rocks 
devoid of vegetation. The Alps afford excellent pastnre, and the forest* 
contain a great variety of timber. The vertical limits of vef^tation along 
theii sides are as follows : — The dwarf-palm and orange arrive at matti' 
rity at the foot of the Maritime Alps ; wheat is cnltlvated at the height 
of SaOO feet ; oata, 4300 fept ; barley, 6100 feet ; the chestnut grows In 
the valleys at 3600 ; oalt, 4SO0 ; pine and larch, 8500 feet, Hnmaii in- 
habitants are found as high aa 6300 feet, where potatoes and turnips are 
the only esculents. Tlie Knno lying between the npper limit of trees anil 
the lowerlimitof perennial snow, is the province of the A (pine fiora share 
allnded to, characterised by the juniper, alder, rhododenilron, willow, 
cranberry, aaxifroRes, moaaea, and lichena, eitonding to BSOO feet 

Agriralinn. — Were the Itahana as active, industrious, and skilful as 
their soil is good and their climate propitiona, few countries in the world 
conld rival Italy in agricultural wealth and prosperity. So far, however, 
is this from hehig the case, that there is scarcely a country oa the con- 
easeful husbandry. In Loml>ardy, Venetia, and Piedmont, however, 
^riculture is better nnderatood ; the soil, which ia a rich alluvium, is 
cuitivBted with great care, and artificial irrigation is extensively praiv 
tiaed. Here the principal crops are rice, maiie, wheat, rye, oats, barley, ' 
Tines, olives, flga, oranges, citrona, homp, flax, and the mulberry plaiA, i 
About two fifths of the peninsula are under cultivation, the remaiudei I 
belDg either bare rocks, devoid of vegetation, or available only for euia- 
merpastntnge. Vegetation is never interrupted on the lower gronnda, 
especially m the southam half of the poninsnla. Tlie vine fiouriahea uni- 
Tersally, bat the wines of Italy cannot compete with those of France and 
Spidn. Littie wine is exported- except from Tuacany and Bicily. The 
TuscsD wines are of inferior quaUty, hut the Marsala wines of Sicily are 
extensively consumed in England and America, owingto their cheaimeBS. 
The Neapolitan wine is the best in Italy ; the celebrated LoAryiitii 
Chritli, a red wine of great excellence, is grown in vineyards on the flanks 
of Veauvins. Olive oil ia the principal article of export from the Neapo- 
litan portion of the kingdom, but some good oil is also produced in Tus- 
cany. In many districts, however, the mulbeny plant ia now supplant- 
ing the olive. In Southern Italy, where the soil is volcanic, well watered, 
and highly fertile, the chief oiops are wheat, maize, rice, cotton, indigo, 
tOgH, olive oil, tobacco, dates, melons, and other frails. 

ZeolORT. — There aeera to be few, if any, wild animals peculiar t» 

^ Italian peninsula, unless the crested hedgehog, found in the 
Ellth of Naples, be an exception. On the other hanil, however, 


few species are wanting here of those fonnd in the other parts of 
Southern Europe. 

The Mammalia comprise 68 species, including 42 camivora, 16 rodents, 
9 ruminants, and 1 pachyderm— viz., the wild boar of Calabria. The 
camivora embrace the bear, badger, marten, dog, wolf, fox, civet, wild- 
cat, shrew, desman, and numerous bats; the ruminants, the bufiGeJo, 
deer, goat, and sheep ; and the rodents, the hare, squirrel, dormouse, 
and arvicola. Of the 294 species of Birds there are numerous species 
unknown in the British Isles. Reptiles of every order are very nume- 
rous, embracing no fewer than 47 species. Of the 444 Fishes found in the 
Mediterranean, the great majority frequent the coasts of this peninsula ; 
and some of the fisheries there established, especially those of the tunny, 
anchovy, pilchard, and mackerel, are of great value. The Articulated 
animals are also very numerous, including the bee and silkworm (both of 
which are of great economic importance) ; the tarantula, scorpion, and 
white ant, all highly noxious ; the locust, which not unfrequently makes 
its appearance in devastating swarms ; and the butterflies, remarkable 
for the number and beauty of the species. The molluscs, crustaceans^ 
echinoderms, sponges, and corals of the Mediterranean are very numerous, 
but seldom diner specifically from those of the Lusitanian and West 
African regions, from the former of which, especially, its fauna appears 
to have been a colony.* 

Ethnograpliy. — From the earliest dawn of history, Italy contained 
a number of distinct races. Who were its earliest inhabitants, and 
from what country they entered the peninsula, are questions still 
involved in great obscurity. It is pretty generally allowed, how- 
ever, that the aborigines of the south, who are known by the vari- 
ous names of Pelasgi, Siculi, (Enotrians, and Itali, were a Sanscritio 
race, and allied to the Celts, Teutones, and Sclaves, the earliest 
settlers in Western and Northern Europe ; that they entered Italy 
from the north, at various times, from 2000 to 1350 B.O.; and that 
they were subsequently driven southwards by the Etruscans, Liga- 
rians, and other tribes of uncertain origin. In 753 B.O. Rome was 
founded, according to some, by the descendants of a colony ttom 
Troy, and gradually extended its sway over the entire peninanla, 
and at length over the greater part of the whole world as known to 
the ancients. In the fifth century of our era the Gtoths invaded 
Italy, and overthrew the Roman Empire. The Italian people of 
the present day are, therefore, a very mixed race, formed of the 
union of the aborigines with Greeks, Gauls, Goths, Germans, and 

LangtMge, — The Grecian colonists, ia common with all the other 
tribes above enumerated, came in the course of time to lose their ori^pnal 
dialects ; and, as early as the reign of Augustus, Latin was tiie spcd^en 
language of all Italy. The modem Italian, a soft, euphonious language 
is more closely allied to the Latin than any other Greco-Roman toiunie. 
Of its numerous dialects, which differ widely ttom each other, the Tni- 
can is the most refined and harmonious, being spoken by fhe eduoated 

* The LtiBitanian region of marine life embraces the eastern Bids of the AXkuHk 
from the N.W. of France to the Canary Isles, and lies between the Oettia and 
African regions.— <Ske p. 104.) 

aea in nil pirlj af the peninaula, and liaiing been long tbe almost 
exelnsiTe cbannel of Italian literature. 

Stligion. and Sducatiim— The entire population of Italy, witb tbe el- 
ection ot 26,000 Waldensian Pidtestanta in Piedmont, wbo, after sees 
of pBraeeuttMi, are Bow allowed freedom o( worship, belongs to the 
R. Uatbolio Cburch. Until tbe recent revolutions, wben tbe Pope's 
temporal power was bo terribly shaken, no other form of wotsliip was 
tolerated in any part of the peninsnla. Now, however, this state of 
things is changed conaiderahly for the better; Protestants ara allowed 
freedom of worship in all the cities and towns of the Kingdom of Italy, 
while even in the former Papal States a limited degree of toieratlon 
eiiata, and Protestanta are allowed to meet for worship inside the 
walls of Bome^ The education of the people Is sIed better attended to. 
Formerly Tery few ot the peasantry conld either read or write, eieept in 
Ssitlinia, which for many yeara has formed an honourable exception to 
the general rule. But now common schools are beginning to appear in 
oU directions ; nawspapera and railways are on the increase, and, above 
nil, WiB Word of God in the vemacolar may now happily be seen in miU- 
tilndes of villages end hamlets throughout the pen' — '- " — ' — 

the revolution of 1880, there were live nniversitiee in the kingilon 
of Sardinia — viz., those ot Turin, Genoa, Cagliari, Sassari, and Pavia 

in Tuscany, three — thoar -' ™— ™ --^ "' ■"- - 

State*, four— the Uni' 

le of Pisa, Florence, and Siena ; in the Pontifical 

J ersltyof Rome, tbe University of Bologna, tho 

Collegio Homano. and tbe Collecio de Propaganda Fide ; in Naples, three 
—those of Naples, Palermo, and Catania. Altogether, there are now 22 
nnlveraities in Italy, many ot tham being of ancient foundation. 

KftUonal CIiaTaot«r.— The modern Italians are described m "a 
hnndsome, lively, and intelligent people. The men are well formed, 
rather alim than stout, bat atrong and agile, with a dark complex' 

hajr. The women have narrow Ibreheads, black or iSrk-brown bi 
large, brilliant, and expressive eyes, a be^ntifnl nose, which, with 
the forehead, forms the eleeant Roman profile ; but tbe lower classes, 
In coDsequence of living wholly on vegetabl« food, and of hard labonr 
muler a Duming sun, rarely display any peculiar attractions. Tbe 
prominent traits of the Itatiaji character are love of ease and pleasnre, 
Knd an inborn capacity for appreciating the beantifal in every depart- 
ment of ut, which has rendered their country the chief school for 
ficulptuia, painting and mnaic." 

UMTa1iiix& — From the splendid galaxy of literati which for ages 
haa illnmined thia classic connti-y we can only iostance a few of tka 
moat conspicuous stam : — 

ClabBIcaL Litehaturk; Plantna, Terence, Lnoretiua, Cicero, Ctesar, 
Tirgil, Horace, Livy, Ovid, aalltiat, Nepos, Juvenal, Pliny, Taoitns, 
QninBliim, Ssored Lttehstdhe : Gregory the Great Thomas Aquinas, 
Cajetan, Baronius, Bellannine, Paolo SorpI, Paliavicinl, Martini, Diotati, 
Db Bossi, Cardinal Mai. Postbt : Dante, Petrarch, Boocaccio, Pulci, 
Bdaido, Ariosto, Bemi, Colonna, Gnarini, Taasq, Metostasio, Alfieri, 

Faiisd. UisToni : Platina, Machiavelli, Varchi, Dai^ Unic- 

„~ I, Strada, Mafibl, Mnrat«ri, IauzI, Vasarl, Denina, 

Faiini, Vico. _PAnrmra : (Smabuo, Leonardo da Vinci, 

I, Bentirogili 


Ginlio Romano, Borocci, Sacchi, Claude of Lorrain, Ponssin (Gaspaid), 
of the Roman ScJux>l. Titian, Paolo Veronese, Canale, of the Venetian 
School. Correg^o, Caracci, Guido, Grimaldi, Colonnii^^ of 'ttie Lombard 
and Bolognae School. Sculpturb : Niccola Pisano, Donatello, Cdlini, 
Bernini, Algardi, Michael Angelo, Canoya. Music : Palestrina, Fan- 
neUi, Paganini, Lully. Science and Philosopht: Cardan, vanini, 
Galileo, ToriceUi, Malpighl, Cassini, Moigagni, Galvani, Volta, MellonL 
Travels and Discovebt : Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespacci, 
Marco Polo. Miscellaneous Literature : Poggio, Laurentins valla, 
Politian, Pico Mirandola, Bembo, Aldo lilanuzio, J. C. Scaliger, Maiana, 
Gravina, Crescimbini, Facdolati, Forcellini, Beccaiia, FHangieri. 

Goyemment and Finance. — ^With the exception of Sardinia, which 
has enjoyed free institutions since 1848, all the Italian states had for 
generations been groaning under despotisms of the most extreme 
type. Civil and religious liberty were everywhere unknown ; and 
freedom of worship, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and 
liberty of the subject, effectually suppressed. The inextiugtdshahle 
love of liberty, however, in the bosoms of the people, stimmated by 
the example and influence of Sardinia, broke out at length in a 
general revolution, which terminated in hurling the despots from 
their thrones. In 1859, Lombardy was wrested from Austria and 
ceded to Sardinia; in the following year Parma, Modena^ and 
Tuscany, having exi)elled their sovereigns, also attached themselves 
to that state ; while still more recently, Garibaldi, a Sardinian 
general, raised the standard of revolt in Sicily, crossed Uie Strait 
of Messina, overran the Neapolitan territories and the Pontifical 
States, and thus laid, all the remainder of Italy, with the exception 
of Rome and Venetia, at the feet of Victor EmmanueL Finally, 
Venetia was ceded by Austria at the termination of the Continent 
tal war of 186C ; while during the Franco-German war of 1870, the 
French garrison having evacuated Rome, that city with its t^ritory 
was taken |)ossession of by Victor Emmanuel. The legislative 
authority rests conjointly in the kins and parliament, the latter 
consisting of two chambers,— viz., the Senate, which consistB of 
princes of the blood-royal, and of an unlimited number of mem- 
bers nominated for life by the king ; and a Lower House, elected 
by a majority of all citizens who are 25 years of age, and pay taxes 
to the amount of 40 lire (£1, 12s.) The executive is vested in the 
king, and is exercised by him through responsible ministera. In 
1874, the army numbered 200,000 ; the navy, 91 vessels of war, 
carrying 800 guns; receipts, £62,000,000; expenditure, £62,000,000; 
public debt, £390,000,000. 

Uannfactures and Ck)mmerce. — ManufiEusturine industry is still 
at a low ebb in all parts of the peninsula, notwithstanding the great 
political changes that have recently taken place. A liberal oonsti- 
tutional government, favourable to free-trade and moderate tulflh^ 
with the many other advantages resulting from the inooiporatian of 
the numerous states formerly existing in the country into one kiiig* 

ITAI.T. S97 

Ann, CBlmot faD to insn^mtfi a new ers in tlie cammercisl tiii 
mannfactmiiig bistoi? of tiie coMitry. 

GenecaDy Bpeaking, ItoliBD 'workmsn are inferior to tLuee uT otlier 
EniDpean conutriea. Tbeir leading diBraeteriBSc is that their efforts nre 
□mre dincted to the prodnctiffii cl BTticIeB of Iniory than to thoM <if 
utility. Among teirtllt fabrics, Eilke and velvets are the most impiatsiit, 
espedaHy in northern end oeiitniJ Italy. By for the greater part of t^ 
law and ttrovu Eillc imported into Engijmd from France is not produced 
in that country, bnt in Italy. The ammal valne at the ailli cnm is bbU- 
nuted to eicsed £10,000,0(10. BesidtiB these, woullen teitutes for home 
cocEoinptios are manufactured in Sardinia; paper and stmir-pbit in 
!ri]aGany ; leather, gloves, mnaical instmmecte, ^aas wares, cordage, 
iriiie, and soap, iu central Itujy, where also snlpkor ani salt are prei^red 
for erportation; irhile in I^aples the principat orliEles, heskdes silks, 
an woollezis, linens, hosiery, Btraw-hats, saasa^ies. iniicaroni, esantccK, 
perfumery, ^asE, bobp, inoEical striugs, filigreB-nort, md coral omamenti.- 
9)he manDfadmiee of Vimetia are my varioDH. The famoas glsssworkt 
al Venioe jirodnce mftgnificent mirrors, with every variety of artifidal 
pearU uid gema, beada, enamel, and rnDsaic "wortB, See. ; whdlfi jewetUer^, 
gtdd and silver staffs, velteU, silks, laces, soaps, aiid wai-lj^ts, an 
•iteuaiyely manufactured. The commeree is oonaideiable, is rapidly 
iocrearaD^ and is chiefly carried on 'with Great Britain, the sc>iith OS 
Enrepe, and the Levant. Fully two-thirdB of the foreigu trade of Venice 
IE csmed on under tJie Britifih flog. The chie£ articles of exportatitm an 
aUka, olive oil, irincs, siilj>liar, boiax, fruits, oak and ddt^ iurli, ascbo 
_. ., macaroui, essenees. eoap, aud the other articioa above ennmeialed : 
■vjiile the mincipal imports are cotton Etnffs, iron, flteel, hardwaie, and 
fnou Great Britain ; wool from the Levant ; com from Odessa ; and 
1 &imi Fmnce and Siiain. In 1S73, Britain amt to Italy goods tt> 
value of £7,S0O,OO0, and reoeivad in return goods to tbe value oS 
.--,0 18,582. The imports from France into IlJj average £8,000,000 
■tariing, and tSe eiporta from Italy into France are about equal in value. 
Next in order to France and Btitain, hnt far lieiow, come Ausfria and 
Bwitierland. The commeralia marine of tbe Kinffdom of Italy, in 1S70, 
oompiiied 17,500 soiling vessels, carrying 926,000 tona. imd 103 steamen, 
canTing £5,000 tona— in all, 17,600 vcskU, cairying 9G0,000 tons, 

Ijitenal nimiimi¥i4n»iWmi — Owing to the want of energy on tbe 
part of the people, their abject poverty, and the innnmerable dia- 
conrngementb to which they have been aubjeoted by their rnlera, the 
gr«at iboroughfarefi of commerce are still in a backirard condition. 

Till very reoentlj; ^ailuayi were almost unknown in tie peninsola, the 
total number of nules open for traffic, in 1858, being only 700 — vii., for 
Sardinia 390 milee, for Fnnua and Modena 06 miles, for Tuscany 150 
ndlea, nnd for Naples M miles. Ot late years, however, the railway ejs- 
tem has made rapid i>rogre«s Uirangbont all parts of the peninsnla. In 
" ere were 3667 mSes open for traffic tn the Eiogdcrm of Ita1;r, 
1871 they amonnted to 4287 miles. The most important tine is 
it Ceni* railway, which forms the abortest route from Paria to 
idria, and wfaicb at present carries pur East Indian mails. Begin- 
' H. Cenis. it follows the course of ths Po to Fioceusa, thence to 
tliB AdriattE, the coMt of whidi it travaTses to ErfndisI aetit 
extremity. Lombardy abonnds with Canata, but they are 
id tor th« purpoiea d( irrlgotiou, the ^rlnoipal exceptions beiug 



the canal from Milan to the Ticino, prolwhly the oldest canal in Europe^ 
and that fh)m Milan to Pavia. Venetia aboanda with canals, 11111011 in 
general are ver^ short. In Tuscany there is a canal from Pisa to Le^ioni| 
another from losa to the Serchio, uniting the Amo with the Serdiio ; ana 
a third, named the Chiana canal, 87 miles in lengtk nniting the sooroes 
of the Amo and 'Hber. In Venetia and Piedmont the roads are well con- 
structed and kept in good rej^^ ; but in central and southern Italy they 
are in a most wretch^ condition. There are no good roads leading across 
the Apennines, notwithstanding their moderate eleyation, and they are hi 
general not available for wheeled carriages. For the various mountain- 
passes leading from Italy across the Alpn, see p. 289. 


Position and Boundaries. — The Kingdom of Greece is 
bounded on the N. by European Turkey ; W., by the Ionian 
Sea ; S., by the Mediterranean ; and K, by the mgean Sea or 
Archipelago, which separates it from Asia Minor. The conti- 
nental portion lies bet lat 36° 23' and 39* SC N. ; and bet 
Ion. 20' 45' and 24° T E. 

Athens, the capital, near the centre of this area, is on the same parallel 
of latitude as the Azores, Cordova, Moimt Etna, Smyrna, TabriiL Astra- 
bad, Yarkand, Tsi-nan, San Francisco, and Washin^n j and on tne same 
meridian as Hammerfest, Mittau, Lember^ Widdm, I)ema (in Tripoli), 
and Cape Delgado. The form is extremely irregular, being broken up by 
straits and deep inlets of the sea into a series of peninsulas and ishmds, 
which stand to Europe in the same relation as Europe does to Asia. Ex- 
treme length of the continental part, 200 miles ; breadth, on the paral- 
lel of Athens, 170 miles. Surrounded by the sea on tnree sides, and 
stretching out between the three continents of the Old World, Greece was 
the most favourably situated of all ancient countries, not even ezoeptiDg 
Palestine. In proportion to its area, the coast-line greatly exceeds tliat 
of any other country, being estimated at one mile of seaboard to every 
seven miles of surface. The surface, however, is highly mountainous, 
while the centre of the Morea forms an elevated plateau. 

Area and Popnlation.^The area of Greece, including the Ionian 
Islands, ceded to it by Great Britain in 1864^ amounts to 20,152 sq. 
UL, or two-thirds the size of Scotland. The population, in 1871, 
was 1,457,894, or somewhat more than two-fifths the population of 
the latter country. This area ^ves nearly 72 persona to each aq. 
m. Ancient Greece, including Epirus and Thessaly, is supposed to 
have contained at one time 3,500,000 inhabitants. 

Polltioal Divisions.— Previous to 1830, and whilst Greece was 
under the yoke of Turkey, the country was divided into three pro- 
vinces—viz., Livadia in the N., Tripolitza in the S., and t|ie Anhl" 
pelago in the ^gean Sea. In 1838 it was divided into twentr-foar 
governments, twelve of which were in the Mores* eight in mUii% 

while the rfmaining Tonr conijitiseil the Cycladea and Sporailca. Bnt 
in 1845 the whole country waa divided into the rolloning IS memos, 
the last four of whieh are insular: — 

Helus oa NoRTHKHH Grbecb. 

AcftTDuiia and Stolitk— Missolonghi 6 (G. of Patraa), TcnitiiB 3 (G. of 
Arta), Lejianto 3 (G. of Lepanto). 

Fhthiotis and Phoois .—Lamia 6 n. (G. of Lamia), Balonn B, Custri n. 
fBny of Saiona), TheTvutpyia (Hellnda). 

Attica and Bteotia.— Athens 45, FiraanB 6 (G. of ^gina), Thehes 9 
(Asopo), Livadia 9 n. (L. Topoliaa), MaraOum (K. Co. of Attica). 

Enboa or UegTopont,— Negropont 6 (Chan, of Talania), Karysto 3 
(a.Bn. ofE),Tii»). 

The Mqhea. 

Argolis and Corinth.— NanplialO.ArgoB 9, Spezda 10, Hydra 10 (G. 
of Argolis), Corioth 2 n., Voatitza 3 (G. of Lepantoj. 

AchaUand EUs.-Patraa 20(G. of Patras), Ofjmpio (Eufia). 

" — Calamata 6 (Nerioo), CypariBsia 3, Navarino 2 (W. Co,) 

Arcadia.- TrLpoIit2:a 7 (Roufial. 

TuE Islands. 
CycUdM.— Syra 21 (I. Sjti), AndroaG (L Androa),Naiia5(LNaiOB). 
Ionian IsIm.— Corfo 15 (L Corfu). Argoatoli fi (I. Cephaiooia), Zaiila 
20(1. Zante), Atnoxichi 7 (E. Co. Leiicadia), 

DoKilptlve Hotel.- The towna of Greece are all very nnall ; of 
those enumerated above, not more than twenty exceed fiOOO of 
populatiou ; eight eiceed 10,000; while ooly four exceed 20,001), 

BBwlonghi, a small fortified town, which greatly diatingnished itself in 
the war of independsnea : here Lord Byron died io 1324. Lepanto or 
Ifepakta, near which the fleet ncdB[Don John of Anstrla totally defeated 
that of the Turks in 1671. Lamia or Zeitonn, neiir tlie famons pass of 
Tbennopyls, where Leonidas, vilh his 300 Spartans, fell in opposing the 
Pereian invadara nndar Xerses, B.C. 480. Saiona, at the soothem base 
of Mount PamassuB ; on its acropolia are pictaresi^iie niins of its ancient 
citadel Cutri, near the famona Castaliaa Sprlna : liere stood the cele- 
brated temple of Apollo, the principal seat of his worship r here were 
celebrated the Pythian games ; and it was one of the two places of meet- 
ing of the Ampbictyonic Cooncll. Athena, capital of the khigdoui of 
Greece, is one of the niost celebrated citiea in the world, and the most 
Kjanowned for its literature, science, and fine arts. It is eitremely ancient, 
^^~ - ' g been fouuded, at least in part, by Cecrops, a hero of tlie Pelaagie 
„. , B.C. 1S66. It was bonit by Xn^es n.c 4SU, but was soon rebuilc 
W Themistocles, and sot many yenn later it was adorned by Pericles 
Ttb the moat splendid aMhitectnral worka the world has ever seen. The 
ttendoat of Athens, howerer, chiefly conalstedin its public buildings, for 
He private houuis, even those of itn greatert men, ware iuaignihcant, nnd 


the streets narrow and irregular. The city suffered severely during the 
siece of Sulla, B.C. 86. Hadrian embellished it with many splendid pub- 
lic buildings, A.D. 123. Alaric, king of the Goths, in a.d. 396, reduced 
it almost to a heap of ruins. Since then it has belonged successively to 
(roths, Byzantines, Burgundians, Franks, Catalans, Florentines, Vene- 
tians, Turks, and Greeks. During the greater part of the middle ages it 
was an almost deserted place ; but in 1833 it became the seat of the 
Greek Government. Athens was the birthplace of many illustrious per- 
sons, among whom may be mentioned Socrates, Plato, Phidias, Pericles, 
and Alcibiades, Pirseus, the port of Athens on the Gulf of wSgina, con- 
tains the tomb of Themistocles. Thebes or Thiva, one of the most 
ancient cities in Greece, founded by Cadmus about B.O. 1551, and at one 
t ime a place of great wealtli and importance. Here Cadmus the Phoenician 
first introduced the use of letters into Europe. It was the birthplace of 
Hesiod, Pindar, Pelopidas, and Epaniinondas. It was the scene of the 
tragic fate of QEdipus, and of the war of "the seven against Thfebes." 
Livadla. the capital of Hellas under the Turks. Marathon, a hamlet 
situated in a plain watered by the Charadrus. In this plain was fought 
the celebrated battle between the Persians under Datis, and the Athenians 
under Miltiades, B.C. 490. Negropont (Egripos) a maritime town, and capi- 
tal of the island Eubrea. It is a very ancient town, and planted numerous 
colonies, among which were Cumse in Italy, and Naxos in Sicily. It was 
also a place of great military importance, as it commanded the navigation 
between the north and south of Greece. Here Aristotle died, B.c. 322. 
Nauplia, on the Gulf of Argolis, is a strongly-fortified town, and one of 
the most important in modem Greece. ArgOB,long the capital of Aigoli& 
is considered the most ancient city of Greece. Corinth, once a great and 
opulent city, and the emporium of the trade between Europe and A^ia, 
is now reduced to but a mere vill^e, exporting currants, wheat, oil, 
honey, and wax. Its citadel, on a hill 1500 feet nigh, would, if properly 
fortified, be one of the strongest fortresses in the world. Its navy was 
numerous and powerful : here jtjie first triremes were built ; and the first 
sea-fight on record was between the Corinthians and their colonists the 
Corcyramns. Spezzia, beautifully situated on an island of same name in 
the G. of Argolis, is remarkable for the salubrity of its climate. Hydra» 
an important commercial town, situated on a barren rock in an island tk 
same name. Fatras, a fortified seaport, and the principal seat of the 
foreign trade of Greece. Olympia, the name of a small plain, where the 
famous Olympic Games were celebrated from the eariiest times ; bat the 
Olympiads were not employed as a chronological era till the viotorv of 
Coroebus in the foot-race, b.o. 776. Calamata, near the head of the Qnlf 
of Koron, maintains a brisk trade in oil, silk, and figs, and is the seat of 
the bishopric of Messenia. It was burnt by Ibrahim Pasha in 1826, bat 
has been rebuilt. Navarino, a fortified seaport town, is ohieflr cele- 
brated in modem times for the victorv of the wigflBlyFgench, and B^ 
sian fleets over those of the Turks and Egyptians in Ini?. Sparte. aflv 
long lying desolate, is now being rebuilt^ and has become t^ ea^td of 
Laconia. In ancient times it was the chief city in the Pelopanneiiu^ and 
one of the most fatuous in Grecian historv. Tnpolitni the capital of tin 
Morea under the Turks, was stormed and taken liy tlifl Greek in aiuyn ta 
in 1821, and again by the troops of Ibrahim Pasha in the same TMr, win 
razed it to the ground : but it nas been sinoe rebuilt. Bm or jg w aaa. 
lis, the principiil commercial dty in Greece, and tlifl nBU^»M » ' 
of most European States. Thb Ioniav Isua.— OorftL f * 
republic of the Ionian Isles, haa been Btnn|^ fbrtmi 


OREECB. 301 

ir B, imiieniity. Zante, a tliriving town, aud 
densely peopled of all tlia loniau lelejiilti, 
■Puntft and Scvopha, W, of Hellas ; Klarenai, "W. of the 
Mores ; Gallo, Matapao, and Malea, 8. of the Morea ; Skillo, K of 
the Morea ; Colonna and Daro, S. E. of Hellas. 
Pujita, the ancient jlcfiutn, off which Augustus gained the great naral 
ctoir over Anthony and CleopatrB. Colonna (ancient Sunium}, ea 
uned from the epiendid temple of Athena which cravnedita biavr, ths 
itiiani of which still eiist. 

lElamla. — The inlands are very numerona, and consist of (our lead- 
ing groups. I. The Ionian Ixlea, W. of Greece, the pi-iodpal being 
Oorft, Santa Maura, Cephalonia, Zante, aud Cerigo. 2. Hegropont 
or Eubcea, E. of Eelias, and the largoat island in Greece. 3. The 
Cvclades, between the Morea and Aaia Minor, piincipal—AndrOS, 
Tinos, Naxos, Pares, Sjra, Zoa, Thormia, Serfo, Sipbanto, and Milo. 
*. The Sporadra, or "scattered islands," partly in liia Gulf of Egiiift, 
and partly N.K. of Negropont. 

Onlft and atralta.— Gnlf of Arta, N.W. of Hellas ; Patraa and 
Lopanto, between Hellas and the Morea ; Koran, Laconia, and Ar- 
gofis, S. of the Morea ; Egina, between AvRolis and Attica : Chan- 
nels of Egripo, Talanta, and Trikeri, between £ab<:ea and the main- 

Sni&oe and Uountalna — The surface is almost whollj monn- 
tainuus, but the hills are interspersed with fine viilleya and a few 
of litntled extent. The centre of the Morea forma an elevated 
1 enclosed by three mountain - chaitia, one of which mus 
d to the deeply-penetratJngGulf of L*panto, which ia supposed 
have been formed, at a remote age, by an earthquake. 
The mountams of Hellas are a continnation of Mount Pinilna, which 
Beparatas Theasaly from Albania. On arriving at tie Grecian frontier it 
separates into two branches, one of which (Mount Othrys) forms the 
bonndaiy between Theasaly and Greece, and Heparates the baalna of the 
Salembria and Hellada ; highest snnunlt, 5S7» feet. The other liranrh 
pursues a S.E. direction to Cfipe Colouua in Attica, and is thence prolonged 
through the weatem chain of the Cjcladeato Bontorini. It consists of 
two minor ranges — viz., the Oeta range in the N., about 7000 feet high, 
bnt containing Mount Ouioua, the culniinatjng-pohit of Grocce (87S3 it-), 
■epomied from the Othrys range by the basin of the Hellada; and the 
Pamaaaus range hi the 8., eeparated from the Oeta range by the liasin of 
the Gavrioa, and fi-om the Morea by the Gulf of LepantA : lughest snm- 

J ta inu 

■ lioha 


there ramifies in 

lettns, 3370 ft A branch from Mount 

,hmua of Corinth into the Morea, and 

tliree small chains, which support between them ths 

_ _ _ _ ipport be 

tatdi-luid of Arcadia: h%he3t snmmitA, Mount I'awetus or St Elias, 
7908 n. : Cylene or Zliio, 7788 ft : Malevo, 6355 ft. None of the monn- 
b^ns of Greece folly teach the une of perpBtuol congelatian, though 

tat them doaely approadi iL 
■< and lAkfls. — Owing to the peoinsnlar character of the 
oad th« niuoeroDi deep indeotatioDS of the surrounding 


seas, none of the rivers of Greece attains to any considerable mag- 
nitude, the principal streams being the Aspropotamo (anc Achddw)t 
the Fidaris (anc Evenus), the-Ronfia (anc Alph^), the Baaili- 
Potamo (anc Eurotaa), and the Hellada (anc. SpercJuus). The only 
lake of importance is Lake Topolias (anc. Copcus), in the east of 
Hellas, and even it is little more than a reedy marsh. 

Climate. — The climate is in general warm and delightful, and 
only inferior to that of Italy. 

The summer is extremely warm, the temperature often rising to 100" 
Fahr. ; but it is greatly moditied by sea-breezes. At this season rain 
seldom falls ; the smaller rivers are dried up ; the air is remarkably clear, 
not a cloud being seen for several weeks. In autunm rain liecomes 
frequent and copious, and the streams fill their channels. Winter does 
not exceed two montns' duration, and is marked by rain in the plalna 
and snow in the mountains, the latter retaining their covering till sum- 
mer is far advanced, though none of them attams the limit of perennial 
congelation. Snow appears in October, and continues to fall tiU Aprfl. 
In ^larch the olive buds and the almond is in blossom, while gram is 
ready for the sickle in May. The mean temperature of tiie whole coun- 
try ranges from 64° in the S. to 59° in the N. Mean temperature oi 
Athens 60", winter 41°, summer 77". 

Geology and Minerals. — Crystalline rocks cover the south-eastern 
part of the Morea, as also Attica, Euboea, the Cyclades, and Sporadea 
Tertiary strata line the western side, from the Gulf of Arta to Na- 
varino in the Morea. The entire remainder is occnpied with second- 
ary rocks, which are chiefly of limestone, and hence the numerous 
caverns, subterranean rivers, and fissures emitting mephitic vaponis, 
which ministered so largely to the mythology and poetry of the 
ancient Greeks : the limestone often assumes the form of the finest 
marble, which is extensively used for building and statuary. Vol- 
canic rocks, though not found in the mainland, form consideTable 
masses in some of the islands, one of which (Santorini) is indeed only 
a recently -extinct volcano. The Mineral treasures of Greece are 
considerable, though very sparingly worked. Marble is abundant, 
together with salt, sulphur, saltpetre, lignite, asbestos, mill-atonei^ 
whetstones, serpentine, fuller's earth, porcelain earth, aigentiibroDi 
lead, and traces of gold. The mainland is dnffnlarly devoid of 
metals, but iron is found in Euboea and some other isUiids ; and ooal 
occurs in Euboea, Corfu, and the Morea. Wells of petrolenm, which 
were known to Herodotus, still exist in Zante. 

Botany and Agriculture.— The botany of Greece conaidenUy »- 
sembles that of Southern Turkey and Albania. "Dt Sibthoz^ in Im 
* Flora Grseca,' enumerates 850 species, which he oolleoted pmusnal^ 
iu Attica and Beotia. Most of our finer garden-flowen grairinldte 
Greece, as the Hyacinth, Ranunculus, TnbB-roae, NaroiBBni^ Iilib nd 
Anemone. The natural vegetation of the oouitiy, from flM 
level to the height of 1500 feet, exhibits as great a Tiriflbrof Ti 
trees, shrubs, and plants as can be found in an wat^ • ^ • * — »* ** 
try anywhere throughout the world. Among v 
and useftil may be reckoned the olive, vine^ on 


KHg, almonil, tliB dBta-palm (in Attica), the curraiit grspe of Coriiitli, 
Wfiich is & ipecieB of vine yielding tlie cummta of commerce, the 
citron, pamegrannte, and bonanEi. The wcLter-melons and gonrds nro 
excellent At elevations less than 1600 feet, the myrtle, mostich, 
and plane-tree flourish ; while the mouutniuB ore covered with foresta 
of pice, 

ApriimUure. — Ouly abont B tenth of the anrface is under cnltivstion, 
and tlie amUe land is of vtry limiud extent. A great part of the soil is 
of ■ thin and by no means fertile Datnre. Agricultural implementa and 
operations are of the moat prlmitiva description, and the grain raised is 
only abont two-t hbds of that required for home conanniption. The plough 
in nse differs in no respect from that described by Hesiod, nearly StM) 
years ago. The principal crops are— wheat, barley, maize, rice, coffee, 
tobacco, cotton, mwlder, flax, and des ; but the olive takes precedence of 
all othen, both soil and climate being partlcaliirly favourable to its 
growth. The soil in most parts of Greece and the Ionian lalands is ad- 
nurablT fitted for the culture of the vine, which in ancient times formed 
B highly iijiportant article of industry; but owing to the niismle and 
TBpBcity of the Turks, for four centuries its cnltlvation was ahnost totally 
abandoned. It is now beginning to revive, and will, doubtless, era long 
lesome its proper place in the markets of Europe, Tino, one of the 
Cycladas, is famous for its Malmsey wine, and Sikind and Santorin pro- 
dnoe wines of good quality. The coltiVBtJon of the mulberry has also of 
late been greaUy eilended. 

Axllogy. — The moat common wild QuadTapedx are the bear, lynx, 
wildcat, hoar, stag, toebnct, goat, badger, marten, wolf, foi, weasel, 
jackal, hare, and hedgehog, Birdt comprise the vulture, falcon, 
owl, cuckoo, roler, kingfisner, teal-dack, stork, partridge, pigaoo. 

Snail, snipe, blackbird, goldfinch, nightingale, swallow, marten, 
amiueo, and pelican. The domeMic animals are of inferior breeds, 
and thJe ass is almost the only beast of burden. Sheep are very 
nnmerons, ami form, with goata, the only animals from which dairv 

Cidnce IB obtuned. Beea are extensively reared, and honey la 
gely exported. 

BthnogTapliy.— The people of modem Greece are a mixed nice, 
the pure blood of the Pelasgians having, in the course of aii^es, be- 
come largely intermixed with Sclavonic, Teutonic, and even Turkisli 
elements. In some parts of Northern Greece, as also in the nortbeni 
and eastern parts of the Morea, and some of (he islands, Albaniana 
EODatitute the majority of the inhabitants. 

ZanjTuaac— The ancient Greek formed one of the principal membera of 
the Greco-Latin branch of the great Ludo-Euiopeau family. Modem Greek 
or Ramaic dilfere as little Cram tke ancient as some of the dialects of the 
latlar lUffered from each otha 
Romanic lancuacea (Kn;ni-Ii. Il 
90). The All. ■ 
Dlyrian pri. 


fallibility of ecclesiastical councils; in administering the Eucliarist in 
two kinds ; in denying tiie doctrine of puigatory and the adoration of 
images, (though that honour is freely conced^ to paintings of the Deity, 
of the Virgin Mary, and of other saints); and, finally, in the celibacy of 
the clergy, and the use of the Scriptures by the laity. Bomap Catholics 
are numerous in the Ionian Isles and the Cyclades, and enjoy, with other 
sects, a limited amount of toleration. 

Education is in a backward state, but strenuous efforts are made by 
the state to improve it. Besides the Universities of Athens and Corfu, 
there are gymnasia at Athens, Nauplia, Patras, Syra, and Hydra; to- 
gether with normal, polytechnic, and naval schools. Indeed, every imr 
portant town has its gymnasium, and every village its common schooL 

Literature. — The literature of Greece, the most copions and bril- 
liant in the history of our race, belongs almost exclusively to ancient 
times, and every scholar is more or less familiar with it. Of the few 
names contained in the following list, several were not natives of 
Greece : — 

Poets : Homer, Hesiod, Tyrtseus, Sappho, Anacreon, Pindar, .^schy- 
lus, Sophocles, Euripides, Arist^hanes. Historians : Herodotus, 
Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Diodoms Siculus, Diogenes Laertius, 
Plutarch. Orators: Empedocles, Goigias, Isocrates, Demosthenes, 
^schines, Hermogenes, Longinus. Philosophers: Thales of Miletus, 
Auaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Demo- 
critus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, Zeno, Plotinus. Matheua- 
TiciANS AND Astronomers : Eudoxus, Euclid, Eratosthenes, Archimedes, 
Apollonius, Hipparclius, Ptolemy, Diodes, Proclus, Isidorus, Diophan- 
tus. Geographers: Posidonius, Strabo. Physicians: .fisculapius^ 
Hippocrates, Herophilus, Galen. Fine Arts : Ageladas, Myron, Phidias, 
Polycletus, Polygnotus, Apelles, Aristides. 

Oovemxnent, &c. — Greece, which had for ages groaned under the 
yoke of Turkey, revolted against that power in 1821 ; and after a 
long and severe struggle, in which it was aided by liie European 
powers, secured its independence in 1829. In 1832 Otho, second 
son of the King of Bavaria, was appointed king, but abdicated in 
1862, after which Prince George of Denmark accepted the crown. 
The government, at first nearly absolute, became, after the revolu- 
tion of 1843, a constitutional monarchy. The executive is vested in 
the king and his responsible ministers, assisted by a council of state. 
The Chamber of Deputies, who are chosen by universal suffrage, 
consists of 170 members. The army, in 1873, amounted to 12,800 
men and officers, including 1500 of a reserved force. The navy 
embraced 2 frigates, 2 corvettes, and 8 steamers, carrying 164 guns. 
The estimated Revenue for 1870 amounted to £1,218,000 ; the Ex- 
penditure to £1,210,000 ; and the Public Debt to £18,800,000. 

Commerce and Maimfactures. — The chief resource of the inhabit- 
ants of Greece consists in their maritime commerce. The Greeks 
are expert mariners ; the great extent of coast-line gives them many 
facilities for maritime pursuits ; and they have for a long time been 
the principal agents in conducting the commerce of the eastern part 
of the Mediterranean. In 1869, the total number of vessels that 


Of these, 638, with a tonnage of 321,997, \ .^_ 

j^incipat porta are the Pirsns, ^tras, NaupUa, Syra, and Corfu. 
The mannfactnres are few, and chiefly domestic, consisting of silll, 
cotton, and woollen stu^a ; coarse pottery, leather, beetroDt-sugiir, 
and soap, are made in the principal towns ; carpets, sail-cloth, imd 
Btraw-hats in some of the islands: the women excel in etabroidery, 
and dyeing in bright colours has been perpetuated from ancient times. 
ShiphnUding is also carrisd on at Syra, Lepanto, and other ports. 
The Exports embrace currants (the average annual value of which 
to Britain amonots to £700,000), cotton, olivB-oil, wine, tobacco, 
wool, honey, wax, gum, silk, sponge, and valouia (a species of acorn 
naed by tanners), ImporU : manufactured goods (chiefly cotton from 
. Great Britaiu}, colonial prodnce, flax, timber, rice, drugs, &o. 

Tnlnnfl Communication, — The roads are few in camber and of the 
most wretched description, except neat the capital ; and sach as exist 
are infested with bands of robbers. A railway, however, now con- 
nects Athens with the Pirsus (being a distance of 7 miles), opened 
in 186B ; while a canal is coutemplated to cut through the Isthmoa 
K fl f Qorinth. 

^B The Turkish or Ottoman Empire comprehends ali the conn- 
^BWeHuiwhicfiTurkiBhaupremaeyiB directly or indirectly recog- 
E^irised. Its area and population are ill defined — the authority 
of the Snlt&n heing little more than nominal in many extensive 
provinoea. Its vaet territoriea, though situated in the three 
continents which constitute the Old World, are strictly contanii- 
oua, comprising a large territory in the extreme S. of Eorope ; 
another, six times aa large, in the W. of Asia ; and a third, 
of still greater dimenaiona, in the N.E. of Africa. IC is bounded 
on the N. hy the Tran^cancaaian provinces of Russia, the Black 
Sea, and Eouniania, Servia, and Montenegro; on the W. by 
Montenegro, the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas, Alceria, 
and Nigritia ; on the 8. by' the equator, AbyeBinia, and the 
Golf ot Aden j and on the E. by Arabia and Persia. Lat, 0° 
—14= 8' N.; Ion. 7° 46'— 48° 16' E. 

This wido eiponra of territory, equal in dimensions to the most famous 
empiiea of antiquity, is intensely interesting to every reflecting miiid. It is 
i/ieffrajMtaltg interesting, as ly!n|; midway between the four great Oceana, 
this occupying the central area of the Old World. It is KiitoriaCly intar- 
eatins, ucomprebending theaceneofman's eulieat history— his high origin, 
Ilia haw; Paradise, his early rebellion, and the first promise of hia fatore 
restoiBOon to fellowship with his Maker, Here tbe Antediluviane lived 
~ It tlieir unturies of violence, and here the ark of Noah fioated Becurelr 

aboTB that flood which extemvinated the rebellious race ; here tbe 


arcli alighted to people afresh the desolate earth, and here his descendanta 
attempted anew to oppose the decrees of Heaven ; — ^here the most ancimt 
empires were founded, the iirst cities bnilt, the earliest arts coltiTated, 
the temple of science founded, and the saving truths of revelation first 
published I — here wandered those pilgrim fathers who lived " as seeing 
Him who is invisible ; " here their onsprin^ were held in bondage, am 
the power of the Divine arm, working in their behalfl was revealed ; — ^here 
was situated that "good land" which the Most High had kept in reserve 
for His peculiar people, " when He divided to the nations their inheritance, 
and separated tne sons of Adam ;" here seers prophesied, and inroii^ 
bards sang ; — ^here Gk>d tabernacled amongst men, and the Skm or God 
assumed the human form ; here He suffered and died for man, and laid 
the foundations of a kingdom that is destined ere long to embrace all the 
tribes of mined humanity. The capital of this vast empire is Ck>nstanti* 
nople, situated on the strait which separates the European from the 
Asiatic provinces, and contains 600,000 inhabitants. The empire is said 
to consist of 24 divisions, called vilayets, 12 of which are in Europe, and 
12 in Asia. The African provinces are nearlv independent, while the tie 
that connects many of the remainder with the Sultan of Constantinople 
is verv slender. The total area is vaguely estimated at 1,820,000 sq. m., 
but the population is very sparse, not exceeding 40,000,000, or a little 
more than that of the British Isles. 

Historical Sketch. — The Ottoman Empire was founded at Prusa, in 
Bithynia, in a.d. 1298, by Osman or Othman I., sumamed Elghazi, or the 
Victorious. In 1353, the Turks first entered Europe, under Solyman, 
who crossed the Hellespont and landed at Gallipoli. In 1360, Amurath 
I. overran Eastern Europe, from the Danube to the Adriatic. Adrianople 
became the capital of European Turkey in 1362, and Constantinople was 
captured by Mahommed II. in 1453, thus terminating the Byzantine or 
Ei^tem Roman Empire. Servia was conquered in 1458, Moldavia in 1476, 
li^ypt in 1516, Belgrade in 1521, Rhodes from the Knights of St John in 
152^ Hun^uy became subject to the Turks by the battle of Mohacz in 
1526, when Louis of Hungary was slain. Cyprus was ceded by the Vene- 
tians in 1573, and Candia taken in 1669, after a 25 years' siese. In 1686, 
Buda was retaken by the Imperialists, and Hungary wrested from Taricey. 
Transylvania was lost in 1699. Montenegro was ceded to Turkey in 1718^ 
bv the peace of Passarowitz ; but she lost the Crimea in 177^ Besnr- 
abia in 1812, Greece in 1829, and Roumania, Servia, Montenegro, in 1878; 
while Bulgaria is nearly free, Bosnia and Herzegovina are occnpied hf 
Austria, Cyprus by Great Britain. 


(Together with Roumania, Servia, MoNTXNao&o, Ac) 

Position and Bonndaries.— N., the Hungarian provineaiof 
Austria ; W., Dalmatia, the Adriatic, and the Ionian Seat &» 
Greece, the ^gean Sea, and the Sea of Marmora ; E.. the Blade 
Sea and Bessarabia. It lies between lat 38^ bT and 4IB^^'^- 
and between Ion. 15° 54' and 29° 40' E., thus occapyiog a 
than 9° of lat. and nearly 14° of Ion. 

TURKEV, 307 

Conataatiaopla (Ut. 41°, Ion. 29°), tte cnpital of ths empire, sitnated 
not for from its (centre, is nearly on the aame parallel as New York, 
Maiiriii, Naples, Bokhara, and Pekin ; and nearly on the aame meridian 
as St Patersijurg, Alexandria, and Pott Natal. By the Treaty of Berlin 
(July 1878), thoUmita of European Turkey are now reduced to abont one- 
half their former dimenaions. The principalities of Eoumania, Bervia, 
and Montenegro, formerly tributary, are now independent, and have had 
their areas considerably enla^d ; Bulgaria is reduced in size, bnt made 
praotioaliy independent ; Bosnia and HerieKOvina are occupied and ad- 
ministered by Anstro-Hungary; while the southern parts of Albania and 
TbessaJy are to be annoied to Greece. Further, Kusaia baa retaken 
possession of that jjart of Roumania lying N. of the Danube and B. of 
the Pmth, which she was compelled to cede to Turkey by the Treaty of 

Paris, 1856, in return for which Hnumania has obtained posse 
that part of Bulgaria named the Uobrudscba. Turkey has also been 
obIi|red to cede toRnssia a lat^ portion of Armenia, including Kais and 
the seaport Batoum, Finally, by the Anglo-Tnrkish Convention of the 
same year, Britain assumed nvtectorate of Asia Minor, for which, in 
return, the Sultan assigned Cj-pruB to be occupied by her. 

Area and Population. — The area of Eurapean Turkey, aubsequent 
to the Treaty of Berlin (1878), U estimated at 69,159 aq. m., and 
the popnlatioD at 5,044,000 ; while the area and population of the 
dilfereQt sections, then either entirely or practically made free, are 
OS follows : — 

squaco mUos. 


286 000 





Bosnia, Herzegovina, and sandjak of 
r_ Norf-Bazar 

p Torai, . . . 





U 061 622 

Political DlvlBloiia. — The European portion of tha empire (in 
clatiing Esstera Knmelia, which is still ander the euzerainty of tbs j 
Sultan} consists of tlie following fire piovincea : — 

Romalift.— CoHSTANTiHOPLB (with Pera) 600 (Bospoma), Hodoato 21 

(Twtaa), PrUtina I 

»((W), E 


Eastern Sximelia.— Philippopolis 28, Tatar-Bazardjik 10 (Maiitza), 
Selimnia 20, Eski-Sagra, 20 n., Kezanlik 10 (Tni^a). 
Burghas, Jamboli. 

Thessaly. — Labissa 25, Trikhala 12 n. (Salembria). 
Ambelakm, Pharsala or Satalge, Volo. 

Albania.— ScuTABi 20 (Bojana), Jacova 18, Prisrend 35 (Drin)^ Kroya 
15, Tirana 10 (Jantra), Herat 12 (Ergent^jDelvino 10 (Flstricza), Janina 
3D (Lake Janina), Durazzo 10, Valona 8 (w. coast). 

Podgoricza, Carbonara, Tepeleni, Mezzovo, £1 Bassan, Aigyro-Kastro, Arta» 
Prevesa, Ochrida. 

Crete.— Candia 13, Retimo 8, Canea 12 (N. coast). 

BoTunania.— BuoHABEST 177 (Dumbovitza), Galatz 80, Ibraila 28, 
Guirgevo 21 (Danube), Jassy 90 n., Huscli 18, Botuchany 40 n. (Pmth), 
Bonianie, Fokchany 20 (Seretb), Berlat 26 (Berlat), Piatra 20 (Bistritsa), 
Buseo 11 (Buseo), Ployesti 33 (Jalomnitza), Krajova 23 (Scbyl). 

Matchin, Adjiud, Baku, Hirsova, Rassova, Kustendjeh, Oltenitca, Teigovist, 
Blatina, Earakal, Rlmnik, Kalefat, Tchemecz. 

Servia. — Belgrade 28, Semendria 10 (Danube), Nissa 10 n. (Morava). 
Gladova, Passarovitz, Kitigrojevatz, Uzitza, Eroschevatz, Leskovitza. 

Montenegn^o. — Cetione 1 n. (Boyana), Antivari 8, Dulcigno 7 (Adri- 
Pudgoritza, Nicksics, Spizza. 

Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Novi-Bazar. — Bosna-Sebai or Sebajbvo 
50 (Migliazza), Zvomik 10, Fotcha 10 (Drin), Banialuka 15 (Verbas), 
Mostar 12 (Narenta), Trebinje 10 (Tribinschucza), Novi-Bazar 15 (Ibar). 

Travnik, Doboi, Jaitza, Livno, Dubitza, Kliutch. 

Bulgaria.— Sophia 18 (Isker), Silistria 23, Rustchuk 28, Sistova 20. 
Nicopolis 20, Widin 19 (Danube), Rasgrad 10 (Ak-Lom), Timova 12 
(Jantra), Plevna 15 n. (Vid), Varna 16 (Black Sea), Shumla 20 (Kamt- 

Bazardjik, Osman • Bazar, Bergovatz, Dubitza, Samakov, Lovatz or Lofeha, 

Descriptive Notes. — European Turkey, Including the independent 
provinces above mentioned, contains only two towns (Constantinople 
and Bucharest) above 100,000 inhabitants ; five between 100,000 
and 50,000 (Adrianople, Saloniki, Bosna- Serai, Galatz^ Jassy); 
twenty -eight between 50,000 and 20,000; and thirty between 
20,000 and 10,000. 

Constantinople (Turk. Stamboul, ane. Byzantium), a larae and oele* 
brated city, capital of the Ottoman Empire, and formerly of the Bynn- 
tine or Roman Empire, occupies a triangular promontory of -land between 
the Bosporus and its inlet, the Golden Horn. Its aspect, when approached 
by water, is of the most striking and beautiful description, presenting 
a crowd of domes and minarets, backed by the daik foliage of the 
cypress and other trees which shade the extensive cemeteries beyond fhe 
walls. The streets, however, are narrow and dirty, and are infested with 
dogs, which act as public scavengers. The most striking of the pablio 
buildings are the Seraglio, or imperial palace, which with its gronndi 
occupies an area of three miles ; the church of St Sophia, bnilt bvtiie 
Emperor Justinian, in the sixth century, now converted into a liooan- 
medan mosque ; and the mosque of Achmet, a fine stractnre, with i 
beautiful marble pavement and six minarets. Mannfactam nnimpormii 

TOEKEY. 309 

ohiefly af morocco leather, saddlery, shoeB, and niearacLaum pipes. By- 
nclium WEUfounilfd bjr Byzas, the leader of a Megarian colony, B.C. E£8; 
wRsrabviilt by Con.^itantine the Great, a.d. 330; was taken by the Cruaa- 
dera in 1204, who retained it till 1361 ; and by the Torka in 1453, an 
event which marked the Snal extinction of the Roman Empire in ths 
East. Constantinople is the seat of the principal foreign trade of Turkey, 
and, inclnding Galata and Pera, has tiOn,ODD inhahitanta, Ihns rankine as 
the fifth city on the Coetinent. Gallipoli (anc. Kallipolis), tlie brat 
European town taken by the Turks (1356), is row the princii>a! station 
of tha Turkish fleet; it ia a place of great trade, and is noted for ita 
moroceo leather. Adrianople, founded by the Emperor Adrian, B.C. 378. 
wBfl, neit to Constantinople, the chief city of the Eastern Empire, and 
.WB9 the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1366 to 1463. It is tlia 
third most populous city in Turkey Proper, has an active commerce in 

manufactured goods ; numei ' - -' - » ■ 

linens; dyeworks andtanuBri 

the centra of the cultivation , 

(anc Thessalonica), a laree seaport, and the nBcond commercial city in 
European Turkey, has a large trade in British produce, and numerona 
eiporta. FUibi (om:. Philippi), where the Gospel was first preached 
in Europe. Plllllppopolll, founded by Philip of Maoedon : under the 
Romans, it was one of the most Important towns of the country ; baa 
flourishing manufactures of woollen, silk, and cotton fabrics, leather, 
soap, tobacco, and a considerable transit trade. ButghU, the prin- 
cipal seaport town of Eastern Rumelia, noted for its large exports of 
com. and Bne clay for tobacco-pipes. IiBTisia, once the capital of the 
Pelaagi, is an important manufacturing town noted for its dyeworks, 
Near it Satalgs {aiic. Pharsalus), memorable for the decisive battle 
between CiBsar and Pompey, B.C. 48, which made Qesar master of the 
Roman world. Scutari, once the most important town of lllyricum, 
and the residence of the lUyrian King Gentius, ia the capital of Albania, 
and the centre of a great inland i^de. Prlarend, the residence of 
the Turkish governor, contains nnmeroua moaqnaa, with mannfaoturea 
or flrearms, which are much celebrated. Juiina has a melancholy 
celebrity from its connection with the infamous Ali Pasha, who reduced 
it to ashes in 1820, In its vicinity once stood Dodona, the seat of the 
most celebrated oracle of antiquity. Candla,, a fortified seaport, and cap. 
of the Island Crete, came into the hands of the Turks in 1669. Bnnhuest, 
capital of Boumania since 1861 (formerly capital of Wallachia), is, though 
poorly and irregularly built, a thriving place, and tha princi]^ entrepot 
for the commerce between Turkey and Austria. Here w '" 

a the left hank of the Danube, the chief porta of Eoumania; at these 
two places the ButslBn army crossed the Danube In June 1877. Juiy, 
formerly capital of Moldavia, »nd now the second city in fioumania, 
maintains an active commerce In agricultural produce. Enstandjeh 
is a fortiiied seaport on the Block Sea. at the E. termination of Tr^an's 
WalL Belgrada, capital of Secvia, is a strongly fortified city at tha 
confluence of the Danube and Save, an entrepfitof the commerce between 
Turkey and Anstria, and the most western outpost of Mohammedaniim 
in Europe, mwa or Hitch, pilndpsi place in the new territory acquired 
^■»"-""" *n 187S. Catiffng, capital of Montenegro, is a me™ villagB. 
. .m elevated valley. Aativarl and IhUdgno, the two seaports 
■U ODten^ro. The latltr. situated on the summit of a toftv peninsula, 
^^ the niqjeot of mocb diplomatic litigation between I'urWy vxA Vw. 
- "-— -n poiwpi ial8M. iMMt^wtf cr " '" — 


well-built, fortified, and commercial city, is the capital of Bosnia, a pro- 
vince now occupied by Austria. Mostar, capital of Herzegovina, noted 
for itR ancient Koman bridge, which consists of a single arch 95 feet in 
span; has manufactures of swords and firearms, and exports hides, 
wool, and cattle. UTovi-Basar, capital of sandjak of same name, lying 
between Servia and Montenegro, which was ceded to Austria in 1878, 
but still administered by Turkey. Sophia, present capital of Bulgaria, 
situated in a beautiful plain on the Isker, and on the grand route from Con- 
stantinople to Belgrade. Silistria, Sustclmk, Siatova, NioopoUs, and 
Widin. commercial and fortified towns on the south bank of the Danube, 
and the scenes of numerous conflicts between the Turks and Rnssianfl. 
Timova, a fortified town of Bulgaria, was captured by the Busaians 
July 1877, after a lengthened siege and several bloody engagements. 
Varna, the principal port of Turkey on the Black Sea, is the place fttmi 
which the Anglo-French army embarked for Sebastopol in 1854. Migml^ 
situated in one of the main passes of the Balkans, was strongly fortified, 
and reckoned one of the keys of Constantinople ; but its fortifications, 
together with those of all the other strongholds in Bulgaria, were ordered 
to be demolished by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. Pleviia, the strong- 
hold of Osman Pasha during the late war, was finally captured by the 
Russians after a protracted and deadly struggle. 

Capes and Islands. — Linguetta, on the W. coast of Albania; 
Faliuri, Drapano, and Monte Santo, the extremities of three penin- 
sulas on the coast of Macedonia ; Helles Boumu, at W. entrance of 
the Dardanelles ; Emineh, N.E. of Rumelia ; Ealagria, E. of Bul- 
garia. The Islands belonging to Turkey are Crete, Scarpanto, and 
Caxo, at the mouth of the ^ean Sea ; the Turkish Sporades (the 
chief of which are Leninos or Stelymene, Imbros, Samothi^Eiki, Thaso^ 
and Strati), in the N. of the ^gean Sea. The islands on the coast 
of Asia Minor, as Lesbos, Scio, Samos, Rhodes, and Cypms, b^ong 
rather to the Asiatic portion of the empire. 

Seas, Oolfii, and Straits.— The Adriatic and Ionian Seas, bet 
Turkey and Italy ; ^gean Sea, bet. Thessaly and Anatolia ; Sea of 
Marmora, bet. Thrace and Anatolia; Black Sea, bet. European 
Turkey and Caucasia. Gulfs of Drin, Avlona, and Arta, W. of 
Albania; Str. of Otranto, joining the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; 
Channel of Corfu, between Corfu and Albania; Gulf of Volo, S.K, 
of Thessaly ; Gulfs of Salonika, Cassandra, Monte Santo, Gonteasa, 
and Saros, S. of Rumelia ; the Dardanelles or Hellespont, connecting 
the ^gean Sea with the Sea of Marmora ; the Bosporus, or ChannM 
of Constantinople, uniting the Sea of Marmora witn the Black Sea; 
Gulf of Burgas, N.E. of Rumelia. 

Surface and Mountains. — The greater part of the snr&ce of Euro- 
pean Turkey is an undulating region of hills and yalleys, moontaini 
and table-lands, of moderate elevation. There are tnree principal 
mountain-ranges, which divide the country into three almost equal 
climatic regions, and which form the great water-partings between 
the principal river-basins — viz., 1. The Western range, sepaiating 
the basins of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas from those of the Danube 
and iEgcan Sea ; 2. The Balkan range, or Mount Hsemna, between 
the Danube and the ^gean Sea ; an<£ 8. The Eastern Cupathiu% 
between the basins of the Theiss and Lower Danube. 

of llic Julian 
, ^ tier, and sepa- 

nttiiiE the basins of the Adriatic and Ionian Seaa from those of tha 
DsJiiibe and JEgean Sea. Thia l-snge is known as the Linaric Alpiia 
the north, and as Griimmn> or the Pi-ndv) Cltain in the south : Mount 
Olympna, in the }t. of TheEsaly, the culniinatmK point of the whole 
peninsoli^ 674B feet, lies considerably E. of tbti nuge. The other loftiest 
■njnmits are, Mount Dinara, la Croatia, 7458 feet ; Mount Pindus, 
between Allunia and Thessaly, 8930 feet : and Mount Ida, in Ciet«, 
707* feet Height of snow-line on Monnt Olympus, 9000 feet. 

The Balkan or Uamva Han^, hranching off at right angles from tha 
Hellenlo range, and eitending eastward to Cape Emineh m the Slack 

rvigo, named Despoto T>agh (anc, HAodope), hranchea off sonthwarda 
trom the middle of the main range, sepanituig the basins of the Maritia 
and Kani-sUp and containing Kilo D^h, 8313 feet, a ' " ' ' " 
ontlier, 06SS feet. 

m that of 


the Cower Dannba (see under " 

Momtttiin-PaiHi, — Trajan's Gate and the Shnmla Pass, In the Balkan 
range ; the Iron Gate, Vulcan Pass, Bnthenthnrm Pass, Boia Pass, in the 
Carpathians, between Wallachia and Transylvania ; Gymea Pass, hetween 
Moldavia and TransyWania. 

FUndpal KiTBT-BEiEiiLa. — The rivers of European Turkey are 
naturally diTideJ into three groups — viz., those flowing westward 
to the Adriatic and Ionian S<^as ; those flnwiug southward to tha 

of basin 18,200 sq. m. ; and those Howing eastward to the Black 
Sea, the principal being the Danube, 1785 to. long, area of basin 
SOS, 000 sq. m. 

TaUe of Rlvara ajid Towns. ^The follon-ing table comprises 50 
of the principal rivers of Turkey, cf which 18 enter the sea directly 
and 32 indirectly. Though the Dannhe with its tributaries was given 
at Jenffth under Austria, we insert again here, for the conve 
~'te student, the portion of its basin belonging to Turkey. 

d Ionian Scai. 

! ..Stolaa. 
. . Jmosnlif, Litno, 

...Sodubi.Cktibhb, n, 



. .".Kmra, Titinii. 

. ..Et Aaiaa, Karlija, 

Deropuli, !...^rovro-Ka 

KstricHi, IMvino. 

ArUG.SBdB,,/V<Mm. ^ 

Co. iltumin, ..^iTjffonri, . 



Bcuins inclined to the ^ean Sea. 

Riven. Toums. \ Jtivers. 

Balembria, .... Larissa, A m^lakia, Tri- G. of Lagos, . . Lagos. 


cala, n. 
Satalge, .... Pharsala. 
G. of Ssuonika, Salonika, 

Karasu, Servicij Kastoria, n. 

Mauronero, ...AUtklieti, YenUfja-Var- 

Yardar, Yodena, n., Istib, n., Eu- 

piili, Uskup. 

Tzema, Monastir. 

Strymon, Neokliorio, Seres. 

Angites, I ..Filibi, Drama. 
G. of Kavallo, Kavallo. 

Maritza, EnnSt 

n., AdrUmoplef 
polls or FiUbi, 
nitZt Samakov, 
Erkeneh, l..Uirep6U. 
Teams, ...Kirk-EUlssla. 

Tondja, Adrianople, JawJMif 8«> 

llnmla, Bski-Sagra, n., 

Dardanelles, . . GallipolL 

S. of Marmora, Rodosto, Erekli. 

Bosporus, .. ..GONSTANTIKOPLE, P«fTL 

Basins inclined to the Black Sea. 

E. Co. of Ru- Midia, Ainada, Burgas. 

Eamtcbik, .... Shumla, Eski-Djuma. 

Pravadi Varna, Pravadi, Yeni- 


Danube, Baba-Dagh, Ellla, Ismael, 

Jteni, Galacz, Ibrail, 
Matsnint Hirsova.Rcu- 
sovOt SiLisTRLA., OUcn- 
itza, Turtukai, Giur- 
gevo, Rustchuk, Sisto- 
va, Nicopoli, Widdin, 
Kal e/a t, TcTiemecz, 
Seinendria, Pancsova, 
Belgrade, Aeo. — (See 
under '• Austria,") 
Jalpuch, 2 ..Ismael, Bolgrad. 
Ptuth, I ,, ..Beni, Husch, Jassy, n., 
Botuchany, n., Czemo- 
Sereth, I.... Galacz, Adjivd, n., BcAu^ 
Berlat, I . . Berlat. 
Bistritza, Pietra, Bisfritza. 
Jalomnit- Hirsovat Ployesti. 
za, I 

Argish, Oltenitza, Tergovist, 

Dumbo- Bucharest. 

Lorn Osman-Bazar. 

Ak-Lom, . . . .Rasgrad. 

J antra, Timova. 

Alt or Alu- Nicopoli, Slatina, RitH' 
ta, I nikt Kronstadt^ n. 

Isker, Sophia. 

Schyl, I .... Kn^ova. 
HoTovsi, ....Krago^evaez, n., Kruh 
ehewxez, Lescovitza, 

Ibar, Not! - Bazar, Fristtna, 


Save, Belgrade, SehavaeM. 

Drin, Zvomik. Belina. 

Bosna,.... Dofroi, Maglai, Tnumlk, 
Yerbas,. . .Banialuka, JiUcMO. 
Unna,....0radi8to, Novi, Bikaei, 
Sanna, Novi, KUiUek. 

Lakes. — The principal lakes are Scutari, in the N.W. of Albaniif 
drained by the Boyana ; Ochrida, between Albania and IfaoedonUt 
drained by the Drin ; and Janina^ in the S.£. of Albania, in tiie 
basin of the Arta. There are also several lani^ fresh-water Ifl^ooni 
near the mouth of the Danube, as Rassein, Jalpuch, &o. 

Climate.— Owing partly to the elevation of the snr&ee, andjparllj 
to its exposure to N. E. ^^dnds from the interior of Russia, the oumata 
of Turkey is more severe than its latitude would lead ub to eKpest; 
and it is, moreover, subject to sudden and violent flnetuatioiUL 

Though few of the mountains reach the limit of peraimial oongaHattaii^ 
snow lies during the greater part of the year in the rocosses of tlia liUhtf 
elevations ; while in the plains of Rumania, the thennamoter <"' 
sometimes to 15° below zero, and the sledge is used for tnsnS^^ 
Russia. A great portion of Albania, being protectsd bj HKmn 
N.£. winds, eigoys a delicioos climate ; but this r^^ion is ! 

TUKKEV. 313 

TfsiteJ ty destniclivB eartliqiiakes. In the rofky districts of the interior, 
and in tba maritime valleys of the W., Uio aumnier is eicassiTel; hot. 
Around Ihs capital the climate is Eitiemely Toriable, especially in winter 
«nd spring— mow and hard frost alternating with mitd weather, andtha 
temperatora sometiniea cbandng to the extent of S0° in a eii^a night. 
At tha mouth of tha Danuhe the winter tompBrature ia the aaine as in the 
interior of Iceland. The isotherm for January, which passes through the 
centre of that Island and the S.W. of Norway, through Holland and 
Fnknkfiirt-on-the-Main, crosses the Danuhe at Begensburg in BaTaris. 
and the Theisa at Szegedin in Hungary, proceeds along the northern fron- 
tier of Wallachia, and quita the contment at Lake Baaaein In Bulgaria. 
At Constantinople the mean temperatnre for the year is 58°.S, tor winter 
40', and for summer 72°. The annnal quantity of ram is moderate over 
the entire peninsula, rarely exceeding 32 inches. 
fieology. — The geology of Turkey has not been very accurately 
. Biplored; but, bo far as presently known, crystalline rooks covae 
almost the entire area hounded by tlie Bsjkana, Mouat Pindna, and 
the basin of the Maritza, together with a somewhat extensive tract 

5. ofthe Golf of Burgas. SUurian strata do not occur, hut N.W. of 
Constantinople there ia a small tract of upper palieoioic; another 
in the Balkan Mountains ; and a third on the Danabe, near Orsora, 
Secondary strata chiefly occupy the western prorincea, together with 
■ long belt S. of the Balkans, extending from the Morava to the 
Black Sea. Rumania, and the N. part of Servia aud Bosnia, all 
lying in Che basin of the Safe and Lower Danube, belong to the 
tertiary series ; as also the S, W. of Albania, from the Scombl to the 

6. of Arta, together with the basin of the Moritzo, 
MintralL—Coil is nowhere fonnd, except a small quantity in the 

moontains of Rumelia. Iron of the best quality is very abundant, but 
the mhios in actual operation are few in number. Many of the veins 
■which traverse the prystaUms schists aro highly raetalliferons, and lead 
yielding a considerable percentage of silver has at difibrent periods been 
wrought to some extent ; but neither govemmeut nor people seem In- 
olinod to turn the mineral treasures of the country to good acconnt. 
Other minerals are, goM in small quantities, copper, magnstio irou, 
marbie, sulphnr, salt, and alum. 

Botajiy BJid AErlotiltiar& — Turkey belongs entirely to Schauw*3 
third phyto-geographic region, and its ftora, therefore, corresponds to 
that of the other two great poninsnlaa of Southtrn Europe (see p. 
82). A great difference, however, eiiists betweon tha Tegetation of 
the basin of the Dannbe and tliat of the pravinoea S. of the Balkans. 
In the fanner tha foreati lonsEst of the pina, beeoh, oalc (vhich yields 
the Valonia acorn, so vbIuliIjIi' for taiiuini;), lime, nud ash. bcaidea 
the apple, pear, oherry. 
throughout extenaiv I- i' 
oonSnod to the aides "i 
hibit the plane, loapli-, 
"It treei, ta alaa the l". 
;b fonista at flr and 

I Tha oliva thrives in the nudtiin 


orange and citron are cultivated ; and the vine in all the p roy ia ce e, though 
in the valley of the Danube the fruit is deficient in saccharine matter. 
littie wine u produced for exportation, as it is so carelesfdy manu&ctmed 
as to be unfit for shipping. While Candia and CypruB were poesessed by 
the Venetians, they supplied all Europe with the choicest deeaert winei. 
Now, however, the total produce of the vintage of these islands does not 
amount to one- tenth of wnat it then was. Fruit-trees of nnmenniB spedet 
are ex^mely abundant, especially in Albania ; while the Bonthem base 
of the Balkans, especially the plain of Adrianople, is remaikable for the 
abundance of its roses, from which the celebrated attar (otto of roses) 
is distilled. About 800,000 roses are required to produce an oimoe of the 
oil, which, when pure, fetches an enormous price. The opium and other 
drugs for which Turkey is so famous, are confined to the Asiatic pro- 
vinces. The system of agriculture pursued is of the rudest descriptKni, 
and only a small x>ortion of the country (probably not more than a sixth) 
is under cultivation, though the soil is in most parts abundantly ferffle, 
and better adapted for the CTowth of the cereals than any other jwrt of 
Europe. Maize is cultivated in the S. ; rice, cotton, rye, and barley in 
the central parts ; wheat, barley, and millet in Moldavia. 

Zoology. — The fauna of the Hellenic peninsula does not differ vexy 
materially from that of the Italian. It comprises 65 Mammals, 42 
of which are camivora, 14 rodentia, 8 ruminantia, and 1 pachyderm 
— viz., the wild-boar. The camivora include the bat, bear, badger, 
marten, wol^ dog, fox, civet, and wild-cat. The rodents embrace 
the squirrel, beaver, hedgehog, vole, mouse, rat, and hare. The 
ruminants include the deer, antelope, chamois, and wild-ox. The 
lion, anciently found on Mount Olympus, has lone been extirpated. 
Birds comprise 259 species, of which 31 are birds of prey, 15 climben, 
100 songsters, 12 gallinaceous birds, 64 waders, and 87 swimmen. 
The bustard and partridge abound in the valleys, and game is plen- 
tiful in the mountains. The Reptiles are 27 in number, embracing 
land-tortoises, lizards, frogs, and serpents. The Fishes of the Medi- 
terranean, so far as presently known, are 444 in number, and nearly 
all occur on the W. and S. coasts. Tunny, coral, and sponge fisheries 
are characteristics of the Mediterranean. Trout and other fish are 
plentiful in the rivers ; and leeches, which abound in the marshes, 
form an important article of exportation. The fishes and other 
inhabitants of the Black Sea are regarded as a colony from the 
Mediterranean, and though fewer in number, do not greatly differ in 

Ethnography. — The population of European Turkey belonsa, for 
the most part, to three distinct races — the Sclavonian, Greco-Latin, 
and Turkish. 

The Sclavoniaus, who are by far the most numerous, people Bulgaria, 
Servia, Bosnia^Herzegovina, Montenegro, and ThesMly. The Greco- 
Latins occupy W allachia, Moldavia, and the greater part of Albania, and 
also embrace about a million of Greeks proper in Rumelia and Thesatly, 
The large province of Bumelia, especially the part of it extending from 
the Vardar to the Black Sea, is chiefly inhabited by the Turks or Osman- 
lee, so named from Osman, the ancestor of the present rulmg dynasty 
and founder of the Turkish Empire (a.d. 1298). The Osmanlee, who 



iaQed Otton 


. ... f Asiatic "rigin, and ore dJstinpiiBlied 

s I'j tlidr luiftiite«. custDmE, and pbi^LtoJ uhamcur. 

Bongn xLe aanuniuii isoe in Emojjean Turkey, tljey an nnniBriiailly a 

ore fraolJon of the popnlalion, proliBbly not' BXCEeding 1,500.000 pET- 

nu. Bceidoe the capi^ and tlie eastern part of B-muelxa, they lean 

cmiBideralile fruction of the population trf moEt of iIib lor^ towns. 

be Turkish Impnape, a rich sua polinhed tonpne, forme an imjiortant 

ember of tike gT^at FinaoTortarian familv {aee under "Aoa"). The 

mndpal SclaTonic dialects upoten in Turkey are th? Bnlgsriiui, Bflirian, 

gngninn, and Ooatian ; vhile the chief Greco - Latin Um^neE are tin 

Smnoic or UodflriL Qreek, the Wallaciuan, ^^eb is little elije tiian a 

comiptcd Latin, and tbe Albanian or AmantB, the probaUe nnireseii- 

t«tivB of the KDcient DljTiBii. The SclasoniaiiB and Greco -LatinB, 

ntunbering logBthBT abont 10,000.(100, twlortg to the Qreek Churofa ; 

Oie Osmatdae, together witb a large portion of the inbobilairt* of A!- 

tenia, omonntinc in the aggregate to upwards of d,0fl0,0nu, are HoliiaD- 

medame ; vMle the remainiler of the population are Bataan CaUudicg, 

ArmmiiajiB, ProleBtontc, Jews, and GjpflieK. Formerly tbe poniahmeiil 

cf death waF inflicted on edy one rsDomiGiiig the reli^on of the £.oTin ; 

BUd thoQgh by a recent decree of the emperor aU persecution on rsligiouB 

groimde k abolished, the bigntn of the UDhmnmedaiiB remninB niimiti- 

pited. BincE tbe Crime&n var, hrrweret, Soriptoral truth bas made 

considerate progn^. The peat mase of tbe people are almost irlioily 

— ^ — ■ ^ lOTiliouplj elementarj' 8[:biiolB are aomewbot numerona, the 

— Tbe literature of tbe Turte is of ancient oripn and 
lughlv resj'ectalile. Ihiring tbe reign of QthtDon and Ida immolate 
•QcoeBBort — that is, in tbe tbirtestrtb ajid fonrteentli centimes — it 
mniisted for the most part of tranalatiianE from tbe Arabic, Peidan, 
Greek, Sid Latin, and mare recently from tbe F-n gli"*' , French, and 
German. These traiialatJDna embraced "WDr^ on bistory, geography, 

gaaal or native literature if of a higher order tiiaa is usaally Hnp^ioBed. 

Aabik Paaha, the oldest Tntkiah poet of renown, lived during tlie reign 
•a£ OsniaiL The reign of Bayand ll. was dietuiguisbed by the poete Jie- 
Jtti, DOnsidGnid the first lyric poet of bia time ; Ueeibi, wimm ' ' Ode to 
iQpniie" it higMy oelebiUed; and Soki U>t>> 1600). genoisllT tegarded 
— ■"-- — atBst Turkish poet Tbe last century produced Nabi Btandi, 
in, and £4ieMb Pasba, called "tbeBuJtan of thepoetc of Bum." 
aj niimeroua. and aume of them bigbly esteemed for 
and the concise besutr of then- style ; ae Ali, a canteni- 
foMT-tC SaU, -wluiH mirk, entitled 'Mines of History,' is one of the 
*a4aia«Biinin^rinstbe earlier and middle periods of TnrMah histoi?. 
<Mfcf aMiinjUiilwlliiitonant an Solafc Zade. Haji KhaUab, Sdria, Salma, 
^^dfl, •judb BbUo, and Waauf (A.S. 1SU0-17TJ). Tbe most distin- 
g^Mbad in Biocnpby is Latifi, who irroui the lives of aliont SUO TmMsh 
poota. Turkish litoatuie has also been enriched by numerous vorka on 
— — 'i, drrinity, and philosophy. Their pbiloeopbT, which originBted 

' "jB Bcbool of Jtokiiiro, lias a mystical cbaiacter, imd re- 

ry points tbe speculative doctrines of BcbeUiug, especially 
imn ragaia vi pantheism. — Peniy Cyclop. , vol. xir. 
OonmBMBt md nnaim.~The eDi-enaucut i^ au heradltajy ab- 

I tiie : 


flolutism, the Saltan or Emperor being assisted by thirteen ministers^ 
at the head of whom is the Grand Vizier. 

On his accession to the throne^ the Sultan, instead of being crowned 
like other European sovereigns, is girt with the sword of Osman, and 
made to swear that he will govern tne empire in strict accordance with 
the principles of the Kor^. The government of the provinces is admin- 
istered by pashas, who are absolute in their respective tenitorieSy bat 
hold office only during the pleasure of the Sultan. Persons of the meanest 
origin and basest character are frequently elevated to the office of pasha : 
hence many of the provinces, especially in Asia, are reduced to deserts, 
from the rapacity and extortion of their rulers. Corruption, indeed, ^- 
vades every department of the state, whether civil, military, or ecclesias- 
tical, and the entire empire threatens to fall speedily to pieces — a consum- 
mation which had long ere now been realised, except for the intervention of 
other European powers. The two principalities of Wallachia and Mol- 
davia were united, in 1861, by a firman of the Sultan, and named Rumania. 
The reigning prince, who is styled Hospodar, is Charles I., of the House 
of Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen. The government is hereditary, and con- 
stitutional. The Sultan receives from Rumania an annual tribute of 
£40,000. Servia was ruled by native princes from 1815 to 1856, when it 
was placed under theprotection of the great European powers, as a semi- 
independent state. The government is vested in the Prince, assisted by 
a council of five ministers, who are responsible to the nation, bat who 
must be nominally recognised by the Sultan. In Montenegro the ruling 
prince is styled Hospodar, whose authority is permitted, but not recog- 
nised, by the Porte. The military force of Turkey, on the peace footing, 
numbers 460,000 men, including 75,000 auxiliaries from the three tribu- 
tary provinces. Previous to the late war with Russia, the navy comprised 
70 vessels, carrying 4000 guns. Most of these ships were destroyed by 
the Russians in 1853, and others foundered in the Black Sea. During the 
last ten years the navy has been entirely remodelled, and now embraces 
185 ships of war (several of them ironclads, built in England), carrying 
2370 guns. In 1870, the Revemie amounted to £16,000,000 ; the Expendi' 
twe, to £18,000,000 ; and the Public Debt, to £74,000,000. 

ManofactnreB and Commerce. — Manufacturing industry is, for the 
most part, confined to the production of coarse articles for home con- 
sumption, as woollen and cotton stufifs, shawls, leather, firearms, to- 
gether with dyeing and printing works. In the caplttd, however, and 
some of the chief provincial towns, silks, fine cottons, embroidery* 
filigree ornaments, and meerschaum pipes, are extensively prodac«!a. 
In 1874, the total value of the exports and imports amounted to 
£38,000,000. The former chiefly comprise grain, wool, raw cotton, 
silk, tobacco, attar of roses, and hides. In 1873, Torkey exported 
to Britain goods to the value of £6,068,993, the main articles being 
com and raw cotton (about £1,000,000 each) ; receiving in letoin 
goods to the value of £7,733,842, two-thirds of which conaisted of 
cotton cloth and yam. She exports silks in great quantities to Mar- 
seilles, hides to Trieste, and attar of roses to various European coun- 
tries. The principal articles imported, besides the above^ are me- 
tallic goods and colonial produce. Constantinople is the chief seat 
of the foreign trade, which, together with the internal traffic, li 
mainly conducted by Greeks, Armenians, and English. The Bereniw 

KUBSIA. 317 

amonnta to £22,000,000, wliich ia ulwavs grentlj exceeded by tiie 
Ex[ienditui'e, Mid a liiiajidal collapse is daily HSpected. 

Internal Communication. — Very few of the roads are practicable 
for carriages, and boraeB or mules are generally employed for tlie 
GomeyaTice of passengers and goods. On the moat freq^uented lines of 
road are placed caravanaerai oc hhant, which are large bnildings with 
an open courtyard in the centre, for the acooraioDdatioQ of travellers. 
The Danube is the great highway of commerce for the noithem pio- 
TTBcef, especially since its several mouthscame to be embraced mth- 
in the boundary of Turkey. The navigation of its lotrer course is 
under the control of a turojiean oommisaion, appointed in 1858, 
which holds ilB sittings at Galacz, The only railways hitherto con- 
utracted are the line uniting Constantinople with Adrianople and 
Phillipolia ; that from Varna to Kustcbnk ; and from Eustchni to 
Jaesy and Lemberg. 


Thb BuBsian Empire is the largest state in the world, with 
tile exception of the Britiab, which considerably exceeds it. In. 
additLon to its Enropean ttiiritories, which occupy more than a 
ifcalf of the continent^ it embmces one-third of the vnst continent 
,*f Asia. It is 4830 miles long from E. to W., along the Arctic 
'eiicle, has an average breadth of about 1760 miles, and an area 
of nearly 8,000,000 sq. m,— being upwards of one-aeventh of the 
land-surface of the globe. Its population is remarkably email 
in proportion to its pcodirions extent, being only 83,260,000 

Sirsons, or one-sixteenth of the population of the globe. The 
ritish Empire, with an area of 8,616,000 sq, m., has 282,054,000 
inhabitants ; the Chinese Empire, with an area of 3,925,000 si], 
has 425,000,000 inhabitante; and the United States of 
srica, with an area of 3,603,884 sq. m., liaa a |H>pnlatioa of 
'25,000. The following table presents at one view the area 
population of the different sections of this vast empire : — - 

Aral in EngUsb 
Square MOsa. 

Rnssla in Enrops (Inolud- 1 
LDg Finland and Poland, { 


Kbaria and Central Aala. 





Position and Boundaries. — ^N., the Arctic Ocean and Nor- 
way ; W., Sweden, the Baltic, Prussia, Austria, and Moldavia ; 
S., the Black Sea and Mount Caucasus ; E., the Caspian and 
Siberia, from which it is separated by the Ural river and moun- 
tains. Two governments (rerm and Orenburj?) extend beyond 
the proper lunits of Europe ; but these, together with Trans- 
caucasia, we shall here regard as belonging to European RuBsia. 
The strictly European portion of the empire lies between lata. 
40° 20' and 70° K, and between Ions. 17° SC and 67* E., and so 
embraces nearly 30° of latitude, and 49° of longitude. 

Moscow, the former capital (lat. 55° 42', Ion. 87** 390, is situated ahnoft 
exactly in the centre, and is on the same parallel as Nain in Labrador, 
Edinburgh, Copenhagen, Tomsk, and the middle of the peninsula of 
Kamtscmttica ; and on tiie same meridian as Onega, Kertch, Aleppo, 
Damascus, Medina, Gondar, and Quilliman^ ; but St Petersbuig, the 
modem capital, is in the same latitude as 0. Farewell, Lerwick, and 
Christiania. If Poland be omitted, the form of European Russia is a 
tolerably regular oblong, having its greatest length, from N. to S., about 
2000 miles. The extreme breadth, in the latitude of Warsaw, is 1500 
miles. The coast-line is about 4700 miles, being 1 mile of coast to every 
448 m. of surface. This seaboard belongs to four distinct seas — ^viz., the 
Arctic Ocean, 2000 miles ; the Baltic, 1000 ; the Black Sea and Sea of 
Azov, 1000 ; and the European coast of the Caspian, 700 miles. The 
northern seaboard, however, is comparatively useless, being frozen for 
nine months in the year ; but the deficiency is compensated for by the 
numerous canals and navigable rivers with whidi Russia is intersected in 
all directions. 

Area and Population. — Area 2,110,817 sq. m. ; or, including Trans- 
caucasia, 2,281,115. This area is only a little more than the fourth 
part of the entire empire, and yet it is seventeen times that of the 
British Isles, or about three-fifths of the entire area of Europe. In 
1867 the population of European Russia was 71,716,690 ; or, includ- 
ing Transcaucasia, 76,916,000, being about 32 persons to the square 
mile. In 1726 the population of the entire empire was only 14, 000, 000 ; 
at the accession to the throne of the Emperor Nicholas, in 1825, it 
amounted to 61,000,000 ; while it is now more than 83,000,000. This 
single fact most vividly represents the aggressive policy of Russia. 

Political BiviBions. — European Russia, including the region beyond 
the Caucasus, is divided into 68 distinct governments and 8 terri* 
tones. These are usually grouped into 10 main sections, which, 
though no longer regarded as political designations, are so familiar to 
the Russians themselves, and are so frequently mentioned in the geo- 
graphical, historical, and statistical details oi the present day, uiat 
an acquaintance with them is of great importance. The geographical 
position of these divisions is as follows : — 

L The Baltic Provinces, containing the capital, in the eztieme W. of 


the 6ini)ire, bat the Sea and the Gulf of Finland. 2. Tlio Princi- 
pality of Finlanil, in the N,W,, and chieHy bet. the Gulfa of Finland and 
Botlmia. 3, Maacovy, or Great Rnasid, in the S., N.E., and centre. 4. 
Czantte of Easan, bet. Maicovy and Siberia. B. Czaiatfi of Astrakhan, 
liet. Kaaan and the river Ural. 6. Ruasiaa Poland, in ths S.W,, bet. 
Austrian and Prussian Poland. 7. West Russia, S. of the Baltic Pro- 
vinoea, and bet. Poland and MuseOTy. S. The Ukraine, or Little Boesia, S. 
of Grant Russia. 9. Bouth Russia, bet. Little Russia and the Black Sea. 
10. Cancaaia, bet. the Black Sea and the Caspian. Muscovy formed the 
original nuclvus of the empire ; it was freed from the Tartar yoke by Ivan 
Ba^owlbc, the first Czar, in 1479 ; the kingdom of Kasan was conquered 
from the descendants of Zenghiz Khait In 1662' Astrakhan, formerly a 
Tartar kingdom, was annexed to Ru)!sia in 1557; the Ukraine, long a cause 
of Btrife between the HubcdiIMs, LithnanianB, and Mongols, came into 
the possession of the Cuirs in 1636 ; tlie Baltic Provincee were seized &om 
Sweden between 1700 and 1710, and Finland in 1309 ; South Russia was 
ceded bj Turkey, partly at the Peace of Jaeay in 1792, and partly at the 
Peace of Bnchareat in 1812; the region of the Caueaaiis was wrested from 
Petaia between 1723 and 1813 ; Russian Poland was annexed at the tliree 
BiiooeasivB partitions of that ill-fated kingdom, in 1772, 1793, and 1795 ; 
vhile CiicaBBla has been subjugated dnring the last few years- 

ToE Baltic Provisces. 
- Bt Feterabni^ or Ingria.— St P£TBl<SBDB06d7,Eronstadt4Sn. (Keva), 
I 2arskoi-3elo 11 n. (laohora)- 

Tavnt lutuieen 5000 otkI 10,00(1 in*a6f(flii!».— GatshinB, Sarva, 

ZsUuniu.— Rbvul 29 lO. of Finland). 

LivoniOr— RiOA 102 (Dlina), Dorpat 14 (Embach), Pemau 7 (Pemau)- 

Coinluid. — MmAti 2S (Treider-Aa), Libau 9 (W. coast). 

pRisciFALirr or FntLiND. 

Mcscovr OR Great Enasi.L 

Arkhangel.* — Abehaniiel 25 (Dwina). 

• The Russian alphabet now in usb canaktB of 3« letten 
Wweli. 3 MiDi-vowels. and n consonants. Not a few or lite 

iimi^ £e<n Ini 

gnpUes emplnyed- 
jimaouDclBB F— '- 
■IWeet of Sni 


[e discrepancy has a 

IB ortho- 

Rnssfa. Thevn-Bl 


vely K, 

ol It greatly reaeqiblM 


cA la nhurch, as Czar, Toropec: (Tiar or 

JaroalaT (Tar-a-tlia'). 

Tttar, Tar-trpatt or Tet-o^Uh', 
L J, medial or final = French J, erVin pimmt™, u NiJnl-BovgDroa (Jf iiA'Bi-ffo 
glish, as Wolgi, TwBrtia (VuVga, Tiwpfiirt 


01oneti.--PETROZAYODSE 11 (Lake Onega), Olonetz 3 (Lake Ladoga). 

Vologda.— Vologda 19, Ustiug- Veliki 13 (Sukhona). 

Novgorod.— Novgorod 18 (Volkhov), Borovitchi 12 (Msta). 
Staraja-Russa, Tikhvin. 

Jaroslav.— Jaboslav 30, Uglitch 11, Rybinsk 15 (Volga). 

Kostroma.— Kostroma 14 (Volga). 

Pskov.— Pskov 17 (Velikaja), Toropecz 6 (Toropa). 

Tver.— Tver 80, Rshev 19, Ostashkov 10 (Volga), Torshok 16 (Tvertsa), 
Vishnel-Volotchok 14 (Tsna). 

Vladimir. — Vladimir 13 (Kliazma). 
Alexandrov, Pereslav, Murom, Melenki, Visa. 

N\ini-Novgorod.—NiJNi- Novgorod 42 (Volga), Aizamasl2 (Tiosha). 
Potshinki, Murashkino, Pavlovo. 

Smolensk.— Smolensk 23 (Dnieper), Viasma 13 (Viasma). 
Dorogobusk, RoslavL 

Kaluga.— Kaluga 37 (Oka), Shisdra 10 (Sliisdra), Borovsk 5 (Protva). 

Tula.— Tula 58 (Upa), Bielev 7 (Oka), Jefremov 7 (Metscha). 

Riazan.— Rdlzan 22, Kasimov 11 (Oka), Skopin 13 (Werda). 
Pronsk, Mikhailov. 

Moscow. — Moscow 620 (Moskva), Kolomna 16, Seipuchov 11 (Oka). 
Borodino, Troitskoi-Monastere. 

Orel.— Orel 44, Mzensk 14 (Oka), Jeletz 30, Livny 14 (Sosna-fiis- 
Eatchev, Bnansk, Sievsk, Bolkhov. 

Kursk.— Kursk 27, Putivl 7 (Seim), Bielgorodl5 ponetz), StaroX-Oskol 
11 (Oskol). 
Eorotcha, Rylsk, Miropolie, Oboian, NovoX-Oskol. 

Voronetz.— VoRONETZ 41 (Vorona). 
Birioutclie, Javrov. 

Tambov.— Tambov 36, Morsliansk 16 (Tzna), Lipetsk 13, Kozlov 29 
Jelatom, Usman, Shatzk. 


Perm.— Perm 19, Kungour 12 (Kama), Ekaterinbuig 22 (Isset), Nqoi- 

Taglisk 27 (Tagil), Neviansk 18 (Neiva). 
Irbit, Euslivinsk. 

Viatka.— ViATKA 15 (Viatka). 

Kasan.— Kasan 79 n. (Volga), Tchistopol 10 (Kama), 

Simbirsk.— Simbirsk 25, Syzran 21 (Volga). 

Penza.— Penza 25 (Sura), Saransk 13 (Saranga, a^, Alatyry. 

Erasno-Slobodsk, N^ni-Lomov. 

Czarate of Astrakhan. 

Saratov.— Saratov 93, Wolgsk 24, Dobovka 12, KhvaUndc 11 (VolliJb 
Kusnetz 13 (Sura). 
Eamyschin, Petrovsk. 

Samara.—SAMARA 34 (Volga). 


OrenliiiM,— ORENBUEa ! 

48 (Volga). 

Astrakhan. — Af 
Dfa.— Uf4 16 (Ufa). 

KiNGDOK OF Pound. 
Waraiw.— Warsaw 280 (Viatnla), Lodz 34 n. (Bznni), Cientocliov 13 
iWartha), Kalisch U (ProEna). 
Sadom. — Radom 3 (Radomka). 
Lnblin.— LuBLis 22 (Biatriija). 
Plock.— PLOca 17, Praga 8 {Vistula) 
I Augnstowo.— SuwiLKi 17 (Szezupa). 


>, Kalna 

West Rdsbia. 

KOTDO.— KovNo 35 (NiPmen), Eoaaienjl2 (Dubiaa), SliivU 18(Kovno), 

Vilna.— VnjJi 79 (Vaia). 

Titebak,— Vitebsk 28, Polotsk 12, Dtoaburg 28 IDilua), 

aradao.— GitoDNO 26 (NieineD), Slonim II (Shtshara), Brzesc-Litovski 
El (Bog), BUlystock 17 (Bialy). 

Mlmk.— Minsk 36 n., Bobmisk IS (Beradna), Pinsk 11 (Pina). 

XoUleT.— MOHCET 40 (Dnieper), Gomel 13 (Soj). 

Yolhyni*. — JiTOMia 3S (TetareT), Stare - Eonstantinov 12 (Slutcb), 
Kreincnetii 10 (Irra). 

Lntsk, Vladlniir. 

Podolia.— Kaminietz 21 n,, Mohilev 10 (Dniester), Balla 15 (Kodj-ma), 

The Ukhaise ok LinLK Roasu. 
TohernifOT.— TcHESNioov 11 (Desaaj, Nejiu 18 (Deter), Glutchov 11 
(Kltveul, aiarodub 11 (Babintza). 
Bereina, Butnitia. 

KioT.— Kiev 74, Tcberkasi 20 (Dnispet), Vasilikhov 12 (Stugma), Bar- 
ditchav 63 a. (TetBtev), Svanigorodka 11, Umaii 14 n. (Smiukaj. 

Poltava.— Poltava 31 (Vorskla), Ereraantacbug 23 (Dnieper), Per^a* 
lav 10 (Tnibeabl, Prilnki 11 (Sula). 
Kobyliikl, Mirgorod. 

KhaikoT.— Ehabeov 87 (EbarkoTa), Starabielali 13 n., Tsinm 1 
ieU), Aklityrka 15 (Vorskbi), Lebadin 14, Snmj 13 (Paiol, 
iper), Bielopol 12 s. (Sdm). 


South Bdsbu. 

BeSBUabla.— ElBHEBAcl04|Buik affl. Doiaeter), Akerman 2d, Bender 
23, Chotyn 19 (Dniaater), Kilia" 7, Ismail" 21 (Dacnbe). 

Kbenon.— EaEBEOK 46 (Dnieper), Odesaa IBS (S. coast), Kicolatev 
eO (Bug), Bobrinatx ID, Ellzatietgrad 35 (Ingnl). 

Taurida,— 8™FKiiopOLl7(8alBhir),KBraim-l>aMrlB(Karask), BakcLl. 
feni 11 D. (Alma), Sebaahipcd 3 {Tcbemajal, Beidiausk IS (Sea of Azov), 
Kertcba (Stp. of YeaikalBli). 


Ekaterinoslav. — Eeaterinoslav 20 (Dnieper), Taganrog 24 (Sea of 
Azov), Rostov 39, Nakhitchevan 11 (Don), NovomoskovriL 10 (Samara). 

Don Cossacks.— Novo-TcHEBKASK 17 n. (Don). 

Caucasia (Ciscaucasia and Transcaacasia).* 

StayropoL— Stavropol 17 (Jachla), Kizliar 12, Mozdok 11 (Terek). 
Ekaterinograd, Georgievsk. 

Ter. of the Kuban. — Jeisk 17 (G. of Taganrog), Ekateriuodar 10 


Ter. of the Terek.— Vladi-Kaukas 4 (Terek). 

Tiflis.— TiFLis 71, Elizabetpol 15, Akhalzikh 15 (Kur). 

Erivan.— Erivan 12 (Zenghi), Alexandropol 15 n. (Arpar). 

Shemakha. — Baku 13 (Caspian), Nukha 21 (Kur), Shusha 20 n. 

Ter. of Daghestan.— Derbend 11 (Caspian), Kuba 11 (Kuba). 
Kutais.— KuTAis 4, Poti (Rion). 

Descriptive Notes. — Including the provinces of Transcaucasia, 
European Russia contained, at the last census, six towns of upwards 
of 1()0,000 inhabitants (St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, 
Kishenev, Riga) ; nine bet. 100,000 and 50,000 (Saratov, Vihia, Kiev, 
Nicolalev, Kasan, Tifiis, Tula, Berditchev, Kharkov) ; fifty-one bet 
50,000 and 20,000; and ninely bet. 20,000 and 10,000. 

St FetersbuTff, the capital of European Russia and of the whole Russian 
empire, situated on both sides of the Neva, and on several small islands 
formed by the river, was founded by Peter the Great in 1703. It is chiefly 
built of wood, but the palaces and public buildings are massive stone erec- 
tions. Its commerce is extensive with all parts of the world : the annual 
imports are valued at £3,000,000, and the exports at £2,000,000; and 
there is regular steam -communication with all the principal ports of 
Europe. The low islands of the Neva are strongly fortified, and the city 
is defended by the impregnable fortress of Kronstadt, the principal naval 
station of the empire. zarskoi-Selo, the Versailles of Russia, contains 
the summer residence of the Czar. Eevel or Beval, a strongly-fortified 
seaport town, founded by Valdemar II., King of Denmark, in 1218, ms 
taken from Sweden by Russia in 1710, and was at one tune thejneat 
emporium of the Hanseatic League for the trade with Novgorod. fag9^ 
a large, fortified, and commercial city near the mouth of the Bttna, was 
founded in 1200, and remained long one of the chief Hanseatio towna. It 
contains several colleges, a public library, and many sdentifio eeteUiih- 
ments. It exports largely flax and hemp. Doxpat contains a cdebnted 
university, founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632. XtttftO, noted fat 
its gymnasium and literary societies, has manufactures of linen and soan. 
Helidngfors, the capital of Finland since 1819. is the teat of a unlwiOT 
which has a library of 80,000 vols.; it has a harbonr suited for linMK^ 
battle ships, and defended by the strong citadel of Qvee^otyj teds te 
timber, com, and Abo, the former capital of Finland, ud thtenfli;' 
of its Christianity, was at one time a celebrated and flourir ' — *^ — "^ 
was almost* wholly rained by fire in 1827. ^-rVkmrn^ 
tant city in the north of Russia, was the only iM|ic^ 
vious to the founding of St PetersbuTK, after whk 

* For the part of Armenia ceded to Busl 

.lit it still remaiiiB the enii»iiura of tbe traJa with SiberiaaiiJ tlie iiortb- 
em goventincnta. It ia stroiigly fortiHed, nail the seat of a depot of tlia 
Russian militoiy mariDe. f etraiaTodBk has two eiiaGioiis docks, an im- 
perial oaiLDDn-foniidiy, powder-jmlls, aiid mamifaoturea of fiilka. Tolog- 
OA, n place of CDDsideTsble trade, with a large aanual fair. Korgorad, at one 

b Peterstui^ m 17 

iBTOBlav, an important nmnufacturing town on tbe Votga. Kostroma 
and PskOT, eelebrated for the manufacture of nis*ia leather. Tver, an 
important fortlHed town on the Volga, and on a canal which eetahliahea 
a connection between the Baltic auil Caspian, poBsesses an estenaiva 
trade. Ylodlmir, the capital of the Grand-Dncliy of Bossia from 11S7 
to 1328, has a trade in fruit, and manufactures of lluen and leather. 
Knrom and Tixa, with valuable iran-mines, the latter being among the 
moat extensive in Russia. IT^ni-S'ovgDrod, at the confluence of the Oka 
and Volga, noted for its great annual fair, the Ini^est in the world, which 
lieglna on the Ist: of Jnly, and coatinues for eiEht weeks, at which time 
the populatioQ amounts to a quarter of a million : merehnnta from all 
parts of Enrope and Aeib attend, and the salea are valued at £22,000,000 
sterling. Smolensk was a place of great Importance as earl; as the mnth 
century ; was taken by the French army after the famous battle of Smo- 
lensk, and a great part of it redni^ed to ashea. Viaama : here the French 
aniiy was defeated by the Russians in October 1812. Kalnga, one of tha 

consisting of muskets, cloth, oil, paper, cotton, leather, Jcc Tola, the 
Birmingham of Russia, and the great seat of its iron manufactures ; hero 
vast quantities of arms ore mads annually, giving employment to 20,000 
panons. HOECow, formerly the capital of Russia, and still the second 
city In the empire, greatly anrpasaee St Petershurg in tha eitant of it» 
commerce, having water- communication with all the principal cities and 
jHirta In tha empire. The view of the city from a distance excites the 
ailiuiraCiou of all tiavellers ; the innnmerable towera, some with cupolas, 
others rising in the form of minarets, and the many gardens and trees 
intemiiied with houses, give it quite an Oriental appearance. Its manu- 
factures of cottons, woollens, silks, and carpets are immense, employing 
40,000 vpaavers, Moscow was founded in the middle of the twelfth cen- 
tury ; was sacked by tho Moguls in 1233 and 1293 ; and burned by the 
Russian general after his defeat by the Fnsnch army at Borodino, sept. 
7, 1812, thus compelling Napoleon to commence hia disastrous retreat. J 
Otel, tbe entrejiGt for the commerce between N. and 8. Russia. Jelrtl^J 
liaa eitansive iron-mines in the vicinity. Konk and Torooetl are in^ 4 
|iortant luanufactnring and commercial towna. TamboT, atronglj' fortk-fl 

lied, has a college and a military school for noblai, and an activ * 

trade. P